52 relations: Aerospace, Air separation, Asphalt, Atlas (rocket family), Atmosphere of Earth, Carbon black, Carbon monoxide, Chemical element, Cryogenic fuel, Cryogenics, Curie's law, Expansion ratio, Fractional distillation, Gas, Gilbert N. Lewis, Hydrogen, Industrial gas, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Jagiellonian University, Karol Olszewski, Kerosene, Liquid air, Liquid helium, Liquid hydrogen, Liquid nitrogen, List of stoffs, Louis Paul Cailletet, Methane, Michael Faraday, Natterer compressor, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Oxygen storage, Paramagnetism, Petrochemical, PGM-11 Redstone, R-7 Semyorka, Raoul Pictet, Rocket propellant, Saturn (rocket family), Solid oxygen, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle main engine, Spacecraft propulsion, Specific impulse, Spin (physics), Submarine, Tetraoxygen, ..., V-2 rocket, Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski. Expand index (2 more) » « Shrink index
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
An air separation plant separates atmospheric air into its primary components, typically nitrogen and oxygen, and sometimes also argon and other rare inert gases.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Atlas is a family of American missiles and space launch vehicles.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Cryogenic fuels are fuels that require storage at extremely low temperatures in order to maintain them in a liquid state.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
In a paramagnetic material, the magnetization of the material is (approximately) directly proportional to an applied magnetic field.
The expansion ratio of a liquefied and cryogenic substance is the volume of a given amount of that substance in liquid form compared to the volume of the same amount of substance in gaseous form, at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Industrial gases are gaseous materials that are manufactured for use in Industry.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Karol Stanisław Olszewski (29 January 1846 – 24 March 1915) was a Polish chemist, mathematician and physicist.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
Liquid air is air that has been cooled to very low temperatures (cryogenic temperatures), so that it has condensed into a pale blue mobile liquid.
At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
During World War II, Germany fielded many aircraft and rockets whose fuels, and oxidizers, were designated (letter)-Stoff.
Louis-Paul Cailletet (21 September 1832 – 5 January 1913) was a French physicist and inventor.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
A Natterer compressor was a type of air compression machine which was used in early experiments in making liquid oxygen (LOX) in the 1870s.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Methods of oxygen storage for subsequent use span many approaches, including high pressures in oxygen tanks, cryogenics, oxygen-rich compounds and reaction mixtures, and chemical compounds that reversibly release oxygen upon heating or pressure change.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
The PGM-11 Redstone was the first large American ballistic missile.
The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
Raoul-Pierre Pictet (4 April 1846 – 27 July 1929) was a Swiss physicist.
Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.
The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond.
Solid oxygen forms at normal atmospheric pressure at a temperature below 54.36 K (−218.79 °C, −361.82 °F).
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, otherwise known as the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant or jet engine uses fuel.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
The tetraoxygen molecule (O4), also called oxozone, was first predicted in 1924 by Gilbert N. Lewis, who proposed it as an explanation for the failure of liquid oxygen to obey Curie's law.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski (28 October 1845 – 16 April 1888) was a Polish physicist and chemist.