166 relations: Active matrix, Alfred Saupe, Alphanumeric, Alternating current, AMOLED, Analog-to-digital converter, Auburn University, Backlight, Biphenyl, Blue phase mode LCD, Brightness, Brown, Boveri & Cie, Calculator, Candela per square metre, Cathode ray tube, Charles-Victor Mauguin, Cholesteric liquid crystal, Citizen Watch, Clock, Cold cathode, Computer monitor, Consumer electronics, Contrast ratio, Cyber-shot, Dashboard, Defective pixel, Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Digital camera, Digital clock, Digital Visual Interface, Display contrast, Display motion blur, Display resolution, Dot pitch, Dot-matrix display, Dynamic scattering mode, Elastomeric connector, Electric battery, Electric field, Electro-optic modulator, Electrode, Electromagnetic radiation, Electronics, Eutectic system, Extremely low frequency, Eye strain, Flat panel display, Flight instruments, Fluorescent lamp, FPD-Link, ..., Fréedericksz transition, Friedrich Reinitzer, Game Boy, Gamma correction, Gamut, George H. Heilmeier, George William Gray, Georges Friedel, Germany, Handheld projector, Handheld television, HDMI, Helix, Hewlett-Packard, Hitachi, Hoffmann-La Roche, Image persistence, Indium tin oxide, Input lag, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Integrated circuit, Ionic compound, IPhone, IPS panel, ISO 13406-2, James Fergason, Japan, Kent State University, LCD classification, LCD crosstalk, LCD projector, LCD television, LED-backlit LCD, Letterboxing (filming), LG Corporation, Light-emitting diode, Liquid crystal, Liquid Crystal Institute, List of IEEE milestones, List of liquid-crystal-display manufacturers, Luminance, LXD Incorporated, Macintosh Portable, Malvern, Worcestershire, Marconi Company, Martin Schadt, Merck Group, Mobile phone, Molecule, Monochrome, Mura (Japanese term), Native resolution, NEC, Optical fiber cable, Optical filter, Otto Lehmann (physicist), Oxford University Press, Passive matrix addressing, Perpendicular, Phosphor, Pittsburgh, Pixel, Plasma display, Polarizer, Popular Science, Power inverter, Pulse-width modulation, Qinetiq, Quartz clock, Quattron, Ray (optics), RCA, Reflector (photography), Refresh rate, Response time (technology), Royal Radar Establishment, Sample and hold, Samsung, Screen burn-in, Seiko, Seiko Epson, Seven-segment display, Sharp Corporation, Smartphone, Sony, South Korea, Spin (magazine), Strobe light, Super-twisted nematic display, Switzerland, T. Peter Brody, Tablet computer, Taiwan, Taylor & Francis, Television set, Terphenyl, Thin-film transistor, Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display, Toshiba, Transistor, Transparency and translucency, Twisted nematic field effect, University of Hull, University of Oxford, Video game, Video post-processing, Video scaler, Viewing angle, Viewing cone, Vsevolod Frederiks, Watch, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, White point, Wolfgang Helfrich, 1:1 pixel mapping, 3LCD. Expand index (116 more) » « Shrink index
Active matrix is a type of addressing scheme used in flat panel displays.
Alfred Saupe (February 14, 1925 – August 3, 2008) was a German Physicist born in Badenweiler, who laid groundbreaking work in the area of liquid crystal studies.
Alphanumeric is a combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, and is used to describe the collection of Latin letters and Arabic digits or a text constructed from this collection.
Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.
AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode) is a display technology used in smartwatches, mobile devices, laptops, and televisions.
In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.
Auburn University (AU or Auburn) is a public research university in Auburn, Alabama, United States.
A backlight is a form of illumination used in liquid crystal displays (LCDs).
Biphenyl (or diphenyl or phenylbenzene or 1,1′-biphenyl or lemonene) is an organic compound that forms colorless crystals.
A blue phase mode LCD is a liquid crystal display (LCD) technology that uses highly twisted cholesteric phases in a blue phase.
Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light.
Brown, Boveri (BBC) was a Swiss group of electrical engineering companies.
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.
The candela per square metre (cd/m2) is the derived SI unit of luminance.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
French professor of mineralogy Charles-Victor Mauguin (19 September 1878 – 25 April 1958) was inventor (with Carl Hermann) of an international standard notation for crystallographic groups known as the Hermann–Mauguin notation or International notation.
A cholesteric liquid crystal display (ChLCD) is a display containing a liquid crystal with a helical structure and which is therefore chiral.
is the core company of a Japanese global corporate group based in Tokyo.
A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.
A cold cathode is a cathode that is not electrically heated by a filament.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.
The contrast ratio is a property of a display system, defined as the ratio of the luminance of the brightest color (white) to that of the darkest color (black) that the system is capable of producing.
Cyber-shot is Sony's line of point-and-shoot digital cameras introduced in 1996.
A dashboard (also called dash, instrument panel (IP), or fascia) is a control panel located directly ahead of a vehicle's driver, displaying instrumentation and controls for the vehicle's operation.
Defective pixels are pixels on a liquid crystal display (LCD) that are not performing as expected.
The Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (normally known as DERA) was a part of the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) between 1995 and 2 July 2001.
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
A digital clock is a type of clock that displays the time digitally (i.e. in numerals or other symbols), as opposed to an analog clock, where the time is indicated by the positions of rotating hands.
Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG).
Contrast in visual perception is the difference in appearance of two or more parts of a field seen simultaneously or successively (hence: brightness contrast, lightness contrast, color contrast, simultaneous contrast, successive contrast, etc.). Contrast in physics is a quantity intended to correlate with the perceived brightness contrast, usually defined by one of a number of formulae (see below) which involve e.g. the luminances of the stimuli considered, for example: ΔL/L near the luminance threshold (known as Weber contrast), or LH/LL for much higher luminances.
Display motion blur, also called HDTV blur and LCD motion blur, refers to several visual artifacts (anomalies or unintended effects affecting still or moving images) that are frequently found on modern consumer high-definition television sets and flat panel displays for computers.
The display resolution or display modes of a digital television, computer monitor or display device is the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed.
Dot pitch (sometimes called line pitch, stripe pitch, or phosphor pitch) is a specification for a computer display, computer printer, image scanner, or other pixel-based device that describes the distance, for example, between dots (sub-pixels) on a display screen.
A dot-matrix display is a display device used to display information on machines, clocks, railway departure indicators and many other devices requiring a simple display device of limited resolution.
George Heilmeier proposed the dynamic scattering effect which causes a strong scattering of light when the electric field applied to a special liquid crystal mixture exceeds a threshold value.
Elastomeric connectors, also known by the registered trademark ZEBRA connectors, consist of alternating conductive and insulating regions in a rubber or elastomer matrix to produce overall anisotropic conductive properties.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
Electro-optic modulator (EOM) is an optical device in which a signal-controlled element exhibiting the electro-optic effect is used to modulate a beam of light.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the ITU designation for electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz, and corresponding wavelengths of 100,000 to 10,000 kilometers, respectively.
Eye strain, also known as asthenopia (from Greek asthen-opia, ἀσθεν-ωπία, "weak-eye-condition"), is an eye condition that manifests through nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, pain in or around the eyes, blurred vision, headache, and occasional double vision.
Flat-panel displays are electronic viewing technologies used to enable people to see content (still images, moving images, text, or other visual material) in a range of entertainment, consumer electronics, personal computer, and mobile devices, and many types of medical, transportation and industrial equipment.
Flight instruments are the instruments in the cockpit of an aircraft that provide the pilot with information about the flight situation of that aircraft, such as altitude, airspeed and direction.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
FPD-Link is the original high-speed digital video interface created in 1996 by National Semiconductor (now within Texas Instruments).
The Fréedericksz transition is a phase transition in liquid crystals produced when a sufficiently strong electric or magnetic field is applied to a liquid crystal in an undistorted state.
Friedrich Richard Reinitzer (25 February 1857 in Prague – 16 February 1927 in Graz) was an Austrian botanist and chemist.
The is an 8-bit handheld game console which was developed and manufactured by Nintendo and first released on the 100th anniversary of Nintendo in Japan on, in North America on and in Europe on.
Gamma correction, or often simply gamma, is a nonlinear operation used to encode and decode luminance or tristimulus values in video or still image systems.
In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors.
George Harry Heilmeier (May 22, 1936 – April 21, 2014) was an American engineer, manager, and a pioneering contributor to liquid crystal displays (LCDs), for which he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
George William Gray CBE, FRS (4 September 1926 – 12 May 2013) was a Professor of Organic Chemistry at the University of Hull who was instrumental in developing the long-lasting materials which made liquid crystal displays possible.
Georges Friedel (19 July 1865 in Mulhouse – 11 December 1933 in Strasbourg) was a French mineralogist and crystallographer.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A handheld projector (also known as a pocket projector, mobile projector, pico projector or mini beamer) is an image projector in a handheld device.
A handheld television is a portable device for watching television that usually uses a TFT LCD or OLED color display.
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device.
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
() is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.
Image persistence, or image retention, is the LCD and plasma display equivalent of screen burn.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a ternary composition of indium, tin and oxygen in varying proportions.
The general use of the phrase ‘input lag’ is used to describe the delay between an electrical input from the point of stimulation to action, for example, pressing a button and seeing the event after as little as 1/24th of a second.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone line of products use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software.
IPS (in-plane switching) is a screen technology for liquid-crystal displays (LCDs).
ISO 13406-2 is an ISO standard, with the full title "Ergonomic requirements for work with visual displays based on flat panels -- Part 2: Ergonomic requirements for flat panel displays".
James Lee Fergason (January 12, 1934 – December 9, 2008) was an American inventor and business entrepreneur.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Kent State University (KSU) is a large, primarily residential, public research university in Kent, Ohio, United States.
There are various classifications of the electro-optical modes of liquid crystal displays (LCDs).
LCD crosstalk is a visual defect in an LCD screen which occurs because of interference between adjacent pixels.
An LCD projector is a type of video projector for displaying video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat surface.
Liquid-crystal-display televisions (LCD TV) are television sets that use liquid-crystal displays to produce images.
A LED-backlit LCD is a flat panel display which uses LED backlighting instead of the cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL) backlighting.
Letterboxing is the practice of transferring film shot in a widescreen aspect ratio to standard-width video formats while preserving the film's original aspect ratio.
LG Corporation (Korean: 주식회사 LG), formerly Lucky-GoldStar (Korean: Leogki Geumseong 럭키금성/樂喜金星), is a South Korean multinational conglomerate corporation.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.
The Glenn H. Brown Liquid Crystal Institute (LCI) at Kent State University is a center of study for liquid crystal technology and education, blending basic and applied research on liquid crystals.
This list of IEEE Milestones describes the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) milestones, representing key historical achievements in electrical and electronic engineering.
A liquid-crystal display (or LCD) is a thin, flat panel used for electronically displaying information such as text, images, and moving pictures.
Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction.
LXD, Incorporated is one of the first Liquid Crystal Display manufacturers in the world.
The Macintosh Portable is a laptop designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from September 1989 to October 1991.
Malvern is a spa town and civil parish in Worcestershire, England.
The Marconi Company was a British telecommunications and engineering company that did business under that name from 1963 to 1987.
Martin Schadt (born 1938) is a Swiss physicist and inventor.
Merck KGaA, branded and commonly known as Merck, is a German multinational pharmaceutical, chemical and life sciences company headquartered in Darmstadt, with around 50,000 employees in around 70 countries.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monochrome describes paintings, drawings, design, or photographs in one color or values of one color.
is a Japanese word meaning "unevenness; irregularity; lack of uniformity; nonuniformity; inequality", and is a key concept in the Toyota Production System (TPS) as one of the three types of waste (muda, mura, muri).
The native resolution of a LCD, LCoS or other flat panel display refers to its single fixed resolution.
is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
An optical fiber cable, also known as a fiber optic cable, is an assembly similar to an electrical cable, but containing one or more optical fibers that are used to carry light.
An optical filter is a device that selectively transmits light of different wavelengths, usually implemented as a glass plane or plastic device in the optical path, which are either dyed in the bulk or have interference coatings.
Otto Lehmann (13 January 1855 in Konstanz, Germany – 17 June 1922 in Karlsruhe) was a German physicist and "father" of liquid crystal.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Passive matrix addressing is an addressing scheme used in early LCDs.
In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees).
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays or larger.
A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
A power inverter, or inverter, is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC).
Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal.
Qinetiq (as in kinetic; styled as QinetiQ) is a British multinational defence technology company headquartered in Farnborough, Hampshire.
A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time.
Quattron is the brand name of an LCD color display technology produced by Sharp Electronics.
In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.
In photography and cinematography, a reflector is an improvised or specialised reflective surface used to redirect light towards a given subject or scene.
The refresh rate (most commonly the "vertical refresh rate", "vertical scan rate" for cathode ray tubes) is the number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer.
In technology, response time is the time a system or functional unit takes to react to a given input.
The Royal Radar Establishment is a research center in Malvern, Worcestershire in the United Kingdom.
In electronics, a sample and hold (S/H, also "follow-and-hold"Horowitz and Hill, p. 220.) circuit is an analog device that samples (captures, takes) the voltage of a continuously varying analog signal and holds (locks, freezes) its value at a constant level for a specified minimum period of time.
Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.
Screen burn-in, image burn-in or ghost image, colloquially known as screen burn, is a discoloration of areas on an electronic display such as a CRT display or an old computer monitor or television set caused by cumulative non-uniform use of the pixels.
(), commonly known as Seiko, is a Japanese holding company that has subsidiaries which manufactures and sells watches, clocks, electronic devices, semiconductors, jewelries, and optical products.
(Epson being an abbreviation for "Son of Electronic Printer"), or simply Epson, is a Japanese electronics company and one of the world's largest manufacturers of computer printers, and information and imaging related equipment.
A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot matrix displays.
is a Japanese multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products, headquartered in Sakai-ku, Sakai.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Spin is an American music magazine founded in 1985 by publisher Bob Guccione, Jr. The magazine stopped running in print in 2012 and currently runs as a webzine.
A strobe light or stroboscopic lamp, commonly called a strobe, is a device used to produce regular flashes of light.
A super-twisted nematic display (STN) is a type of monochrome passive-matrix liquid crystal display (LCD).
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television.
Terphenyls are a group of closely related aromatic hydrocarbons.
A thin-film transistor (TFT) is a special kind of field-effect transistor made by depositing thin films of an active semiconductor layer as well as the dielectric layer and metallic contacts over a supporting (but non-conducting) substrate.
A Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT LCD) is a variant of a liquid-crystal display (LCD) that uses thin-film-transistor (TFT) technology to improve image qualities such as addressability and contrast.
, commonly known as Toshiba, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
The twisted nematic effect (TN-effect) was a main technology breakthrough that made LCDs practical.
The University of Hull is a public research university in Kingston upon Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
The term post-processing (or postproc for short) is used in the video/film business for quality-improvement image processing (specifically digital image processing) methods used in video playback devices, (such as stand-alone DVD-Video players), and video players software and transcoding software.
A video scaler is a system which converts video signals from one display resolution to another; typically, scalers are used to convert a signal from a lower resolution (such as 480p standard definition) to a higher resolution (such as 1080i high definition), a process known as "upconversion" or "upscaling" (by contrast, converting from high to low resolution is known as "downconversion" or "downscaling").
In display technology parlance, viewing angle is the maximum angle at which a display can be viewed with acceptable visual performance.
When a visual display with non-vanishing size is seen by an observer, every point of the display area is seen from a different direction as illustrated in fig.
Vsevolod Konstantinovich Frederiks (or Fréedericksz; Всеволод Константинович Фредерикс; April 29, 1885, Warsaw – January 6, 1944, Gorkiy) was a Russian/Soviet physicist.
A watch is a timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person.
The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company.
A white point (often referred to as reference white or target white in technical documents) is a set of tristimulus values or chromaticity coordinates that serve to define the color "white" in image capture, encoding, or reproduction.
Wolfgang Helfrich (born March 25, 1932) is a German physicist and inventor recognized for his contributions to twisted-nematic liquid crystal technology, which is used to produce a variety of modern LCD electronic displays.
1:1 pixel mapping is a video display technique applicable to devices with native fixed pixels, such as LCD monitors and plasma displays.
3LCD is the name and brand of a major LCD projection color image generation technology used in modern digital projectors.
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