281 relations: Adelaide Steamship Company, Admiralty, AG Weser, Ailsa Shipbuilding Company, Alfred Booth and Company, Algiers, Aliağa, Alicante, American Export-Isbrandtsen Lines, Amsterdam, Öresundsvarvet, Bangkok, Bangladesh, Barclay Curle, Bareboat charter, Barge, Barracks ship, Barranquilla, Barrow-in-Furness, Bermuda, Bethlehem Steel, Bilbao, Bioko, Birkenhead, Blockship, Blohm+Voss, Blue Star Line, Blyth, Northumberland, Borriana, Castellón, Bremen, Bremen-Vegesack, Bremer Vulkan, Bristol, British Columbia, British Tanker Company, Briton Ferry, Bruges, Brunsbüttel, Bulgaria, Bunbury, Western Australia, Calvados, CAM ship, Camden, New Jersey, Cammell Laird, Cape Caxine, Cape Northumberland (South Australia), Cardiff, Cargo liner, Cargo ship, Chao Phraya River, ..., Charles Connell and Company, Chittagong, Clelands Shipbuilding Company, Coastal trading vessel, Collier (ship), Colombia, Convoy ON 154, Convoy TM 1, Copenhagen, Cornwall, Courseulles-sur-Mer, Crescent City, California, Crete, Dalmuir, Danziger Werft, Deadweight tonnage, Depot ship, Destroyer, Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau, Diesel engine, Dredging, Durban, East Prussia, Emden, Empire ship, ExxonMobil, Factory ship, Fall River, Massachusetts, Falmouth, Cornwall, Faroe Islands, Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Ferguson Marine Engineering, Fleming and Ferguson, Flensburg, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Florida, Freetown, Fyffes Line, Gare Loch, Gdańsk, Gdynia, German battleship Tirpitz, Ghent, Gijón, Glamorgan, Glasgow, Govan, Government of France, Government of South Africa, Government of Thailand, Grangemouth, Grangemouth Dockyard Company, Greenock, Greenock Dockyard Company, Gross register tonnage, H. G. Pound, Hamburg, Hamburg America Line, Hamburg Süd, Harland and Wolff, Heavy-lift ship, Hebrides, Hel, Poland, Hessle, Himeji, HMT Empire Windrush, Hoboken, Antwerp, Hong Kong, Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock, Hospital ship, Hulk (ship type), Hvítanes, Iceland, Indian Navy, Iron ore, Italia Marittima, Jamaica, Jarrow, John Cockerill (company), John Crown & Sons, Juno Beach, Kaohsiung, Karl Dönitz, Kearny, New Jersey, Kiel, Kiel Canal, Kieler Förde, Kirkwall, Kriegsmarine, Kure, Hiroshima, Kythira, La Spezia, Lagos, Lamport and Holt, Landskrona, Le Havre, Leith, Liberia, Liberty ship, List of Empire ships (I–J), Lithgows, Liverpool, Longstone Lighthouse, Los Angeles, Lykes Brothers Steamship Company, Massachusetts, Melbourne, Methil, Middlesbrough, Milford Haven, Minister of Food, Ministry of War Transport, Ministry of Works (United Kingdom), Moji-ku, Kitakyūshū, Monmouthshire (historic), Moore Dry Dock Company, Muntendam, Myanmar, Nakskov, Naples, Naval mine, Naval trawler, Nazism, Netherlands, New Jersey, New York City, New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Newcastle upon Tyne, Newfoundland and Labrador, Newport News, Virginia, Newport, Wales, Norddeutscher Lloyd, North Sea, Northern Ireland, Northumberland, Oakland, California, Odense, Odense Steel Shipyard, Operation Postmaster, Orkney, P Henderson & Company, Pacific Coast Steamship Company, Paisley, Renfrewshire, Panama, Pembrokeshire, Penarth, Pennant number, Piraeus, Poland, Politics of Canada, Politics of Egypt, Politics of Poland, Port Glasgow, Port Line, Port Logan, Port Mouton, Nova Scotia, Portsmouth, Portugal, Portuguese Navy, Prize (law), Quincy, Massachusetts, Reefer ship, Refugee, Reiherstieg Schiffswerfte & Maschinenfabrik, Rendsburg, Renfrew, Reykjavík, Royal Air Force, Royal Fleet Auxiliary, Royal Thai Navy, San Francisco, Schichau-Werke, Seattle, Selby, Shanghai, Short Brothers of Sunderland, Sierra Leone, Sittwe, Smiths Dock Company, Souda Bay, South Africa, South African Navy, South Australia, Southampton, Spanish Guinea, Split, Croatia, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino, Steam engine, Stockholm, Stockton-on-Tees, Strangford Lough, Suez Crisis, Sunderland, Swan Hunter, Swansea, Szczecin, Table Bay, Tacoma, Washington, Taiwan, Tampa, Florida, Tanker (ship), Temse, Thorne, South Yorkshire, Tilbury, Torpedo, Trieste, Troon, Troopship, Tugboat, Turkey, Type C3-class ship, U-boat, Union-Castle Line, United States Maritime Commission, United States Navy, United States Shipping Board, USS Dorothea L. Dix (AP-67), USS West Ekonk (ID-3313), Vickers-Armstrongs, Victoria, British Columbia, Vila Real de Santo António, Virginia, West Dunbartonshire, West Hartlepool, Western Australia, Whaler, Willington Quay, World War I, World War II, Yugoslavia. Expand index (231 more) » « Shrink index
The Adelaide Steamship Company was formed by a group of South Australian businessmen in 1875.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Aktien-Gesellschaft „Weser" (abbreviated A.G. „Weser”) was one of the major German shipbuilding companies, located at the Weser River in Bremen.
Ailsa Shipbuilding Company was a Scottish shipbuilding company based in Troon and Ayr, Ayrshire.
Alfred Booth and Company was a British trading and shipping company that was founded in 1866 and traded for more than a century.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Aliağa, is a town and a district of Izmir Province in the Aegean Region of Turkey.
Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community.
American Export-Isbrandtsen Lines, New York, was the leading US-flag shipping company between the U.S. east coast and the Mediterranean from 1919 to 1977, offering both cargo ship services and passenger ship services, until it declared bankruptcy and was acquired by Farrell Lines, New York.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Öresundsvarvet was a Swedish shipyard in Landskrona that was established in 1915 and largely phased out between 1980 and 1982.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Seawind Barclay Curle is a British shipbuilding company.
A bareboat charter or demise charter is an arrangement for the chartering or hiring of a ship or boat, whereby no crew or provisions are included as part of the agreement; instead, the people who rent the vessel from the owner are responsible for taking care of such things.
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
Barracks ship or barracks barge are terms used to indicate a ship or a non-self-propelled barge containing a superstructure of a type suitable for use as a temporary barracks for sailors or other military personnel.
Barranquilla is a city and municipality located in northern Colombia.
Barrow-in-Furness, commonly known as Barrow, is a town and borough in Cumbria, England.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
The Bethlehem Steel Corporation (commonly called Bethlehem Steel) was a steel and shipbuilding company that began operations in 1904 and was America's second-largest steel producer and largest shipbuilder.
Bilbao (Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.
Bioko (also spelled Bioco, in Europe traditionally called Fernando Poo or Fernando Po from the period of Portuguese colonization) is an island 32 km off the west coast of Africa, and the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea.
Birkenhead is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England.
A blockship is a ship deliberately sunk to prevent a river, channel, or canal from being used.
Blohm+Voss (B+V), also written historically as Blohm & Voss, Blohm und Voß etc., is a German shipbuilding and engineering company, Founded in Hamburg in 1877 to specialise in steel-hulled ships, its most famous product is the World War II battleship Bismarck.
The Blue Star Line was a British passenger and cargo shipping company formed in 1911, and in operation until 1998.
Blyth is a town and civil parish in southeast Northumberland, England.
Borriana or Burriana is a town in eastern Spain, in the province of Castellón, part of the autonomous community of Valencia.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
Vegesack is a northern district of the city of Bremen.
Bremer Vulkan AG was a prominent German shipbuilding company located at the Weser river in Bremen-Vegesack.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
British Tanker Company Limited was the maritime transport arm of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, the forerunner of BP.
Briton Ferry (Llansawel) is a town and community in the county borough of Neath Port Talbot, Wales.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
Brunsbüttel is a town in the district of Dithmarschen, in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany that lies on the mouth of the Elbe river, near the North Sea.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bunbury is a coastal city in Western Australia, approximately south of the state capital, Perth.
Calvados is an apple brandy from the Normandy region in France.
CAM ships were World War II-era British merchant ships used in convoys as an emergency stop-gap until sufficient escort carriers became available.
Camden is a city in Camden County, New Jersey.
Cammell Laird is a British shipbuilding company.
Cape Caxine is a cape located in Algeria.
Cape Northumberland is a headland in the southeast of the Australian state of South Australia.
Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of, and largest city in, Wales, and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom.
A cargo liner is a type of merchant ship which carries general cargo and often passengers.
A cargo ship or freighter ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another.
The Chao Phraya (แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา, or) is the major river in Thailand, with its low alluvial plain forming the centre of the country.
Charles Connell and Company was a Scottish shipbuilding company based in Scotstoun in Glasgow on the River Clyde.
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
Clelands Shipbuilding Company was a leading British shipbuilding company.
Coastal trading vessels, also known as coasters, are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent.
A collier is a bulk cargo ship designed to carry coal, especially for naval use by coal-fired warships.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Convoy ON-154 was the 154th of the numbered series of World War II merchant ship convoys Outbound from the British Isles to North America.
Convoy TM 1 was the code name for an Allied convoy during the Second World War.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
Courseulles-sur-Mer is a commune in the Calvados department (14) in the Normandy region, la Basse-Normandie, in northwestern France, 1.1 km from Graye-sur-Mer, and 3.3 km from Reviers.
Crescent City (Chetco-Tolowa: Taa-’at-dvn, Yurok: Kohpey, Wiyot: Daluwagh) is the county seat of, and only incorporated city in, Del Norte County, California.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Dalmuir (Dail Mhoire) is an area on the western side of Clydebank, in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland.
Danziger Werft (The International Shipbuilding and Engineering Company Limited, Stocznia Gdańska) was a shipbuilding company, in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland), in what was then the Free City of Danzig.
Deadweight tonnage (also known as deadweight; abbreviated to DWT, D.W.T., d.w.t., or dwt) or tons deadweight (TDW) is a measure of how much weight a ship can carry, not its weight, empty or in any degree of load.
A depot ship is an auxiliary ship used as a mobile or fixed base for submarines, destroyers, minesweepers, fast attack craft, landing craft, or other small ships with similarly limited space for maintenance equipment and crew dining, berthing and relaxation.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau Aktiengesellschaft (abbreviated Deschimag) was a cooperation of eight German shipyards in the period 1926 to 1945.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
Dredging is an excavation activity usually carried out underwater, in harbours, shallow seas or freshwater areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments to deepen or widen the sea bottom / channel.
Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
Emden is an independent city and seaport in Lower Saxony in the northwest of Germany, on the river Ems.
An Empire ship was one a group of merchant ships given names beginning "Empire" in the service of the British Government during and after the Second World War.
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.
A factory ship, also known as a fish processing vessel, is a large ocean-going vessel with extensive on-board facilities for processing and freezing caught fish or whales.
Fall River is a city in Bristol County, Massachusetts, United States.
Falmouth (Aberfala) is a town, civil parish and port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
The Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company was a United States shipyard, active from 1917 to 1948.
Ferguson Marine Engineering Ltd is a shipyard located in Port Glasgow on the River Clyde in Scotland.
Fleming and Ferguson was a Scottish marine engineering and shipbuilding company that traded between 1877 and 1969.
Flensburg (Danish, Low Saxon: Flensborg; North Frisian: Flansborj; South Jutlandic: Flensborre) is an independent town (kreisfreie Stadt) in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Freetown is the capital and largest city of Sierra Leone.
Fyffes Line was the name given to the fleet of passenger-carrying banana boats owned and operated by the UK banana importer Elders & Fyffes Limited.
The Gare Loch or Gareloch (Gaelic: An Gearr Loch) is a sea loch in Argyll and Bute, Scotland.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gdynia (Gdingen, Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.
Tirpitz was the second of two s built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine (navy) during World War II.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Gijón, or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain.
Glamorgan, or sometimes Glamorganshire, (Morgannwg or Sir Forgannwg) is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county of Wales.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Govan (Scottish Gaelic: Baile a' Ghobhainn) is a district, parish, and former burgh now part of south-west City of Glasgow, Scotland.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary republic with three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary, operating in a parliamentary system.
The Government of Thailand, or formally the Royal Thai Government (RTG) (รัฐบาลไทย), is the unitary government of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Grangemouth is a town in east Stirlingshire and is part of the Falkirk council area, Scotland.
The Grangemouth Dockyard Company was a British shipbuilding and ship repair firm located at Grangemouth, on the Firth of Forth, Scotland.
Greenock (Grianaig) is a town and administrative centre in the Inverclyde council area in Scotland and a former burgh within the historic county of Renfrewshire, located in the west central Lowlands of Scotland.
The Greenock Dockyard Company was a Scottish shipbuilding and ship repair firm located at Greenock, on the River Clyde.
Gross register tonnage (GRT, grt, g.r.t., gt) or gross registered tonnage, is a ship's total internal volume expressed in "register tons", each of which is equal to.
H.G. Pound (officially, Pounds Shipowners and Shipbreakers Limited) is the name of the founder of a British merchant firm in Portsmouth, UK.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft (HAPAG for short, often referred to in English as Hamburg America Line (sometimes also Hamburg-American Line, Hamburg-Amerika Linie or Hamburg Line); literally Hamburg American Packet-shipping Joint-stock company) was a transatlantic shipping enterprise established in Hamburg, Germany, in 1847.
Hamburg Südamerikanische Dampfschifffahrts-Gesellschaft ApS & Co KG – Hamburg Süd for short – ranks among the ten largest container shipping brands worldwide and is part of Maersk Line, the world’s largest container shipping company.
Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries is a heavy industrial company, specialising in ship repair, conversion, and offshore construction, located in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
A heavy-lift ship is a vessel designed to move very large loads that cannot be handled by normal ships.
The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
Hel (Kashubian Hél, German Hela) is a town in Puck County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, located on the tip of the Hel Peninsula, some from the Polish mainland.
Hessle is a town, civil parish and electoral ward in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, west of Kingston upon Hull city centre.
is a city located in Hyōgo Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan.
HMT Empire Windrush, originally MV Monte Rosa, was a passenger liner and cruise ship launched in Germany in 1930.
Hoboken is a southern district of the arrondissement and city of Antwerp, in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock was a Hong Kong dockyard, once among the largest in Asia.
A hospital ship is a ship designated for primary function as a floating medical treatment facility or hospital.
A hulk is a ship that is afloat, but incapable of going to sea.
Hvítanes (Hvidenæs) is a village in the Faroe Islands, noted for its beauty.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Indian Navy (IN; IAST: Bhāratīya Nau Senā) is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Italia Marittima S.p.A., from 1919 until 2006 called Lloyd Triestino, founded as Österreichischer Lloyd, is a shipping company with its head office in Trieste, Italy, and run by Evergreen Marine Corporation.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Jarrow is a town in north-east England, located on the River Tyne.
The John Cockerill Company was a Belgian iron, steel, and manufacturing company based in Seraing in the region of Liège.
John Crown & Sons Ltd, was a British shipbuilding company founded in 1847 and based on the River Wear, Sunderland.
Juno or Juno Beach was one of five beaches of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944 during the Second World War.
Kaohsiung City (Hokkien POJ: Ko-hiông; Hakka: Kô-hiùng; old names: Takao, Takow, Takau) is a special municipality located in southern-western Taiwan and facing the Taiwan Strait.
Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
Kearny is a town in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States and a suburb of Newark.
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).
The Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, literally "North--Baltic Sea canal", formerly known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal) is a long freshwater canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
Kieler Förde is an approximately long inlet of the Baltic Sea on the eastern side of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Kirkwall (Scottish Gaelic: Bàgh na h-Eaglaise) is the main settlement of the Northern Isles and capital of Orkney, an archipelago in the north of Scotland, as well as the largest island settlement in Scotland.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
is a port and major shipbuilding city situated on the Seto Inland Sea in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.
Kythira (Κύθηρα, also transliterated as Cythera, Kythera and Kithira) is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula.
La Spezia (A Spèza in the local dialect of Spezzina), at the head of the Gulf of La Spezia in the southern part of the Liguria region of Northern Italy, is the capital city of the province of La Spezia.
Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos.
Lamport and Holt was a shipping line based in Liverpool, England.
Landskrona is a late medieval town in Scania province, Sweden, located at the shores of Øresund, founded at the location of the former Danish fishing village Sønder Sæby in the province of Scania by king Erik VII of Pomerania early in the 15th century.
Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.
Leith (Lìte) is an area to the north of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, at the mouth of the Water of Leith.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Liberty ships were a class of cargo ship built in the United States during World War II.
The Empire ships were a series of ships in the service of the British Government.
Lithgows Limited, is a family-owned Scottish company that had a long involvement in shipbuilding, based in Kingston, Port Glasgow on the River Clyde in Scotland.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Longstone Lighthouse is an active 19th century lighthouse lighthouse located on Longstone Rock in the outer group of the Farne Islands off the Northumberland Coast, England.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Methil is an eastern coastal town in Scotland.
Middlesbrough is a large post-industrial town on the south bank of the River Tees in North Yorkshire, north-east England, founded in 1830.
Milford Haven (Aberdaugleddau, meaning "mouth of the two Rivers Cleddau") is a town and community in Pembrokeshire, Wales.
The Minister of Food Control (1916–1921) and the Minister of Food (1939–1958) were British government ministerial posts separated from that of the Minister of Agriculture.
The Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) was a department of the British Government formed early in the Second World War to control transportation policy and resources.
The Ministry of Works was a department of the UK Government formed in 1943, during World War II, to organise the requisitioning of property for wartime use.
is a Japanese ward of the city of Kitakyūshū in Fukuoka Prefecture.
Monmouthshire, also known as the County of Monmouth (Sir Fynwy), is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county.
Moore Dry Dock Company was a ship repair and shipbuilding company in Oakland, California.
Muntendam is a town in the Dutch province of Groningen, municipality Menterwolde.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nakskov is a town in south Denmark.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
A naval trawler is a vessel built along the lines of a fishing trawler but fitted out for naval purposes.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Shipbuilding Corporation (or New York Ship for short) was an American shipbuilding company that operated from 1899 to 1968, ultimately completing more than 500 vessels for the U.S. Navy, the United States Merchant Marine, the United States Coast Guard, and other maritime concerns.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Newport News is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Newport (Casnewydd) is a cathedral and university city and unitary authority area in south east Wales.
Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL) (North German Lloyd) was a German shipping company.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States.
Odense is the third-largest city in Denmark.
Odense Steel Shipyard (Odense Staalskibsværft) was a Danish shipyard company located in Odense.
Operation Postmaster was a British special operation conducted on the Spanish island of Fernando Po, now known as Bioko, off West Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, during the Second World War.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
P Henderson & Company, also known as Paddy Henderson, was a ship owning and management company based in Glasgow, Scotland and operating to Burma.
The Pacific Coast Steamship Company was an important early shipping company that operated steamships on the west coast of North America.
Paisley (Pàislig, Paisley) is the largest town in the historic county of Renfrewshire in the west central Lowlands of Scotland and serves as the administrative centre for the Renfrewshire council area.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Pembrokeshire (or; Sir Benfro) is a county in the southwest of Wales.
Penarth is a town in the Vale of Glamorgan (Bro Morgannwg), Wales, approximately southwest of Cardiff city centre on the north shore of the Severn Estuary at the southern end of Cardiff Bay.
In the Royal Navy and other navies of Europe and the Commonwealth of Nations, ships are identified by pennant number (an internationalisation of pendant number, which it was called before 1948).
Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The politics of Canada function within a framework of parliamentary democracy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions.
The politics of Egypt is based on republicanism, with a semi-presidential system of government, established following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, and the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak.
Politics of Poland takes place in the framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government.
Port Glasgow (Port Ghlaschu) is the second largest town in the Inverclyde council area of Scotland.
Port Line was a passenger and cargo shipping company, initially formed as the Commonwealth and Dominion Line in 1914, and in operation in one form or another until 1982.
Port Logan, formerly Port Nessock, is a small village in the parish of Kirkmaiden in the Rhins of Galloway in Wigtownshire.
Port Mouton is a small village along Highway 103 on the southwest coast of Region of Queens Nova Scotia, Canada.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa, also known as Marinha de Guerra Portuguesa or as Armada Portuguesa) is the naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in cooperation and integrated with the other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the military defense of Portugal.
Prize is a term used in admiralty law to refer to equipment, vehicles, vessels, and cargo captured during armed conflict.
Quincy is the largest city in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States.
A reefer ship is a refrigerated cargo ship, typically used to transport perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled transportation, such as fruit, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and other foods.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Reiherstieg Schiffswerfte & Maschinenfabrik, also known as Reiherstiegwerft, was a German shipbuilding company, located on the Reiherstieg River in Hamburg.
Rendsburg (Rendsborg) is a town on the River Eider and the Kiel Canal in the central part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Renfrew (Rinn Friù) is a town west of Glasgow, and the historical county town of Renfrewshire.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is a civilian-manned fleet owned by the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence, whose purpose is to support the Royal Navy to maintain operations around the world.
The Royal Thai Navy or RTN (กองทัพเรือไทย) is the naval force of Thailand and part of the Royal Thai Armed Forces.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
The Schichau-Werke (F.) was a German engineering works and shipyard based in Elbing, Germany (now Elbląg, Poland) on the Frisches Haff (Vistula Lagoon) of then-East Prussia.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Selby is a town and civil parish in North Yorkshire, England.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Short Brothers Limited was a British shipbuilding company formed in 1850 and based at Pallion, Sunderland since 1869.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Sittwe (formerly Akyab) is the capital of Rakhine State, Myanmar (Burma).
Smiths Dock Company, Limited, often referred to simply as Smiths Dock, was a British shipbuilding company.
Souda Bay is a bay and natural harbour near the town of Souda on the northwest coast of the Greek island of Crete.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South African Navy (SAN) is the naval warfare branch of the South African National Defence Force.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
Spanish Guinea (Spanish: Guinea Española) was a set of insular and continental territories controlled by Spain since 1778 in the Gulf of Guinea and on the Bight of Bonny, in Central Africa.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino (STT) ("Technical Establishment of Trieste") was a private shipbuilding company based in Trieste from the mid-19th to early 20th century, and the most important naval shipbuilding firm of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Stockton-on-Tees is a market town in the ceremonial county of County Durham, North East England.
Strangford Lough (from Old Norse Strangr Fjörðr, meaning "strong sea-inlet" - Strangford Lough) is a large sea loch or inlet in County Down, in the east of Northern Ireland.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Sunderland is a city at the centre of the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough, in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 10 miles southeast of Newcastle upon Tyne, 12 miles northeast of Durham, 101 miles southeast of Edinburgh, 104 miles north-northeast of Manchester, 77 miles north of Leeds, and 240 miles north-northwest of London.
Swan Hunter, formerly known as "Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson", is a shipbuilding design, engineering, and management company, based in Wallsend, Tyne and Wear.
Swansea (Abertawe), is a coastal city and county, officially known as the City and County of Swansea (Dinas a Sir Abertawe) in Wales, UK.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Table Bay (Afrikaans Tafelbaai) is a natural bay on the Atlantic Ocean overlooked by Cape Town (founded 1652 by Van Riebeeck) and is at the northern end of the Cape Peninsula, which stretches south to the Cape of Good Hope.
Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat of Pierce County, Washington, United States.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tampa is a major city in, and the county seat of, Hillsborough County, Florida, United States.
A tanker (or tank ship or tankship) is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk.
Temse is a municipality on the left side of the River Scheldt in East Flanders, Belgium.
Thorne is a market town and civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster in South Yorkshire, England.
Tilbury is a town in the borough of Thurrock, Essex, England.
A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
Troon is a town in South Ayrshire, situated on the west coast of Ayrshire in Scotland, about north of Ayr and northwest of Glasgow Prestwick Airport.
A troopship (also troop ship or troop transport or trooper) is a ship used to carry soldiers, either in peacetime or wartime.
A tug (tugboat or towboat) is a type of vessel that maneuvers other vessels by pushing or pulling them either by direct contact or by means of a tow line.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Type C3-class ships were the third type of cargo ship designed by the United States Maritime Commission (MARCOM) in the late 1930s.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
The Union-Castle Line was a British shipping line that operated a fleet of passenger liners and cargo ships between Europe and Africa from 1900 to 1977.
The United States Maritime Commission (MARCOM) was an independent executive agency of the U.S. federal government that was created by the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, passed by Congress on June 29, 1936, and replaced the United States Shipping Board which had existed since World War I. It was intended to formulate a merchant shipbuilding program to design and build five hundred modern merchant cargo ships to replace the World War I vintage vessels that comprised the bulk of the United States Merchant Marine, and to administer a subsidy system authorized by the Act to offset the cost differential between building in the U.S. and operating ships under the American flag.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Shipping Board (USSB) was established as an emergency agency by the Shipping Act (39 Stat. 729), September 7, 1916.
USS Dorothea L. Dix (AP-67) was a transport ship of the United States Navy named for Dorothea Dix (1802–1887).
USS West Ekonk (ID-3313) was a cargo ship for the United States Navy during World War I. She was later known as SS West Ekonk in civilian service under American registry, and as SS Empire Wildebeeste under British registry.
Vickers-Armstrongs Limited was a British engineering conglomerate formed by the merger of the assets of Vickers Limited and Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Company in 1927.
Victoria, the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, is on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast.
Vila Real de Santo António is a city, civil parish, and municipality in the Algarve, Portugal.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
West Dunbartonshire (Wast Dunbartanshire; Siorrachd Dhùn Breatann an Iar) is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland.
West Hartlepool refers to the western part of what has since the 1960s been known as the borough of Hartlepool in North East England.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
A whaler or whaling ship is a specialized ship, designed for whaling: the catching or processing of whales.
Willington Quay is an area in the borough of North Tyneside in Tyne and Wear in northern England.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Empire Unitas IV, Empire Unitas V, Empire Unitas X, Empire Vera, Empire Viking I, Empire Viking II, Empire Viking III, Empire Viking IX, Empire Viking VI, Empire Viking VIII, Empire Viking X, Empire Wall, Empire Walter, Empire Warlock, Empire Willow, Empire Winnie, Empire Wold, Empire Woodland, Empire Wrestler, Empire Zest, Empire Zona, Esso Genesee, Georgios L Matsas, German trawler V 1502 Wiking 6, German trawler V 1503 Wiking 10, German trawler V 1504 Wiking 8, German trawler V 1512 Unitas 8, German trawler V 1512 Unitas VIII, German trawler V 1703 Unitas 4, German trawler V 1704 Unitas 5, List of Empire ships (U-Z), List of Empire ships - U to Z, SS Empire Unitas IV, SS Empire Unitas V, SS Empire Unitas X, SS Empire Viking I, SS Empire Viking II, SS Empire Viking III, SS Empire Viking IX, SS Empire Viking VI, SS Empire Viking VIII, SS Empire Viking X, SS Empire Viscount, SS Empire Wall, SS Empire Woodland, SS Empire Zest, SS Esso Genesee, SS Slava II, SS Slava III, SS Slava IV, SS Slava IX, SS Slava V, SS Slava VIII, SS Slava X, SS Unitas 10, SS Unitas IV, SS Unitas V, SS Vikingen I, SS Vikingen II, SS Vikingen III, SS W 103, SS W 32, SS Wiking 1, SS Wiking 10, SS Wiking 2, SS Wiking 3, SS Wiking 6, SS Wiking 8, SS Wiking 9, SS Zeester, ST Empire Vera, ST Empire Walter, ST Empire Warlock, ST Empire Willow, ST Empire Winnie, ST Empire Wold, ST Empire Wrestler, ST Empire Zona, ST Georgios L Matsas, ST Los, ST Resolve, ST Rifleman, ST Sakr, ST Sea Queen, ST Yuna, ST Zealandia, ST Ŀos, Sea Queen, Slava II, Slava III, Slava IV, Slava IX, Slava V, Slava VIII, Slava X, Unitas 10, Unitas IV, Unitas V, Vikingen I, Vikingen II, Vikingen III, W 103, W 32, Wiking 1, Wiking 10, Wiking 2, Wiking 3, Wiking 6, Wiking 8, Wiking 9, Zeester.