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Lisp (programming language)

Index Lisp (programming language)

Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation. [1]

245 relations: "Hello, World!" program, ACL2, AI winter, Alan Kay, ALGOL, ALGOL 58, ALGOL 60, Allegro Common Lisp, Alonzo Church, Alphanumeric, American National Standards Institute, Arc (programming language), Arity, Array data type, Artificial intelligence, Assembly language, Atari 8-bit family, Attribute-oriented programming, Audacity (audio editor), AutoCAD, AutoLISP, Backward compatibility, BBN Technologies, Big O notation, Boston, Bracket, Branch (computer science), Bytecode, C (programming language), Cadence SKILL, CAR and CDR, CGOL, Charles Babbage Institute, CLiki, CLIPS, Clojure, Closure (computer programming), CLU (programming language), Command-line interface, Common Language Runtime, Common Lisp, Common Lisp Object System, Common Lisp the Language, CommonLoops, Communications of the ACM, Compiler, Computer, Computer algebra, Computer compatibility, Computer program, ..., Computer science, Concurrency (computer science), Conditional (computer programming), Cons, Consensus decision-making, Constraint satisfaction, Continuation, COWSEL, Data structure, Data type, De facto standard, Defun, Domain-specific language, Douglas Hofstadter, Dylan (programming language), Dynamic dispatch, Eager evaluation, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Elixir (programming language), Emacs, Emacs Lisp, Eric S. Raymond, EuLisp, Evaluation strategy, Expression-oriented programming language, Factorial, Falcon (programming language), Flavors (programming language), Foobar, Forth (programming language), Fortran, Franz Lisp, Franz Liszt, Functional programming, Game Oriented Assembly Lisp, Garbage collection (computer science), Gödel, Escher, Bach, Generic function, Gerald Jay Sussman, GIMP, Graphical user interface builder, Guy L. Steele Jr., Hackers & Painters, Haskell (programming language), High-level programming language, Higher-order function, Homoiconicity, Hy, IBM 704, Inference engine, Infix notation, Information Processing Language, Integrated development environment, Interlisp, Interpreter (computing), Io (programming language), Ioke (programming language), IRC bot, ISLISP, Iteration, Jak and Daxter, Java virtual machine, JavaScript, John McCarthy (computer scientist), Julia (programming language), Kent Pitman, Knowledge Engineering Environment, Lambda calculus, Le Lisp, LFE (programming language), LilyPond, Linked list, LISP 2, Lisp machine, Lisp Machine Lisp, Lisp Machines, LLVM, Logo (programming language), Lua (programming language), M-expression, Machine code, Macintosh, Maclisp, Macro (computer science), Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematical notation, MDL (programming language), Memory management, Meta-circular evaluator, Metaprogramming, MIT Computation Center, MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT Press, Mixin, ML (programming language), MLisp, MOS Technology 6502, Multics, Multiple dispatch, Multiple inheritance, Naughty Dog, NewLISP, NIL (programming language), Nim (programming language), Nu (programming language), Number, Object Lisp, Open-source model, OPS5, PARC (company), Paul Graham (programmer), PDP-10, PDP-6, Perl, Peter Norvig, Philosophy, PicoLisp, Planner (programming language), Pointer (computer programming), Polish notation, POP-11, POP-2, Portable Standard Lisp, Procedural programming, Programming language, Programming paradigm, Programming style, Python (programming language), Quasi-quotation, Quicklisp, R (programming language), Racket (programming language), Read–eval–print loop, Reason maintenance, Rebol, Recursion (computer science), Reflection (computer programming), Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT, Richard P. Gabriel, Richard Stallman, RPL (programming language), Ruby (programming language), S-1 Lisp, S-expression, Sawfish (window manager), Scala (programming language), Scheme (programming language), Scheme Requests for Implementation, Scope (computer science), Scripting language, Self-hosting, Self-modifying code, Self-reference, Short-circuit evaluation, SHRDLU, SIOD, Smalltalk, Software bug, Software portability, Source code, Spice Lisp, Stack overflow, Standardization, Stanford University centers and institutes, Statement (computer science), Steve Russell (computer scientist), Strong and weak typing, Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, Subroutine, Swift (programming language), Symbolics, T (programming language), Tail call, Tcl, TinyScheme, TOPS-10, TOPS-20, Transcription (linguistics), Tree (data structure), Turing Award, Turing completeness, Type inference, Type system, University of California, Berkeley, Variadic function, Vaughan Pratt, Very-large-scale integration, Wayback Machine, Whitespace character, Window manager, Wolfram Language, X3J13, XML, YARV. Expand index (195 more) »

"Hello, World!" program

A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs or displays "Hello, World!" to a user.

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ACL2 (A Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp) is a software system consisting of a programming language, an extensible theory in a first-order logic, and a mechanical theorem prover.

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AI winter

In the history of artificial intelligence, an AI winter is a period of reduced funding and interest in artificial intelligence research.

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Alan Kay

Alan Curtis Kay (born May 17, 1940 published by the Association for Computing Machinery 2012) is an American computer scientist.

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ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.

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ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages.

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ALGOL 60 (short for Algorithmic Language 1960) is a member of the ALGOL family of computer programming languages.

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Allegro Common Lisp

Allegro Common Lisp is a commercial implementation of the Common Lisp programming language developed by Franz Inc.

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Alonzo Church

Alonzo Church (June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American mathematician and logician who made major contributions to mathematical logic and the foundations of theoretical computer science.

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Alphanumeric is a combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, and is used to describe the collection of Latin letters and Arabic digits or a text constructed from this collection.

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American National Standards Institute

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.

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Arc (programming language)

Arc is a dialect of the Lisp programming language developed by Paul Graham and Robert Morris.

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In logic, mathematics, and computer science, the arity of a function or operation is the number of arguments or operands that the function takes.

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Array data type

Language support for array types may include certain built-in array data types, some syntactic constructions (array type constructors) that the programmer may use to define such types and declare array variables, and special notation for indexing array elements.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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Atari 8-bit family

The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers introduced by Atari, Inc. in 1979 and manufactured until 1992.

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Attribute-oriented programming

Attribute-oriented programming (@OP) is a program-level marking technique.

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Audacity (audio editor)

Audacity is a free and open-source digital audio editor and recording application software, available for Windows, macOS/OS X and Unix-like operating systems.

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AutoCAD is a commercial computer-aided design (CAD) and drafting software application.

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AutoLISP is a dialect of the LISP programming language built specifically for use with the full version of AutoCAD and its derivatives, which include AutoCAD Map 3D, AutoCAD Architecture and AutoCAD Mechanical.

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Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.

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BBN Technologies

BBN Technologies (originally Bolt, Beranek and Newman) is an American high-technology company which provides research and development services.

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Big O notation

Big O notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behaviour of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.

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Branch (computer science)

A branch is an instruction in a computer program that can cause a computer to begin executing a different instruction sequence and thus deviate from its default behavior of executing instructions in order.

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Bytecode, also termed portable code or p-code, is a form of instruction set designed for efficient execution by a software interpreter.

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C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

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Cadence SKILL

SKILL is a Lisp dialect used as a scripting language and PCell (parameterized cells) description language used in many EDA software suites by Cadence Design Systems.

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In computer programming, car and cdr are primitive operations on cons cells (or "non-atomic S-expressions") introduced in the Lisp programming language.

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CGOL (pronounced "see goll") is an alternative syntax featuring an extensible algebraic notation for the Lisp programming language.

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Charles Babbage Institute

The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking since 1935.

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CLiki is an open source wiki application written in Common Lisp, that was under development from 2002 to 2005.

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CLIPS is a public domain software tool for building expert systems.

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Clojure (like "closure") is a dialect of the Lisp programming language.

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Closure (computer programming)

In programming languages, a closure (also lexical closure or function closure) is a technique for implementing lexically scoped name binding in a language with first-class functions.

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CLU (programming language)

CLU is a programming language created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by Barbara Liskov and her students between 1974 and 1975.

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Command-line interface

A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).

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Common Language Runtime

The Common Language Runtime (CLR), the virtual machine component of Microsoft's.NET framework, manages the execution of.NET programs.

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Common Lisp

Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)).

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Common Lisp Object System

The Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) is the facility for object-oriented programming which is part of ANSI Common Lisp.

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Common Lisp the Language

Common Lisp the Language is an influential reference book by Guy L. Steele about Common Lisp.

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CommonLoops (the Common '''L'''isp Object-Oriented Programming System; an acronym reminiscent of the earlier Lisp OO system "Loops" for the Interlisp-D system) is an early programming language which extended Common Lisp to include Object-oriented programming functionality and is a dynamic object system which differs from the OOP facilities found in static languages such as C++ or Java.

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Communications of the ACM

Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).

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A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer algebra

In computational mathematics, computer algebra, also called symbolic computation or algebraic computation, is a scientific area that refers to the study and development of algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects.

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Computer compatibility

A family of computer models is said to be compatible if certain software that runs on one of the models can also be run on all other models of the family.

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Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Concurrency (computer science)

In computer science, concurrency refers to the ability of different parts or units of a program, algorithm, or problem to be executed out-of-order or in partial order, without affecting the final outcome.

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Conditional (computer programming)

In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.

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In computer programming, is a fundamental function in most dialects of the Lisp programming language.

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Consensus decision-making

Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.

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Constraint satisfaction

In artificial intelligence and operations research, constraint satisfaction is the process of finding a solution to a set of constraints that impose conditions that the variables must satisfy.

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In computer science and computer programming, a continuation is an abstract representation of the control state of a computer program.

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COWSEL (COntrolled Working SpacE Language) is a programming language designed between 1964 and 1966 by Robin Popplestone.

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Data structure

In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.

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Data type

In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.

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De facto standard

A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market).

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defun (short for "define function") is a macro in the Lisp family of programming languages that defines a function in the global environment that uses the form: (defun (...) Defining the function addnumbers that adds two numbers: Defining function square that squares a number: Defining a function that returns the factorial of a number.

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Domain-specific language

A domain-specific language (DSL) is a computer language specialized to a particular application domain.

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Douglas Hofstadter

Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of self in relation to the external world, consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics.

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Dylan (programming language)

Dylan is a multi-paradigm programming language that includes support for functional and object-oriented programming, and is dynamic and reflective while providing a programming model designed to support efficient machine code generation, including fine-grained control over dynamic and static behaviors.

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Dynamic dispatch

In computer science, dynamic dispatch is the process of selecting which implementation of a polymorphic operation (method or function) to call at run time.

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Eager evaluation

In computer programming, eager evaluation, also known as strict evaluation or greedy evaluation, is the evaluation strategy used by most traditional programming languages.

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Edsger W. Dijkstra

Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch systems scientist, programmer, software engineer, science essayist, and early pioneer in computing science.

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Elixir (programming language)

Elixir is a functional, concurrent, general-purpose programming language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine (BEAM).

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Emacs is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility.

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Emacs Lisp

Emacs Lisp is a dialect of the Lisp programming language used as a scripting language by Emacs (a text editor family most commonly associated with GNU Emacs and XEmacs).

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Eric S. Raymond

Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, author of the widely cited 1997 essay and 1999 book The Cathedral and the Bazaar and other works, and open-source software advocate.

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EuLisp is a statically and dynamically scoped Lisp dialect developed by a loose formation of industrial and academic Lisp users and developers from around Europe.

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Evaluation strategy

Evaluation strategies are used by programming languages to determine when to evaluate the argument(s) of a function call (for function, also read: operation, method, or relation) and what kind of value to pass to the function.

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Expression-oriented programming language

An expression-oriented programming language is a programming language where every (or nearly every) construction is an expression and thus yields a value.

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In mathematics, the factorial of a non-negative integer n, denoted by n!, is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n. For example, The value of 0! is 1, according to the convention for an empty product.

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Falcon (programming language)

Falcon is an open source, multi-paradigm programming language.

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Flavors (programming language)

Flavors, an early object-oriented extension to Lisp developed by Howard Cannon at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory for the Lisp machine and its programming language Lisp Machine Lisp, was the first programming language to include mixins.

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The terms foobar, or foo and others are used as placeholder names (also referred to as metasyntactic variables) in computer programming or computer-related documentation.

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Forth (programming language)

Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.

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Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

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Franz Lisp

In computer programming, Franz Lisp was a Lisp system written at UC Berkeley by the students of Professor Richard J. Fateman, based largely on Maclisp and distributed with the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) for the Digital Equipment Corp (DEC) VAX.

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Franz Liszt

Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.

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Functional programming

In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.

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Game Oriented Assembly Lisp

Game Oriented Assembly Lisp (or GOAL) is a video game programming language developed by Andy Gavin and the Jak and Daxter team at Naughty Dog.

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Garbage collection (computer science)

In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management.

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Gödel, Escher, Bach

Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, also known as GEB, is a 1979 book by Douglas Hofstadter.

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Generic function

In computer programming, a generic function is a function defined for polymorphism.

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Gerald Jay Sussman

Gerald Jay Sussman (born February 8, 1947) is the Panasonic Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

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GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is a free and open-source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, converting between different image formats, and more specialized tasks.

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Graphical user interface builder

A graphical user interface builder (or GUI builder), also known as GUI designer, is a software development tool that simplifies the creation of GUIs by allowing the designer to arrange graphical control elements (often called widgets) using a drag-and-drop WYSIWYG editor.

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Guy L. Steele Jr.

Guy Lewis Steele Jr. (born October 2, 1954) is an American computer scientist who has played an important role in designing and documenting several computer programming languages.

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Hackers & Painters

Hackers & Painters: Big Ideas from the Computer Age is a collection of essays from Paul Graham discussing hacking, programming languages, start-up companies, and many other technological issues.

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Haskell (programming language)

Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.

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High-level programming language

In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.

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Higher-order function

In mathematics and computer science, a higher-order function (also functional, functional form or functor) is a function that does at least one of the following.

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In computer programming, homoiconicity (from the Greek words homo meaning the same and icon meaning representation) is a property of some programming languages in which the program structure is similar to its syntax, and therefore the program's internal representation can be inferred by reading the text's layout.

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Hy (alternately, Hylang) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language designed to interact with Python by translating expressions into Python's abstract syntax tree (AST).

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IBM 704

The IBM 704, introduced by IBM in 1954, is the first mass-produced computer with floating-point arithmetic hardware.

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Inference engine

In the field of Artificial Intelligence, inference engine is a component of the system that applies logical rules to the knowledge base to deduce new information.

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Infix notation

Infix notation is the notation commonly used in arithmetical and logical formulae and statements.

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Information Processing Language

Information Processing Language (IPL) is a programming language created by Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, and Herbert A. Simon at RAND Corporation and the Carnegie Institute of Technology at about 1956.

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Integrated development environment

An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development.

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Interlisp (also seen with a variety of capitalizations) is a programming environment built around a version of the Lisp programming language.

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Interpreter (computing)

In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.

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Io (programming language)

Io is a pure object-oriented programming language inspired by Smalltalk, Self, Lua, Lisp, Act1, and NewtonScript.

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Ioke (programming language)

Ioke is a dynamic, strongly typed, prototype-based programming language targeting the Java Virtual Machine and the Common Language Runtime.

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IRC bot

An IRC bot performing a simple task.An IRC bot is a set of scripts or an independent program that connects to Internet Relay Chat as a client, and so appears to other IRC users as another user.

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ISLISP (also capitalized as ISLisp) is a programming language in the LISP family standardized by ISO working group ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 22/WG 16 (commonly referred to simply as SC22/WG16 or WG16).

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Iteration is the act of repeating a process, to generate a (possibly unbounded) sequence of outcomes, with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result.

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Jak and Daxter

Jak and Daxter is a video game franchise created by Andy Gavin and Jason Rubin and owned by Sony Computer Entertainment.

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Java virtual machine

A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages and compiled to Java bytecode.

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JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, interpreted programming language.

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John McCarthy (computer scientist)

John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist.

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Julia (programming language)

Julia is a high-level dynamic programming language designed to address the needs of high-performance numerical analysis and computational science, without the typical need of separate compilation to be fast, while also being effective for general-purpose programming, web use or as a specification language.

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Kent Pitman

Kent M. Pitman is the President of and has been involved for many years in the design, implementation and use of Lisp and Scheme systems.

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Knowledge Engineering Environment

KEE (Knowledge Engineering Environment) is a frame-based development tool for Expert systems.

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Lambda calculus

Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.

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Le Lisp

Le Lisp (also Le_Lisp and Le-Lisp) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language.

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LFE (programming language)

Lisp Flavored Erlang (LFE) is a functional, concurrent, general-purpose programming language and Lisp dialect built on top of Core Erlang and the Erlang Virtual Machine (BEAM).

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LilyPond is a computer program and file format for music engraving.

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Linked list

In computer science, a linked list is a linear collection of data elements, whose order is not given by their physical placement in memory.

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LISP 2 was a programming language proposed in the 1960s as the successor to Lisp.

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Lisp machine

Lisp machines are general-purpose computers designed to efficiently run Lisp as their main software and programming language, usually via hardware support.

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Lisp Machine Lisp

Lisp Machine Lisp is a dialect of the Lisp programming language.

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Lisp Machines

Lisp Machines, Inc. was a company formed in 1979 by Richard Greenblatt of MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory to build Lisp machines.

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The LLVM compiler infrastructure project is a "collection of modular and reusable compiler and toolchain technologies" used to develop compiler front ends and back ends.

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Logo (programming language)

Logo is an educational programming language, designed in 1967 by Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert and Cynthia Solomon.

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Lua (programming language)

Lua (from meaning moon) is a lightweight, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications.

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In computer programming, M-expressions (or meta-expressions) were an early proposed syntax for the Lisp programming language, inspired by contemporary languages such as Fortran and ALGOL.

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Machine code

Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

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MACLISP (or Maclisp, sometimes styled MacLisp or MacLISP) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language.

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Macro (computer science)

A macro (short for "macroinstruction", from Greek μακρός 'long') in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to a replacement output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure.

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Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Mathematical notation

Mathematical notation is a system of symbolic representations of mathematical objects and ideas.

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MDL (programming language)

MDL (the MIT Design Language) is a descendant of the Lisp programming language.

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Memory management

Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory.

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Meta-circular evaluator

In computing, a meta-circular evaluator or meta-circular interpreter is an interpreter which defines each feature of the interpreted language using a similar facility of the interpreter's host language.

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Metaprogramming is a programming technique in which computer programs have the ability to treat programs as their data.

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MIT Computation Center

The MIT Computation Center was organized in 1956 as a 10-year joint venture between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and IBM to provide computing resources for New England universities.

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MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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In object-oriented programming languages, a Mixin is a class that contains methods for use by other classes without having to be the parent class of those other classes.

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ML (programming language)

ML (Meta Language) is a general-purpose functional programming language.

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MLISP is a variant of Lisp with an Algol-like syntax based on M-Expressions, which were the function syntax in the original description of Lisp by John McCarthy.

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MOS Technology 6502

The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".

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Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.

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Multiple dispatch

Multiple dispatch or multimethods is a feature of some programming languages in which a function or method can be dynamically dispatched based on the run-time (dynamic) type or, in the more general case some other attribute, of more than one of its arguments.

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Multiple inheritance

Multiple inheritance is a feature of some object-oriented computer programming languages in which an object or class can inherit characteristics and features from more than one parent object or parent class.

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Naughty Dog

Naughty Dog, LLC (formerly JAM Software, Inc.) is an American first-party video game developer based in Santa Monica, California.

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newLISP is an open source scripting language in the Lisp family of programming languages developed by Lutz Mueller and released under the GNU General Public License.

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NIL (programming language)

NIL is a 32-bit implementation of Lisp developed at MIT and intended to be the successor to Maclisp.

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Nim (programming language)

Nim (formerly named Nimrod) is an imperative, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language designed and developed by Andreas Rumpf.

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Nu (programming language)

Nu is an interpreted object-oriented programming language, with a Lisp-like syntax, created by Tim Burks as an alternative scripting language to program OS X through its Cocoa application programming interface (API).

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A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.

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Object Lisp

Object Lisp was a computer programming language, a dialect of the Lisp language.

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Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.

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OPS5 is a rule-based or production system computer language, notable as the first such language to be used in a successful expert system, the R1/XCON system used to configure VAX computers.

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PARC (company)

PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.

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Paul Graham (programmer)

Paul Graham (born 13 November 1964) is an English born computer scientist, entrepreneur, venture capitalist, author, and essayist.

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The PDP-10 is a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966 into the 1980s.

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The PDP-6 (Programmed Data Processor-6) was a computer model developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1963.

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Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.

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Peter Norvig

Peter Norvig (born December 14, 1956) is an American computer scientist.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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PicoLisp is an open source Lisp dialect.

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Planner (programming language)

Planner (often seen in publications as "PLANNER" although it is not an acronym) is a programming language designed by Carl Hewitt at MIT, and first published in 1969.

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Pointer (computer programming)

In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object that stores the memory address of another value located in computer memory.

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Polish notation

Polish notation (PN), also known as normal Polish notation (NPN), Łukasiewicz notation, Warsaw notation, Polish prefix notation or simply prefix notation, is a mathematical notation in which operators precede their operands, in contrast to reverse Polish notation (RPN) in which operators follow their operands.

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POP-11 is a reflective, incrementally compiled programming language with many of the features of an interpreted language.

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POP-2, often referred to as POP2 is a discontinued programming language developed around 1970 from the earlier language POP-1 (developed by Robin Popplestone in 1968, originally named COWSEL) by Robin Popplestone and Rod Burstall at the University of Edinburgh.

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Portable Standard Lisp

Portable Standard Lisp (PSL) is a tail-recursive dynamically bound dialect of Lisp inspired by its predecessor, Standard Lisp and the Portable Lisp Compiler.

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Procedural programming

Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.

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Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

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Programming paradigm

Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.

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Programming style

Programming style is a set of rules or guidelines used when writing the source code for a computer program.

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Python (programming language)

Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.

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Quasi-quotation or Quine quotation is a linguistic device in formal languages that facilitates rigorous and terse formulation of general rules about linguistic expressions while properly observing the use–mention distinction.

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Quicklisp is a package manager for Common Lisp libraries.

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R (programming language)

R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics that is supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

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Racket (programming language)

Racket (formerly PLT Scheme) is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language in the Lisp-Scheme family.

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Read–eval–print loop

A Read–Eval–Print Loop (REPL), also known as an interactive toplevel or language shell, is a simple, interactive computer programming environment that takes single user inputs (i.e. single expressions), evaluates them, and returns the result to the user; a program written in a REPL environment is executed piecewise.

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Reason maintenance

Reason maintenanceDoyle, J., 1983.

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Rebol (historically REBOL) is a cross-platform data exchange language and a multi-paradigm dynamic programming language designed by Carl Sassenrath for network communications and distributed computing.

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Recursion (computer science)

Recursion in computer science is a method of solving a problem where the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem (as opposed to iteration).

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Reflection (computer programming)

In computer science, reflection is the ability of a computer program to examine, introspect, and modify its own structure and behavior at runtime.

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Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT

The Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was founded in 1946 as the successor to the famed MIT Radiation Laboratory (Rad Lab) of World War II.

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Richard P. Gabriel

Richard P. Gabriel (born 1949) is an American computer scientist who is known for his work related to the Lisp programming language (and especially Common Lisp) in computing.

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Richard Stallman

Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.

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RPL (programming language)


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Ruby (programming language)

Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.

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S-1 Lisp

S-1 Lisp was an Lisp implementation written in Lisp for the 36-bit pipelined S-1 Mark IIA supercomputer computer architecture, which has 32 megawords of RAM.

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In computing, s-expressions, sexprs or sexps (for "symbolic expression") are a notation for nested list (tree-structured) data, invented for and popularized by the programming language Lisp, which uses them for source code as well as data.

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Sawfish (window manager)

Sawfish is a window manager for the X Window System.

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Scala (programming language)

Scala is a general-purpose programming language providing support for functional programming and a strong static type system.

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Scheme (programming language)

Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.

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Scheme Requests for Implementation

Scheme Requests for Implementation (SRFI) is an effort to coordinate libraries and extensions of standard Scheme, necessitated by Scheme's minimalistic design, and particularly the lack of a standard library prior to R6RS.

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Scope (computer science)

In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the region of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity.

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Scripting language

A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.

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Self-hosting is the use of a computer program as part of the toolchain or operating system that produces new versions of that same program—for example, a that can compile its own source code.

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Self-modifying code

In computer science, self-modifying code is code that alters its own instructions while it is executing – usually to reduce the instruction path length and improve performance or simply to reduce otherwise repetitively similar code, thus simplifying maintenance.

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Self-reference occurs in natural or formal languages when a sentence, idea or formula refers to itself.

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Short-circuit evaluation

Short-circuit evaluation, minimal evaluation, or McCarthy evaluation (after John McCarthy) is the semantics of some Boolean operators in some programming languages in which the second argument is executed or evaluated only if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression: when the first argument of the AND function evaluates to false, the overall value must be false; and when the first argument of the OR function evaluates to true, the overall value must be true.

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SHRDLU was an early natural language understanding computer program, developed by Terry Winograd at MIT in 1968–1970.

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Scheme In One Defun (or Scheme In One Day) is a small-footprint implementation of the Scheme programming language, written in C and designed to be embedded inside C programs.

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Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.

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Software bug

A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.

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Software portability

Portability in high-level computer programming is the usability of the same software in different environments.

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Source code

In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.

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Spice Lisp

Spice Lisp is a Lisp dialect and its implementation originally written by CMU's Spice Lisp Group which targeted the microcode of the 16-bit PERQ workstation and its Accent operating system; it used that workstation's microcode abilities (it provided microcodes for Pascal, C, and Ada besides) to implement a stack architecture to store its data structures as 32-bit objects and to enable runtime type-checking.

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Stack overflow

In software, a stack overflow occurs if the call stack pointer exceeds the stack bound.

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Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.

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Stanford University centers and institutes

Stanford University has many centers and institutes dedicated to the study of various specific topics.

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Statement (computer science)

In computer programming, a statement is a syntactic unit of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.

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Steve Russell (computer scientist)

Stephen "Steve" Russell (born 1937) is an American computer scientist most famous for creating Spacewar!, one of the earliest video games.

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Strong and weak typing

In computer programming, programming languages are often colloquially classified as to whether the language's type system makes it strongly typed or weakly typed (loosely typed).

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Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs

Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs (SICP) is a textbook aiming to teach the principles of computer programming, such as abstraction in programming, metalinguistic abstraction, recursion, interpreters, and modular programming.

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In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.

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Swift (programming language)

Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux.

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Symbolics refers to two companies: now-defunct computer manufacturer Symbolics, Inc., and a privately held company that acquired the assets of the former company and continues to sell and maintain the Open Genera Lisp system and the Macsyma computer algebra system.

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T (programming language)

The T programming language is a dialect of the Scheme programming language developed in the early 1980s by Jonathan A. Rees, Kent M. Pitman, and Norman I. Adams of Yale University as an experiment in language design and implementation.

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Tail call

In computer science, a tail call is a subroutine call performed as the final action of a procedure.

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Tcl (pronounced "tickle" or tee cee ell) is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.

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TinyScheme is a free software implementation of the Scheme programming language with a lightweight Scheme interpreter of a subset of the R5RS standard.

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The TOPS-10 System (Timesharing / Total Operating System-10) was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 (or DECsystem-10) mainframe computer launched in 1967.

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The TOPS-20 operating system by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) was a proprietary OS used on some of DEC's 36-bit mainframe computers.

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Transcription (linguistics)

Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.

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Tree (data structure)

In computer science, a tree is a widely used abstract data type (ADT)—or data structure implementing this ADT—that simulates a hierarchical tree structure, with a root value and subtrees of children with a parent node, represented as a set of linked nodes.

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Turing Award

The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".

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Turing completeness

In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer's instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.

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Type inference

Type inference refers to the automatic detection of the data type of an expression in a programming language.

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Type system

In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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Variadic function

In mathematics and in computer programming, a variadic function is a function of indefinite arity, i.e., one which accepts a variable number of arguments.

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Vaughan Pratt

Vaughan Pratt (born on April 12, 1944) is a Professor Emeritus at Stanford University, who was an early pioneer in the field of computer science.

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Very-large-scale integration

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.

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Wayback Machine

The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet.

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Whitespace character

In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.

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Window manager

A window manager is system software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface.

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Wolfram Language

The Wolfram Language is a general multi-paradigm programming language developed by Wolfram Research and is the programming language of the mathematical symbolic computation program Mathematica and the Wolfram Programming Cloud.

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X3J13 is the name of a technical committee which was part of INCITS (known at the time as X3).

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In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

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YARV (Yet another Ruby VM) is a bytecode interpreter that was developed for the Ruby programming language by Koichi Sasada.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisp_(programming_language)

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