47 relations: Abkhaz language, Adyghe language, Affricate consonant, Aleut language, Archi language, Assimilation (phonology), Avar language, Belarusian language, Bulgarian language, Chechen language, Cyrillic digraphs, Cyrillic script, Cyrillization of Chinese, Digraph (orthography), Dungan language, Ejective consonant, Ingush language, Kabardian language, Karachay-Balkar language, Khanty language, Komi language, Kumyk language, Labialization, Languages of the Caucasus, List of Cyrillic digraphs and trigraphs, List of Cyrillic letters, List of Latin-script digraphs, Loanword, Moksha language, Nogai language, Northeast Caucasian languages, Ossetian language, Palatalization (phonetics), Pentagraph, Pharyngealization, Pinyin, Russian language, Tabasaran language, Tatar language, Tetragraph, Trigraph (orthography), Turkmen language, Ukrainian language, Uzbek language, Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative, Vowel length, Yakut language.
Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is the language spoken by the Aleut people (Unangax̂) living in the Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands, Commander Islands, and the Alaskan Peninsula (in Aleut Alaxsxa, the origin of the state name Alaska).
Archi is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by the Archis in the village of Archib, southern Dagestan, Russia, and the six surrounding smaller villages.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Avar (self-designation Магӏарул мацӏ Maⱨarul maⱬ "language of the mountains" or Авар мацӏ Avar maⱬ "Avar language"), also known as Avaric, is a language that belongs to the Avar–Andic group of the Northeast Caucasian family.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
The Cyrillic script family contains a large number of specially treated two-letter combinations, or digraphs, but few of these are used in Slavic languages.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The Cyrillization of Chinese is effected using the Palladius system for transcribing Chinese characters into the Cyrillic alphabet.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
The Dungan language is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
Ingush (ГӀалгӀай,, pronounced) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 500,000 people, known as the Ingush, across a region covering the Russian republics of Ingushetia and Chechnya.
Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.
The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia, European Russia, as well as by an immigrant population in Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey.
Khanty (or Hanti), previously known as Ostyak, is the language of the Khanty people.
The Komi language (endonym: Коми кыв, tr. Komi kyv) is a Uralic macrolanguage spoken by the Komi peoples in the northeastern European part of Russia.
Kumyk (къумукъ тил,L. S. Levitskaya, "Kumyk language", in Languages of the world. Turkic languages (1997). (in Russian) qumuq til) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 426,212 speakers — the Kumyks — in the Dagestan, North Ossetia, and Chechen republics of the Russian Federation.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The following digraphs (and trigraphs) are used in the Cyrillic script.
Variants of Cyrillic are used by the writing systems of many languages, especially languages used in the former Soviet Union.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Moksha language (mokšenj kälj) is a member of the Mordvinic branch of the Uralic languages, with around 2,000 native speakers (2010 Russian census).
Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar) is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern European Russia.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
A pentagraph (from the πέντε, pénte, "five" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of five letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not correspond to the individual values of the letters.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Tabasaran (also written Tabassaran) is a Northeast Caucasian language of the Lezgic branch.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
A tetragraph (from the τετρα-, tetra-, "four" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of four letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not necessarily correspond to the individual values of the letters.
A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Yakut, also known as Sakha, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation by the Yakuts.
List of Cyrillic digraphs, Ён, Ён (digraph), Ёь, Ёь (digraph), Ан, Ан (digraph), Аь, Гг, Гг (digraph), Гу, Гу (digraph), Гъ, Гъ (digraph), Гъу, Гь, Гь (digraph), ГӀ, ГӀ (digraph), Гӏ, Дж, Дж (digraph), Дз, Дз (digraph), Дь, Дь (digraph), Жж, Жж (digraph), Жч, Жч (digraph), Жь, Жь (digraph), Зж, Зж (digraph), Ку, Ку (digraph), Кх, Кх (digraph), Кхъ, Кхъ (trigraph), Къ, Къ (digraph), Къу, Кь, Кь (digraph), КӀ, КӀ (digraph), КӀу, КӀу (trigraph), Кӏ, Кӏу, Лъ, Лъ (digraph), ЛӀ, ЛӀ (digraph), Лӏ, Л’, Л’ (digraph), Нг, Нг (digraph), Нь, Нь (digraph), Он, Он (digraph), Оь, Оь (digraph), ПӀ, Пӏ, РхӀ, РхӀ (trigraph), Рхӏ, Сж, Сж (digraph), Тш, Тш (digraph), ТӀ, Тӏ, Уь, Уь (digraph), ФӀ, Фӏ, Ху, Хъ, Хъ (digraph), Хъу, Хь, Хь (digraph), ХӀ, ХӀ (digraph), Хӏ, Цз, Цз (digraph), ЦӀ, Цӏ, Чж, Чж (digraph), ЧӀ, Чӏ, Ч’, Ч’ (digraph), ЩӀ, Щӏ, Эр, Эр (digraph), Юй, Юй (digraph), Юь, Юь (digraph), Ян, Ян (digraph), Яь, Яь (digraph), Үй, Үй (digraph), Ӏу.