644 relations: Accounting, Acts of the Apostles, Administrative law, Adult education, Adventism, Advertising, Aesthetics, Afroasiatic languages, Air conditioning, Algae, Allegory, Altered state of consciousness, American English, American literature, American poetry, Analogy, Analytical chemistry, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek phonology, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient history, Ancient philosophy, Anglicanism, Animal, Animal husbandry, Animal magnetism, Anthropology, Apocrypha, Application software, Applied mathematics, Applied physics, Applied psychology, Arabian Peninsula, Archive, Argument, Aristotelianism, Art history, Aviation, Bahá'í Faith, Baptists, Bábism, Belles-lettres, Bible, Bibliography, Biography, Biology, Bird, Blacksmith, Block book, ..., Body of water, Book, Book of Revelation, Bryophyte, Building, Calvinism, Carpentry, Catalan language, Catalan literature, Catechism, Catholic Church, Celestial mechanics, Celestial navigation, Cell biology, Celtic languages, Celtic literature, Central Africa, Central Europe, Ceramic, Ceramic art, Chemical engineering, Christian apologetics, Christian art, Christian denomination, Christian eschatology, Christian mission, Christian worship, Christianity in Africa, Christianity in Asia, Christianity in Europe, Chromolithography, Chronology, Church (building), Cinematography, Civil and political rights, Civil engineering, Civil procedure, Clairvoyance, Classical sculpture, Clothing, Club (organization), Colonization, Color, Commerce, Commercial law, Community, Comparative psychology, Comparison of Dewey and Library of Congress subject classification, Computer art, Computer science, Conceptions of God, Congregation (Catholic), Congregational church, Constitutional law, Consumption (economics), Convention (norm), Cooperative, Cork (material), Cosmology, Costume, Court, Creation myth, Creed, Criminal law, Criminology, Critical philosophy, Crop, Cryptogam, Crystallography, Culture, Curriculum, Dairy, Data (computing), Data processing, Decorative arts, Deductive reasoning, Design, Determinism, Developmental psychology, Dewey Decimal Classification, Dialectology, Dicotyledon, Dictionary, Differential psychology, Digital photography, Diplomacy, Disease, Doctrine, Dogma, Dravidian languages, Dravidian people, Dream, Drink, Drypoint, Early Christianity, Earth, Earth science, Eastern Christianity, Eastern philosophy, Ecclesiology, Eclecticism, Economic geology, Elastomer, Electricity, Electronics, Emancipation, Emotion, Encyclopedia, English drama, English language, English literature, English orthography, English phonology, Engraving, Ephemeris, Epicureanism, Epistle, Etching, Ethics, Etiquette, Etymology, Evangelism, Evolution, Existence of God, Explosive material, Fallacy, Family, Fat, Ferry, Field (agriculture), Financial economics, Fishing, Flower, Fluid mechanics, Folklore, Food, Food technology, Forestry, Forge, Fossil, French grammar, French language, French orthography, French phonology, French poetry, Fruit, Fuel, Funeral, Fungus, Fur, Furniture, Genealogy, Genre art, Geography, Geology, German grammar, German language, German literature, German orthography, Germanic languages, Germanic paganism, Glass, God, Gospel, Government, Grammar, Graphology, Gymnosperm, Gynaecology, Health, Heat, Henri Bergson, Herbaceous plant, Hierarchy, Higher education, Histology, Historical geography, Historical linguistics, History of Africa, History of Algeria, History of Antarctica, History of Argentina, History of Asia, History of Australia, History of Bolivia, History of Brazil, History of Canada, History of Central America, History of Central Asia, History of Chile, History of China, History of Colombia, History of Ecuador, History of Egypt, History of England, History of Ethiopia, History of Europe, History of France, History of Germany, History of Guyana, History of India, History of Iran, History of Italy, History of Japan, History of Libya, History of literature, History of Mexico, History of Monaco, History of Morocco, History of New Zealand, History of North America, History of painting, History of Palestine, History of Papua New Guinea, History of Paraguay, History of Peru, History of Portugal, History of Russia, History of Scandinavia, History of science, History of Siberia, History of sociology, History of South America, History of Southeast Asia, History of Spain, History of Sudan, History of technology, History of the British Isles, History of the Middle East, History of the United States, History of Tunisia, History of Uruguay, History of Venezuela, History of Wales, History of West Africa, Holography, Holy orders, Home care, Homiletics, Horticulture, House, House painter and decorator, Household, Household hardware, Housekeeping, Human, Human body, Human migration, Human physical appearance, Human resource management, Hunting, HVAC, Hydraulic engineering, Hydrology, Hymnology, Hypothesis, Iberian Peninsula, Iconography, Idealism, Incunable, Indeterminism, Indian Ocean, Indian religions, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indoor games and sports, Inductive reasoning, Infantry, Infinity, Inorganic chemistry, Inspirational fiction, Institution, Insurance, Intelligence, Interior design, International economics, International law, International relations, International trade, Intuitionism, Invertebrate, Iron, Islam, Italian grammar, Italian language, Italian literature, Italian phonology, Italian poetry, Italic languages, Jesus, Judaism, Keyboard instrument, Knowledge, Labour economics, Labour law, Land (economics), Landscape, Landscape architecture, Landscape painting, Language, Language education, Languages of Africa, Latin, Latin grammar, Latin literature, Latin poetry, Law, Leather, Legal case, Legend, Legislation, Leisure, Lexicology, Library classification, Library management, Library of Congress Classification, Light, Linguistic prescription, List of equestrian sports, List of Old Testament pseudepigrapha, Lists of philosophers, Literary criticism, Literary magazine, Lithography, Liturgical year, Logic, Lumber, Macroeconomics, Magnetism, Mail, Mammal, Management, Manuscript, Map, Marine engineering, Maritime transport, Mathematical analysis, Meal, Mechanics, Medical research, Medieval philosophy, Melanesia, Mesopotamia, Metal, Metallurgy, Metalworking, Metaphysics, Meteorology, Methodism, Methodology, Metrology, Mezzotint, Microbiology, Military engineering, Military justice, Military science, Mineralogy, Modern Greek literature, Modern physics, Mollusca, Monocotyledon, Mormonism, Motion (physics), Mounted infantry, Museology, Music theory, Musical ensemble, Musical form, Musical instrument, Mythology, Name, Natural history, Naturalism (philosophy), Nature (philosophy), Navy, Neoplatonism, New Testament, North Germanic languages, Numerical analysis, Numismatics, Occitan language, Occitan literature, Occult, OCLC, Office, Oil, Old English, Old English literature, Old Latin, Old Testament, Ontology, Orchard, Organic chemistry, Organism, Outcast (person), Outline of Africa, Outline of agriculture, Outline of algebra, Outline of architecture, Outline of arithmetic, Outline of Asia, Outline of astronomy, Outline of biochemistry, Outline of chemistry, Outline of communication, Outline of computer programming, Outline of computer science, Outline of ecology, Outline of economics, Outline of education, Outline of engineering, Outline of epistemology, Outline of Europe, Outline of genetics, Outline of geology, Outline of geometry, Outline of history, Outline of human anatomy, Outline of humanism, Outline of knowledge, Outline of law, Outline of library science, Outline of linguistics, Outline of literature, Outline of manufacturing, Outline of mathematics, Outline of medicine, Outline of military science and technology, Outline of mining, Outline of music, Outline of North America, Outline of philosophy, Outline of photography, Outline of physics, Outline of political science, Outline of psychology, Outline of religion, Outline of sculpture, Outline of self, Outline of South America, Outline of South Asian history, Outline of technology, Outline of transport, Packaging and labeling, Painting, Paleobotany, Paleontology, Pantheism, Parapsychology, Parenting, Parish, Pastoral theology, Patent, Penology, Perception, Persecution, Perspective (graphical), Persuasion, Pest (organism), Petrology, Pharmacology, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy, Philosophy in the Soviet Union, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of space and time, Phonology, Phrenology, Physical chemistry, Physiognomy, Physiology, Pigment, Plant, Plant physiology, Platonism, Pneumatics, Politics, Polygraph, Polynesia, Portuguese language, Portuguese literature, Pre-Socratic philosophy, Prehistoric Europe, Presbyterianism, Primary education, Printing, Printmaking, Private law, Probability, Production (economics), Prosody (linguistics), Protestantism, Provençal dialect, Pteridophyte, Public administration, Public finance, Public relations, Pulp and paper industry, Qualitative inorganic analysis, Quantitative analysis (chemistry), Rail transport, Recreation, Regulation, Relationship between religion and science, Religion in ancient Rome, Religious education, Reproduction, Restoration Movement, Rhetoric, Road, Romanian language, Romanian literature, Roof, Sacrament, Sacred architecture, Salvation, Science, Screen printing, Secondary education, Sect, Sermon, Sewing, Sex, Shooting, Shorthand, Sigillography, Sign language, Slavery, Slavic languages, Social group, Social norm, Social relation, Social science, Social services, Socialism, Sociology, Socrates, Software, Sound, Sovereign state, Spaceflight, Spanish grammar, Spanish language, Spanish literature, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Spanish poetry, Sport, Standard German phonology, Standardization, Steel, Stoicism, Stone carving, String instrument, Subconscious, Surgery, Syllogism, Symbol, System, Tax law, Teleology, Textile, Textile arts, The arts, Theodicy, Therapy, Thesaurus, Topology, Traditionalist School, Travel, Tree, Unitarianism, Urbanism, Ventilation (architecture), Vibration, Videography, Vocal music, Vulgar Latin, Washing, Waterway, Wax, Western philosophy, Wildlife conservation, Wind instrument, Wood, Woodblock printing, Workshop, World history, WorldCat, Worship, Writing system, Zoology, Zoroastrianism, 19th-century philosophy, 20th-century philosophy. Expand index (594 more) » « Shrink index
Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations.
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government.
Adult education is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained self-educating activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values.
Adventism is a branch of Protestant Christianity which was started in the United States during the Second Great Awakening when Baptist preacher William Miller first publicly shared his belief that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ would occur at some point between 1843 and 1844.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
American literature is literature written or produced in the United States and its preceding colonies (for specific discussions of poetry and theater, see Poetry of the United States and Theater in the United States).
American poetry, the poetry of the United States, arose first as efforts by colonists to add their voices to English poetry in the 17th century, well before the constitutional unification of the thirteen colonies (although before this unification, a strong oral tradition often likened to poetry existed among Native American societies).
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek phonology is the description of the reconstructed phonology or pronunciation of Ancient Greek.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Animal magnetism, also known as mesmerism, was the name given by the German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (lebensmagnetismus) possessed by all living/animate beings (humans, animals, vegetables, etc.). He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.
Applied physics is intended for a particular technological or practical use.
Applied psychology is the use of psychological methods and findings of scientific psychology to solve practical problems of human and animal behavior and experience.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located.
In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Bábism (بابیه, Babiyye), also known as the Bayání Faith (Persian:, Bayání), is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible GodBrowne, E.G., p. 15 who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God (Arabic). It has no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of whom are concentrated in Iran.
Belles-lettres or belles lettres is a category of writing, originally meaning beautiful or fine writing.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bibliography (from Greek βιβλίον biblion, "book" and -γραφία -graphia, "writing"), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek -λογία, -logia).
A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).
Block books, also called xylographica, are short books of up to 50 leaves, block printed in Europe in the second half of the 15th century as woodcuts with blocks carved to include both text and illustrations.
A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalan literature is the name conventionally used to refer to literature written in the Catalan language.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects.
Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
In the strictly academic context of Celtic studies, the term Celtic literature is used by Celticists to denote any number of bodies of literature written in a Celtic language, encompassing the Irish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Scottish Gaelic and Breton languages in either their modern or earlier forms.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
Christian apologetics (ἀπολογία, "verbal defence, speech in defence") is a branch of Christian theology that attempts to defend Christianity against objections.
Christian art is sacred art which uses themes and imagery from Christianity.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christian eschatology is a major branch of study within Christian theology dealing with the "last things." Eschatology, from two Greek words meaning "last" (ἔσχατος) and "study" (-λογία), is the study of 'end things', whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, the end of the world and the nature of the Kingdom of God.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
In Christianity, worship is reverent honor and homage paid to God.
Christianity in Africa began in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century.
Christianity in Asia has its roots in the very inception of Christianity, which originated from the life and teachings of Jesus in 1st century Roman Palestine.
Christianity is the largest religion in Europe.
Chromolithography is a unique method for making multi-colour prints.
Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
Cinematography (also called Direction of Photography) is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters).
Clairvoyance (from French clair meaning "clear" and voyance meaning "vision") is the alleged ability to gain information about an object, person, location, or physical event through extrasensory perception.
Classical sculpture refers loosely to the forms of sculpture from Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, as well as the Hellenized and Romanized civilizations under their rule or influence from about 500 BC to around 200 AD.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
A club is an association of two or more people united by a common interest or goal.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
Commercial law, also known as trade law, is the body of law that applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons and businesses engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales.
A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.
Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior.
This is a conversion chart showing how the Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress Classification systems organize resources by concept, in part for the purpose of assigning call numbers.
Computer art is any art in which computers play a role in production or display of the artwork.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Conceptions of God in monotheist, pantheist, and panentheist religions – or of the supreme deity in henotheistic religions – can extend to various levels of abstraction.
In the Roman Catholic Church, the term "congregation" is used not only in the senses that it has in other contexts (to indicate, for instance, a gathering for worship or some other purpose), but also to mean specifically either a type of department of the Roman Curia, or a type of religious institute, or certain organized groups of Augustinian, Benedictine, and Cistercian houses.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
Constitutional law is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments.
Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
Costume is the distinctive style of dress of an individual or group that reflects their class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch.
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.
Attributed to Immanuel Kant, the critical philosophy (kritische Philosophie) movement sees the primary task of philosophy as criticism rather than justification of knowledge; criticism, for Kant, meant judging as to the possibilities of knowledge before advancing to knowledge itself (from the Greek kritike (techne), or "art of judgment").
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
A cryptogam (scientific name Cryptogamae) is a plant (in the wide sense of the word) that reproduces by spores, without flowers or seeds.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
In education, a curriculum (plural: curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption.
Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.
Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information." In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing, "the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer." Data processing is distinct from word processing, which is manipulation of text specifically rather than data generally.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), or Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876.
Dialectology (from Greek διάλεκτος, dialektos, "talk, dialect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
Differential psychology studies the ways in which individuals differ in their behavior and the processes that underlie it.
Digital photography is a form of photography that uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors to capture images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
Dravidians are native speakers of any of the Dravidian languages.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
Drypoint is a printmaking technique of the intaglio family, in which an image is incised into a plate (or "matrix") with a hard-pointed "needle" of sharp metal or diamond point.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, and Indian philosophy (including Buddhist philosophy) which are dominant in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia.
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be used for economic and/or industrial purposes.
An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (i. e., both viscosity and elasticity) and very weak intermolecular forces, and generally low Young's modulus and high failure strain compared with other materials.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Emancipation is any effort to procure economic and social rights, political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, in discussion of such matters.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
Drama was introduced to England from Europe by the Romans, and auditoriums were constructed across the country for this purpose.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.
In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) gives the positions of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky at a given time or times.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
An epistle (Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, "letter") is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter.
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or "wrong moves" in the construction of an argument.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water.
In agriculture, a field is an area of land, enclosed or otherwise, used for agricultural purposes such as cultivating crops or as a paddock or other enclosure for livestock.
Financial economics is the branch of economics characterized by a "concentration on monetary activities", in which "money of one type or another is likely to appear on both sides of a trade".
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Food technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that make foods.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
A forge is a type of hearth used for heating metals, or the workplace (smithy) where such a hearth is located.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
French grammar is the set of rules by which the French language creates statements, questions and commands.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
French phonology is the sound system of French.
French poetry is a category of French literature.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds).
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Genre art is the pictorial representation in any of various media of scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, interiors, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
German grammar is the set of structural rules of the German language, which in many respects is quite similar to that of the other Germanic languages.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germanic religion refers to the indigenous religion of the Germanic peoples from the Iron Age until Christianisation during the Middle Ages.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Graphology (or graphoanalysis, but not graphanalysis) is the analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting claiming to be able to identify the writer, indicating psychological state at the time of writing, or evaluating personality characteristics.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
Herbaceous plants (in botanical use frequently simply herbs) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Historical geography is the branch of geography that studies the ways in which geographic phenomena have changed over time.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
The history of Africa begins with the emergence of hominids, archaic humans and – around 5.6 to 7.5 million years ago.
Much of the history of Algeria has taken place on the fertile coastal plain of North Africa, which is often called the Maghreb (or Maghrib).
The history of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe.
The history of Argentina can be divided into four main parts: the pre-Columbian time or early history (up to the sixteenth century), the colonial period (1530–1810), the period of nation-building (1810-1880), and the history of modern Argentina (from around 1880).
The history of Asia can be seen as the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions such as, East Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe.
The History of Australia refers to the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies.
After the fall of Tiwanaku empire, the many Aymara Lake Titicaca were conquered by the Inca empire.
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil.
The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day.
The history of Central America is the study of the region known as Central America.
The history of Central Asia concerns the history of the various peoples that have inhabited Central Asia.
The territory of Chile has been populated since at least 3000 BC.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of Colombia includes the settlements and society by indigenous peoples, most notably, the Muisca Confederation, Quimbaya Civilization, and Tairona Chiefdoms; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization, most noteworthy being Spanish conquest of the Muisca; ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá.
The History of Ecuador extends over an 8,000-year period.
The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt's native inhabitants and outside influence.
England became inhabited more than 800,000 years ago, as the discovery of stone tools and footprints at Happisburgh in Norfolk has revealed.
This article covers the prehistory & history of Ethiopia, from emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age.
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.
The recorded history of Guyana can be dated back to 1499, when Alonso de Ojeda's first expedition arrived from Spain at the Essequibo River.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
In archaic times, ancient Greeks, Etruscans and Celts established settlements in the south, the centre and the north of Italy respectively, while various Italian tribes and Italic peoples inhabited the Italian peninsula and insular Italy.
The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times.
Libya's history covers its rich mix of ethnic groups added to the indigenous Berber tribes.
The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry that attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/listener/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces.
The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia.
The early history of Monaco is primarily concerned with the protective and strategic value of the Rock of Monaco, the area's chief geological landmark, which served first as a shelter for ancient peoples and later as a fortress.
The history of Morocco spans several millennia, succeeding the prehistoric cultures of Jebel Irhoud and Taforalt.
The history of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land.
History of North America encompasses the past developments of people populating the continent of North America.
The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures.
The history of Palestine is the study of the past in the region of Palestine, generally defined as a geographic region in the Southern Levant between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River (where Israel and Palestine are today), and various adjoining lands.
The prehistory of Papua New Guinea can be traced to about 60,000 years ago, when people first migrated towards the Australian continent.
The history of Paraguay is a result of development and interaction of varying cultures of indigenous peoples in Paraguay and overseas immigrants who together have created the modern-day Paraguay.
The history of Peru spans 4 millennia, extending back through several stages of cultural development in the mountain region and the coastal desert.
The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Homo heidelbergensis.
The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs.
The history of Scandinavia is the history of the geographical region of Scandinavia and its peoples.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
The early history of Siberia is greatly influenced by the sophisticated nomadic civilizations of the Scythians (Pazyryk) on the west of the Ural Mountains and Xiongnu (Noin-Ula) on the east of the Urals, both flourishing before the Christian era.
Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged primarily out of enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society.
The history of South America is the study of the past, particularly the written record, oral histories, and traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent of South America.
The term Southeast Asia has been in use since World War II.
The history of Spain dates back to the Middle Ages.
The history of Sudan includes that of both the territory that composes Republic of the Sudan as well as that of a larger region known by the term "Sudan".
The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is similar to other sides of the history of humanity.
The history of the British Isles has witnessed intermittent periods of competition and cooperation between the people that occupy the various parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Ireland, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the smaller adjacent islands, which together make up the British Isles.
Home to the Cradle of Civilization, the Middle East (usually interchangeable with the Near East) has seen many of the world's oldest cultures and civilizations.
The history of the United States began with the settlement of Indigenous people before 15,000 BC.
The present day Republic of Tunisia, al-Jumhuriyyah at-Tunisiyyah, has over ten million citizens, almost all of Arab-Berber descent.
The history of Uruguay comprises different periods: the pre-Columbian time or early history (up to the sixteenth century), the colonial period (1516–1811), the period of nation-building (1811-1830), and the history of Uruguay as an independent country (from around 1830).
The history of Venezuela reflects events in areas of the Americas colonized by Spain starting 1522; amid resistance from indigenous peoples, led by Native caciques, such as Guaicaipuro and Tamanaco.
The history of Wales begins with the arrival of human beings in the region thousands of years ago.
The history of West Africa began with the first human settlements around 4,000 BCE.
Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.
In the Christian churches, Holy Orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest or deacon.
Home care (also referred to as domiciliary care, social care, or in-home care) is supportive care provided in the home.
Homiletics (ὁμιλητικός homilētikós, from homilos, "assembled crowd, throng"), in religion, is the application of the general principles of rhetoric to the specific art of public preaching.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
A house is a building that functions as a home.
A house painter and decorator is a tradesman responsible for the painting and decorating of buildings, and is also known as a decorator or house painter.
A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.
Household hardware (or simply, hardware) is equipment that can be touched or held by hand such as nuts, screws, washers, keys, locks, hinges, latches, handles, wire, chains, belts, plumbing supplies, electrical supplies, tools, utensils, cutlery and machine parts.
Housekeeping refers to the management of duties and chores involved in the running of a household, such as cleaning, cooking, home maintenance, shopping, laundry and bill pay.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
Human physical appearance is the outward phenotype or look of human beings.
Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the strategic approach to the effective management of organization workers so that they help the business gain a competitive advantage, Commonly referred to as the HR Department, it is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort.
Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Hymnology (from Greek ὕμνος hymnos, "song of praise" and -λογία -logia, "study of") is the scholarly study of religious song, or the hymn, in its many aspects, with particular focus on choral and congregational song.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum (plural incunables or incunabula, respectively), is a book, pamphlet, or broadside printed in Europe before the year 1501.
Indeterminism is the idea that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
Indoor games and sports are a variety of structured forms of play or competitive physical activity, typically carried out either in the home or in specially constructed indoor facilities.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
Inspirational fiction is a sub-category within "inspirational literature," or "inspirational writing," defined in various ways in the United States and other nations.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space.
International economics is concerned with the effects upon economic activity from international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the international institutions that affect them.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism (opposed to preintuitionism), is an approach where mathematics is considered to be purely the result of the constructive mental activity of humans rather than the discovery of fundamental principles claimed to exist in an objective reality.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Italian grammar is the body of rules describing the properties of the Italian language.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
Italian poetry is a category of Italian literature.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.
In economics, land comprises all naturally occurring resources as well as geographic land.
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.
Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.
Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language education refers to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language.
The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order.
Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.
The history of Latin poetry can be understood as the adaptation of Greek models.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
A legal case is a dispute between opposing parties resolved by a court, or by some equivalent legal process.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time spent away from business, work, job hunting, domestic chores, and education, as well as necessary activities such as eating and sleeping.
Lexicology is the part of linguistics that studies words.
A library classification is a system of knowledge organization by which library resources are arranged according to subject.
Library management is a sub-discipline of institutional management that focuses on specific issues faced by libraries and library management professionals.
The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
Equestrian Sports are sports that use horses as a main part of the sport.
Pseudepigrapha are falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.
The alphabetical list of philosophers is so large it had to be broken up into several pages.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense.
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water.
The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including celebrations of saints, are to be observed, and which portions of Scripture are to be read either in an annual cycle or in a cycle of several years.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.
Marine engineering includes the engineering of boats, ships, oil rigs and any other marine vessel or structure, as well as oceanographic engineering.
Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water.
Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.
A meal is an eating occasion that takes place at a certain time and includes prepared food.
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. to the Renaissance in the 16th century.
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
Metrology is the science of measurement.
Mezzotint is a printmaking process of the intaglio family, technically a drypoint method.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications.
Military justice (or military law) is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces.
Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Modern Greek literature refers to literature written in common Modern Greek, emerging from the late Byzantine era in the 11th century AD.
Modern physics is the post-Newtonian conception of physics.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s.
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.
Mounted infantry were infantry who rode horses instead of marching.
Museology or museum studies is the study of museums.
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.
A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name.
The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music; it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
A name is a term used for identification.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
Nature has two inter-related meanings in philosophy.
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Occitan literature (referred to in older texts as Provençal literature) is a body of texts written in Occitan, mostly in the south of France.
The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs".
An office is generally a room or other area where administrative work is done by an organization's users in order to support and realize objects and goals of the organization.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old English literature or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses literature written in Old English, in Anglo-Saxon England from the 7th century to the decades after the Norman Conquest of 1066.
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
An outcast is someone who is rejected or 'cast out', as from home or society, or in some way excluded, looked down upon, or ignored.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the continent Africa: Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to agriculture: Agriculture – cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life.
Algebra is one of the main branches of mathematics, covering the study of structure, relation and quantity.
The following outline is an overview and topical guide to architecture: Architecture – the process and the product of designing and constructing buildings.
Arithmetic is an elementary branch of mathematics that is used by almost everyone for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Asia.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy: Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry: Biochemistry – study of chemical processes in living organisms, including living matter.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chemistry: Chemistry – science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties, structure, composition, behavior, and changes as they relate the chemical reactions.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to communication: Communication – purposeful activity of exchanging information and meaning across space and time using various technical or natural means, whichever is available or preferred.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to computer programming: Computer programming – process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs.
Computer science (also called computing science) is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ecology: Ecology – scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics: Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to education: Education – in the general sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to engineering: Engineering is the discipline and profession that applies scientific theories, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to design, create, and analyze technological solutions cognizant of safety, human factors, physical laws, regulations, practicality, and cost.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to epistemology: Epistemology or theory of knowledge – branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Europe.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to genetics: Genetics – science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geology: Geology – one of the Earth sciences – is the study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere.
Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to history: History – discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy: Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to humanism: Humanism – group of philosophies and ethical perspectives which emphasize the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers individual thought and evidence (rationalism, empiricism), over established doctrine or faith (fideism).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to knowledge: Knowledge – familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, and/or skills acquired through experience or education.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to law: Law – is the set of rules and principles (laws) by which a society is governed, through enforcement by governmental authorities.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to library science: Library science – study of issues related to libraries and the information fields.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to linguistics: Linguistics is the scientific study of natural language.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to literature: Literature – prose, written or oral, including fiction and non-fiction, drama, and poetry.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to manufacturing: Manufacturing – use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale.
Mathematics is a field of study that investigates topics including number, space, structure, and change.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to medicine: Medicine – science of healing.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to military science: Military science – study of the technique, psychology, practice and other phenomena which constitute war and armed conflict.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to mining: Mining – extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to music: Music – human expression in the medium of time using the structures of sounds or tones and silence.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to North America.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to philosophy: Philosophy – study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to photography: Photography – process of making pictures by the action of recording light patterns, reflected or emitted from objects, on a photosensitive medium or an image sensor through a timed exposure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to physics: Physics – natural science that involves the study of matterRichard Feynman begins his ''Lectures'' with the atomic hypothesis, as his most compact statement of all scientific knowledge: "If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations..., what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is...
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: Politics – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to psychology: Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to religion: Religion – organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sculpture: A sculpture – human-made three-dimensional art object.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the self: Self – an individual person, from his or her own perspective.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to South America.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the history of South Asia: History of South Asia – South Asia includes the contemporary political entities of the Indian subcontinent and associated islands, therefore, its history includes the histories of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bhutan, and the island nations of Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to technology: Technology – collection of tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures used by humans.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to transport: Transport or transportation – movement of people and goods from one place to another.
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
Paleobotany, also spelled as palaeobotany (from the Greek words paleon.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims.
Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.
A parish is a church territorial entity constituting a division within a diocese.
Pastoral theology is the branch of practical theology concerned with the application of the study of religion in the context of regular church ministry.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Penology (from "penal", Latin poena, "punishment" and the Greek suffix -logia, "study of") is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice of various societies in their attempts to repress criminal activities, and satisfy public opinion via an appropriate treatment regime for persons convicted of criminal offences.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another individual or group.
Perspective (from perspicere "to see through") in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye.
Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy in the Soviet Union was officially confined to Marxist–Leninist thinking, which theoretically was the basis of objective and ultimate philosophical truth.
Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.
Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Phrenology is a pseudomedicine primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
Physiognomy (from the Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature" and gnomon meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is the assessment of character or personality from a person's outer appearance, especially the face often linked to racial and sexual stereotyping.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
Pneumatics (From Greek: πνεύμα) is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
A polygraph, popularly referred to as a lie detector, measures and records several physiological indices such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions.
Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the Portuguese language, particularly by citizens of Portugal; it may also refer to literature written by people living in Portugal, Brazil, Angola and Mozambique, as well as other Portuguese-speaking countries.
A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.
Prehistoric Europe is the designation for the period of human presence in Europe before the start of recorded history, beginning in the Lower Paleolithic.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper.
Private law is that part of a civil law legal system which is part of the jus commune that involves relationships between individuals, such as the law of contracts or torts (as it is called in the common law), and the law of obligations (as it is called in civil legal systems).
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output).
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Provençal (Provençau or Prouvençau) is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France, mostly in Provence.
A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy.
Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.
The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products.
Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds.
In analytical chemistry, quantitative analysis is the determination of the absolute or relative abundance (often expressed as a concentration) of one, several or all particular substance(s) present in a sample.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Various aspects of the relationship between religion and science have been addressed by philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
In secular usage, religious education is the teaching of a particular religion (although in England the term religious instruction would refer to the teaching of a particular religion, with religious education referring to teaching about religions in general) and its varied aspects: its beliefs, doctrines, rituals, customs, rites, and personal roles.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
The Restoration Movement (also known as the American Restoration Movement or the Stone-Campbell Movement, and pejoratively as Campbellism) is a Christian movement that began on the United States frontier during the Second Great Awakening (1790–1840) of the early 19th century. The pioneers of this movement were seeking to reform the church from within and sought "the unification of all Christians in a single body patterned after the church of the New Testament."Rubel Shelly, I Just Want to Be a Christian, 20th Century Christian, Nashville, TN 1984, Especially since the mid-20th century, members of these churches do not identify as Protestant but simply as Christian.. Richard Thomas Hughes, Reviving the Ancient Faith: The Story of Churches of Christ in America, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1996: "arguably the most widely distributed tract ever published by the Churches of Christ or anyone associated with that tradition."Samuel S Hill, Charles H Lippy, Charles Reagan Wilson, Encyclopedia of Religion in the South, Mercer University Press, 2005, pp. 854 The Restoration Movement developed from several independent strands of religious revival that idealized early Christianity. Two groups, which independently developed similar approaches to the Christian faith, were particularly important. The first, led by Barton W. Stone, began at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, and identified as "Christians". The second began in western Pennsylvania and Virginia (now West Virginia) and was led by Thomas Campbell and his son, Alexander Campbell, both educated in Scotland; they eventually used the name "Disciples of Christ". Both groups sought to restore the whole Christian church on the pattern set forth in the New Testament, and both believed that creeds kept Christianity divided. In 1832 they joined in fellowship with a handshake. Among other things, they were united in the belief that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; that Christians should celebrate the Lord's Supper on the first day of each week; and that baptism of adult believers by immersion in water is a necessary condition for salvation. Because the founders wanted to abandon all denominational labels, they used the biblical names for the followers of Jesus. Both groups promoted a return to the purposes of the 1st-century churches as described in the New Testament. One historian of the movement has argued that it was primarily a unity movement, with the restoration motif playing a subordinate role. The Restoration Movement has since divided into multiple separate groups. There are three main branches in the U.S.: the Churches of Christ, the unaffiliated Christian Church/Church of Christ congregations, and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Some characterize the divisions in the movement as the result of the tension between the goals of restoration and ecumenism: the Churches of Christ and unaffiliated Christian Church/Church of Christ congregations resolved the tension by stressing restoration, while the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) resolved the tension by stressing ecumenism.Leroy Garrett, The Stone-Campbell Movement: The Story of the American Restoration Movement, College Press, 2002,, 573 pp. A number of groups outside the U.S. also have historical associations with this movement, such as the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada and the Churches of Christ in Australia. Because the Restoration Movement lacks any centralized structure, having originated in a variety of places with different leaders, there is no consistent nomenclature for the movement as a whole.. The term "Restoration Movement" became popular during the 19th century; this appears to be due to the influence of Alexander Campbell's essays on "A Restoration of the Ancient Order of Things" in the Christian Baptist. The term "Stone-Campbell Movement" emerged towards the end of the 20th century as a way to avoid the difficulties associated with some of the other names that have been used, and to maintain a sense of the collective history of the movement.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romanian literature is literature written by Romanian authors, although the term may also be used to refer to all literature written in the Romanian language.
A roof is part of a building envelope.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
Sacred architecture (also known as religious architecture) is a religious architectural practice concerned with the design and construction of places of worship or sacred or intentional space, such as churches, mosques, stupas, synagogues, and temples.
Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Screen printing is a printing technique whereby a mesh is used to transfer ink onto a substrate, except in areas made impermeable to the ink by a blocking stencil.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.
A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and thread.
Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.
Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon (such as a gun, slingshot, crossbow, or bow. Even the acts of launching/discharging artillery, darts, grenades, rockets and guided missiles can be considered acts of shooting. When using a firearm, the act of shooting is often called firing as it involves initiating a combustion process (deflagration). Shooting can take place in a shooting range or in the field, in shooting sports, hunting or in combat. A person involved in the shooting activity is a shooter. A proficient shooter is a marksman or sharpshooter. A person's level of shooting proficiency is referred to as marksmanship.
Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language.
Sigillography (sometimes referred to under its Greek name, sphragistics) is one of the auxiliary sciences of history.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Social services are a range of public services provided by the government, private, and non-profit organizations.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.
Spanish grammar is the grammar of the Spanish language (español), which is a Romance language that originated in north central Spain and is spoken today throughout Spain, some twenty countries in the Americas, and Equatorial Guinea.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish literature generally refers to literature (Spanish poetry, prose, and drama) written in the Spanish language within the territory that presently constitutes the state of Spain.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Stone carving is an activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the controlled removal of stone.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.
In psychology, the word subconscious is the part of consciousness that is not currently in focal awareness.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A syllogism (συλλογισμός syllogismos, "conclusion, inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Tax law is an area of legal study dealing with the constitutional, common-law, statutory, tax treaty, and regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation.
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Textile arts are arts and crafts that use plant, animal, or synthetic fibers to construct practical or decorative objects.
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
Theodicy, in its most common form, is an attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil, thus resolving the issue of the problem of evil.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
In general usage, a thesaurus is a reference work that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in alphabetical order.
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.
The Traditionalist School is a group of 20th- and 21st-century thinkers concerned with what they consider to be the demise of traditional forms of knowledge, both aesthetic and spiritual, within Western society.
Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities, interact with the built environment.
Ventilation is the intentional introduction of ambient air into a space and is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification.
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.
Videography refers to the process of capturing moving images on electronic media (e.g., videotape, direct to disk recording, or solid state storage) and even streaming media.
Vocal music is a type of music performed by one or more singers, either with instrumental accompaniment, or without instrumental accompaniment (a cappella), in which singing provides the main focus of the piece.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Washing is a method of cleaning, usually with water and often some kind of soap or detergent.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting wild plant and animal species and their habitat.
A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at or near the end of the resonator.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
Beginning with the Industrial Revolution era, a workshop may be a room, rooms or building which provides both the area and tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods.
World history or global history (not to be confused with diplomatic, transnational or international history) is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s.
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) global cooperative.
Worship is an act of religious devotion usually directed towards a deity.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.
20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.