463 relations: Acehnese language, Acronym, Affricate consonant, Africa, Afrikaans, Agan Tavas, Albanian alphabet, Albanian language, Alphabetical order, Alsatian dialect, American English, Anglo-Saxon runes, Apical consonant, Approximant consonant, Arbëresh language, Aspirated consonant, Asturian language, Athabaskan languages, Austria, Austronesian languages, Aymara language, Ḏāl, Ü, Bambara language, Bantu languages, Bari language, Basque alphabet, Basque language, Bavarian language, Belgium, Beta, Bezoar, Bindae-tteok, Boa, Bohorič alphabet, Bouyei language, Breton language, British English, C, Cameroon, Cantonese, Cantonese Pinyin, Castilian Spanish, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Ch (digraph), Chamorro language, Chechen language, Chinese language, Chipewyan language, ..., Chuuk Lagoon, Classical Nahuatl, Click consonant, Close front unrounded vowel, Close-mid back rounded vowel, Cnidaria, Coaxial, Colloquial Welsh morphology, Consonant gradation, Consonant mutation, Cornish language, Coronal consonant, Creaky voice, Crips, Cusco, Cypriot Arabic, Cyrillic script, Czech, Czech language, D, Daighi tongiong pingim, Dalmatian language, Danish language, Dž, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Devanagari, Dialect, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Donkey, Double articulation, Dravidian languages, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dz (digraph), E, Ealdorman, Ear (rune), East Timor, Eastern Romance languages, Edward Lhuyd, English in the Commonwealth of Nations, English language, English orthography, Esperanto orthography, Etymology, Europe, Faroese language, Faroese orthography, Fataluku language, Fief, Final-obstruent devoicing, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, French language, French orthography, Front vowel, Fula language, Gaels, Galician language, Gallo language, Gemination, General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages, Genitive case, Geodesy, Geoduck, German language, German orthography, German orthography reform of 1996, Germanic languages, Germany, Gh (digraph), Gheg Albanian, Gilbertese language, Gje, Glottal stop, Glottalization, Gogo language, Great Vowel Shift, Greek language, Greenlandic language, Grimm's law, Guinea, Guinean languages alphabet, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Hadza language, Hanwoo, Hausa language, Hebrew language, Hepburn romanization, Heptagraph, Heteronym (linguistics), Hexagraph, Hmong language, Hoppang, Hungarian alphabet, Hungarian language, Hungarian ly, I before E except after C, Icelandic language, Icelandic orthography, Igbo language, IJ (digraph), Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indo-Aryan languages, Indonesian language, Interjection, Interlingua, International auxiliary language, International Phonetic Alphabet, Internet meme, Interrogative word, Inuktitut, Iraqw language, Irish initial mutations, Irish language, Irish orthography, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italo-Western languages, J, Japanese language, Jasper Fforde, John Boehner, Jyutping, Kabyle language, Kalahari Desert, Kaph, Kashubian alphabet, Kashubian language, Kernewek Kemmyn, Kernowek Standard, Kesva an Taves Kernewek, Kha (Cyrillic), Khmer language, Khoekhoe language, Kkakdugi, Kongo language, Korean language, Kosraean language, L, Labial consonant, Labial–velar nasal, Labialization, Labialized velar consonant, Labiodental flap, Lakota language, Laminal consonant, Language, Languages of Africa, Languages of Oceania, Lateral clicks, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin epsilon, Latin script in Unicode, Latin spelling and pronunciation, Latinism, Latvian language, Lecanvey, Leet, Lenition, Limburgish, Lingala, List of Cyrillic digraphs and trigraphs, List of Latin-script digraphs, List of Latin-script letters, List of Latin-script trigraphs, Lithuanian language, Lje, Ljudevit Gaj, Ll, Loanword, Lombard language, Long s, Luba-Kasai language, Luxembourgish, Macedonian alphabet, MacLeod, Malagasy language, Malay language, Maltese language, Mandarin Chinese, Massachusett writing systems, Matt Groening, Matthäus, Matthew (given name), Māori language, Meerschaum pipe, Meru language, Mi'kmaq language, Mid central vowel, Middle English, Middle High German, Modern Standard Arabic, Monophthong, Mpumpong language, Mu (letter), Murmured voice, Nahuatl, Nambikwara language, Naro language, Nasal clicks, Nasal release, Nasal vowel, Navajo language, Netherlands, Nh (digraph), Niece and nephew, Nje, Noah Webster, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Nuosu language, Ny (digraph), Oaths of Strasbourg, Occidental language, Occitan language, Oedipus, Old English, Old High German, Old Irish, Open O, Open-mid back unrounded vowel, Ossetian language, Palatal approximant, Palatal clicks, Palatal lateral approximant, Palatal nasal, Palatal nasal click, Palatalization (phonetics), Palatalization (sound change), Papua New Guinea, Pashto, Pentagraph, Persian alphabet, Pharyngealization, Phi, Philippine languages, Philippines, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonological history of English consonant clusters, Pi (letter), Piedmontese language, Pinyin, Pitjantjatjara dialect, Polish alphabet, Polish language, Polish orthography, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Pre-stopped consonant, Prenasalized consonant, Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩, Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Pterosaur, Pular language, Purépecha language, Quechuan languages, Question, Rangi language, Redruth, Retroflex approximant, Retroflex consonant, Retroflex flap, Revised Romanization of Korean, Rheinische Dokumenta, Romance languages, Romani alphabets, Romanian alphabet, Romanization of Arabic, Romanization of Macedonian, Romanized Popular Alphabet, Rose ffrench, 1st Baroness ffrench, Rowlock, S with swash tail, Sagñay, Camarines Sur, Sandawe language, Scots language, Scottish English, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic orthography, Sephardi Hebrew, Serbo-Croatian, Seri language, Sh (digraph), Shona language, Sibilant, Sj-sound, Slavic languages, Slovak language, Sorbian alphabet, South America, Spanish language, Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish orthography, Spelling reform, Standard Written Form, Standard Zhuang, Stephen, Stress (linguistics), Sundanese language, Swahili language, Swedish alphabet, Swedish language, Switzerland, Syllable, Sz (digraph), Taa language, Tagalog language, Tainan, Taiwanese Hokkien, Tamil language, Taranaki, Tenseness, Tenuis alveolar click, Tenuis dental click, Tenuis lateral click, Tenuis palatal click, Tetragraph, Th (digraph), Thai language, Tibetan pinyin, Tlingit alphabet, Tlingit language, Tongan language, Tongyong Pinyin, Transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages, Transliteration, Trigraph (orthography), Trill consonant, Tsar, Tsunami, Tswana language, Tteok-bokki, Tuvaluan language, Typographic ligature, Unicode equivalence, Upper Arrernte language, Uzbek language, Vassal, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Velarization, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Voiced alveolar affricate, Voiced alveolar implosive, Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiced bilabial implosive, Voiced bilabial stop, Voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiced dental and alveolar stops, Voiced dental fricative, Voiced glottal fricative, Voiced labial–velar stop, Voiced labiodental affricate, Voiced palatal stop, Voiced postalveolar affricate, Voiced postalveolar fricative, Voiced retroflex affricate, Voiced retroflex fricative, Voiced uvular fricative, Voiced velar fricative, Voiced velar stop, Voiceless alveolar affricate, Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiceless epiglottal trill, Voiceless labial–velar stop, Voiceless labialized velar approximant, Voiceless palatal affricate, Voiceless pharyngeal fricative, Voiceless postalveolar affricate, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Voiceless retroflex affricate, Voiceless uvular fricative, Voiceless velar fricative, Voiceless velar stop, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Vulgar Latin, Wade–Giles, Walloon language, Warlpiri language, Welsh language, Welsh orthography, West Africa, West Germanic languages, Westport, County Mayo, William Jordan (writer), Wolof language, Wuhan, Wymysorys language, X, Xhosa language, Y, Yale romanization of Cantonese, Yale romanization of Mandarin, Yanyuwa language, Yele language, Yeoman, Yogh, Yup'ik language, Z with swash tail, Zapotecan languages, Zhuang languages, Zulu language. 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Acehnese language (Achinese) is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by Acehnese people natively in Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Agan Tavas (Our Language) is a society which exists to promote the Cornish language and is represented on the Cornish Language Partnership.
The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Alphabetical order is a system whereby strings of characters are placed in order based on the position of the characters in the conventional ordering of an alphabet.
Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (Alsatian German); Frankish: Elsässerdeitsch; Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a formerly disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Anglo-Saxon runes are runes used by the early Anglo-Saxons as an alphabet in their writing.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arbëresh (also known as Arbërisht, Arbërishtja or T'arbrisht) is the variety of Albanian spoken by the Arbëreshë people in Italy.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
(ذ, also be transcribed as) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents.
Ü, or ü, is a character that typically represents a close front rounded vowel.
The Bambara (Bamana) language, Bamanankan, is a lingua franca and national language of Mali spoken by perhaps 15 million people, natively by 5 million Bambara people and about 10 million second-language users.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
Bari is the Nilotic language of the Karo people, spoken over large areas of Central Equatoria state in South Sudan, across the northwest corner of Uganda, and into the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The Basque alphabet is a Latin alphabet used to write the Basque language.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Bavarian (also known as Bavarian Austrian or Austro-Bavarian; Boarisch or Bairisch; Bairisch; bajor) is a West Germanic language belonging to the Upper German group, spoken in the southeast of the German language area, much of Bavaria, much of Austria and South Tyrol in Italy.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Beta (uppercase, lowercase, or cursive; bē̂ta or βήτα) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet.
A bezoar is a mass found trapped in the gastrointestinal system, though it can occur in other locations.
Bindae-tteok, or mung bean pancake, is a type of buchimgae (Korean pancake) that originated in the Pyongan Province.
Boa, BoA, or BOA may refer to.
The Bohorič alphabet (bohoričica) was an orthography used for Slovene between the 16th and 19th centuries.
The Bouyei language (autonym: Haausqyaix also spelled Buyi, Buyei, or Puyi;, tiếng Bố Y or tiếng Giáy) is a language spoken by the Bouyei ethnic group of southern Guizhou Province in mainland China.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Cantonese Pinyin (also known as 教院式拼音方案) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by Rev.
In English, Castilian Spanish sometimes refers to the variety of Peninsular Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
Ch is a digraph in the Latin script.
Chamorro (Finu' Chamoru) is an Austronesian language spoken by about 58,000 people (about 25,800 people on Guam and about 32,200 in the Northern Mariana Islands and the rest of the United States).
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chipewyan, ethnonym Dënesųłiné, is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of northwestern Canada.
Chuuk Lagoon, also previously known as Truk Lagoon, is a sheltered body of water in the central Pacific.
Classical Nahuatl (also known simply as Aztec or Nahuatl) is any of the variants of Nahuatl, spoken in the Valley of Mexico and central Mexico as a lingua franca at the time of the 16th-century Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa.
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.
The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
In geometry, coaxial means that two or more three-dimensional linear forms share a common axis.
The morphology of the Welsh language has many characteristics likely to be unfamiliar to speakers of English or continental European languages like French or German, but has much in common with the other modern Insular Celtic languages: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Cornish, and Breton.
Consonant gradation is a type of consonant mutation in which consonants alternate between various "grades".
Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
The Crips, also known as Original Crip Homies (OCH), are a gang based in the coastal regions of Southern California.
Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
Cypriot Arabic, also known as Cypriot Maronite Arabic or Sanna, is a moribund variety of Arabic spoken by the Maronite community of Cyprus.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech may refer to.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Daī-ghî tōng-iōng pīng-im (Taiwanese phonetic transcription system, abbr: DT) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien based upon Tongyong Pinyin.
Dalmatian or Dalmatic was a Romance language spoken in the Dalmatia region of present-day Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Dž (titlecase form; all-capitals form DŽ, lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Gaj's Latin alphabet for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian), after D and before Đ. It is pronounced.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
Double articulation, or duality of patterning is a concept used in linguistics and semiotics.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dz is a digraph of the Latin script, consisting of the consonants D and Z. It may represent,, or, depending on the language.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
An ealdorman (from Old English ealdorman, lit. "elder man"; plural: "ealdormen") was a high-ranking royal official and prior magistrate of an Anglo-Saxon shire or group of shires from about the ninth century to the time of King Cnut.
The Ear rune of the Anglo-Saxon futhorc is a late addition to the alphabet.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Eastern Europe (specifically in the Balkans) from the local variant of Vulgar Latin.
Edward Lhuyd (occasionally written as Llwyd in recent times, in accordance with Modern Welsh orthography) (1660 – 30 June 1709) was a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary.
The use of the English language in most member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British colonisation.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Faroese orthography is the method employed to write the Faroese language, using a 29-letter Latin alphabet.
Fataluku (also known as Dagaga, Dagoda', Dagada) is a Papuan language spoken by approximately 30,000 people of Fataluku ethnicity in the eastern areas of East Timor, especially around Lospalos and a dialect of it, Oirata, is spoken in Kisar, Moluccas in Indonesia.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Gallo is a regional language of France.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
The General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages is an orthographic system created in the late 1970s for all Cameroonian languages.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
The Pacific geoduck, scientific name Panopea generosa, is a species of very large, edible saltwater clam in the family Hiatellidae.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
The German orthography reform of 1996 (Reform der deutschen Rechtschreibung von 1996) was a change to German spelling and punctuation that was intended to simplify German orthography and thus to make it easier to learn, without substantially changing the rules familiar to users of the language.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gh is a digraph found in many languages.
Gheg (or Geg; Gheg Albanian: gegnisht, Standard Albanian: gegë or gegërisht) is one of the two major varieties of Albanian.
Taetae ni Kiribati or Gilbertese, also Kiribati (sometimes Kiribatese), is a Micronesian language of the Austronesian language family.
Gje (Ѓ ѓ; italics: Ѓ ѓ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
Gogo is a Bantu language spoken by the Gogo people of Dodoma Region in Tanzania.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greenlandic is an Eskimo–Aleut language spoken by about 56,000 Greenlandic Inuit in Greenland.
Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule) is a set of statements named after Jacob Grimm and Rasmus Rask describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Following independence, the government of Guinea adopted rules of transcription for the languages of Guinea based on the characters and diacritic combinations available on typewriters of that period.
Gwoyeu Romatzyh (pinyin: Guóyǔ luómǎzì, literally "National Language Romanization"), abbreviated GR, is a system for writing Mandarin Chinese in the Latin alphabet.
Hadza is a language isolate spoken along the shores of Lake Eyasi in Tanzania by around 1,000 Hadza people, the last full-time hunter-gatherers in Africa.
The Hanwoo (한우), also Hanu or Korean Native, is a breed of small cattle native to Korea.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language.
A heptagraph is a sequence of seven letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not correspond to the individual values of the letters.
A heteronym (also known as a heterophone) is a word that has a different pronunciation and meaning as another word but the same spelling.
A hexagraph (from the ἕξ, héx, "six" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of six letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds that do not correspond to the individual values of the letters.
Hmong (RPA: Hmoob) or Mong (RPA: Moob), known as First Vernacular Chuanqiandian Miao in China, is a dialect continuum of the West Hmongic branch of the Hmongic languages spoken by the Hmong of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.
Hoppang is a warm snack that is sold throughout Korea.
The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Hungarian language.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Ly is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, used in Hungarian.
"I before E, except after C" is a mnemonic rule of thumb for English spelling.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelled and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
Igbo (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh), is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria.
IJ (lowercase ij) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itselfalthough in most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.
Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
An Internet meme is an activity, concept, catchphrase, or piece of media that spreads, often as mimicry or for humorous purposes, from person to person via the Internet.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.
Inuktitut (syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk, "person" + -titut, "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.
Iraqw is a Cushitic language spoken in Tanzania in the Arusha and Manyara Regions.
Irish, like all modern Celtic languages, is characterized by its initial consonant mutations.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
Italo-Western is, in some classifications, the largest branch of the Romance languages.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jasper Fforde (born 11 January 1961) is a British novelist.
John Andrew Boehner (born, 1949) is an American politician who served as the 53rd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 2011 to 2015.
Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993.
Kabyle, or Kabylian (native name: Taqbaylit), is a Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria.
The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa.
Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
The Kashubian or Cassubian alphabet (kaszëbsczi alfabét, kaszëbsczé abecadło) is the script of the Kashubian language, based on the Latin alphabet.
Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a West Slavic language belonging to the Lechitic subgroup along with Polish and Silesian.
Kernewek Kemmyn (Common Cornish or "KK") is a variety of the revived Cornish language.
Kernowek Standard (KS, Standard Cornish), its initial version spelt Kernowak Standard, is a variety of revived Cornish.
Kesva an Taves Kernewek (Cornish for Cornish Language Board) is an organisation that promotes the Cornish language.
Kha or Ha (Х х; italics: Х х) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
The Khoekhoe language, Khoekhoegowab, also known by the ethnic term Nama and formerly as Hottentot, is the most widespread of those non-Bantu languages of southern Africa that contain "click" sounds and have therefore been loosely classified as Khoisan.
Kkakdugi or diced radish kimchi is a variety of kimchi in Korean cuisine.
Kongo or Kikongo is one of the Bantu languages spoken by the Kongo and Ndundu peoples living in the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Angola.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Kosraean, sometimes rendered Kusaiean, is the language spoken on the islands of Kosrae (Kusaie), Caroline Islands, and Nauru.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
The labial–velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
A labialized velar or labiovelar is a velar consonant that is labialized, with a /w/-like secondary articulation.
In phonetics, the labiodental flap is a speech sound found primarily in languages of Central Africa, such as Kera and Mangbetu.
Lakota (Lakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.
Native languages of Oceania fall into three major geographic groups.
The lateral clicks are a family of click consonants found only in African languages.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin epsilon or open e (majuscule: Ɛ, minuscule: ɛ) is a letter of the extended Latin alphabet, based on the lowercase of the Greek letter epsilon (ε).
Many Unicode characters belonging to the Latin script are encoded in the Unicode Standard.
Latin spelling, or Latin orthography, is the spelling of Latin words written in the scripts of all historical phases of Latin from Old Latin to the present.
A Latinism (rarely also known as a Latinity) is an word, idiom, or structure a language other than Latin that is derived from, or suggestive of, the Latin language.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lecanvey or Leckanvy is a seaside village in County Mayo, Ireland, between Westport and Louisburgh, about 2 km west of Murrisk.
Leet (or "1337"), also known as eleet or leetspeak, is a system of modified spellings and verbiage used primarily on the Internet for many phonetic languages.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
LimburgishLimburgish is pronounced, whereas Limburgan, Limburgian and Limburgic are, and.
Lingala (Ngala) is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a large part of the Republic of the Congo, as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic.
The following digraphs (and trigraphs) are used in the Cyrillic script.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
This is a list of letters of the Latin script.
A number of trigraphs are found in the Latin script, most of these used especially in Irish orthography.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lje (Љ љ; italics: Љ љ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ljudevit Gaj (born Ludwig Gay;According to Djuro Šurmin: Hrvatski preporod, vol I-II, Zagreb, 1903), 8 August 1809 – 20 April 1872) was a Croatian linguist, politician, journalist and writer. He was one of the central figures of the pan-Slavist Illyrian Movement.
Ll/ll is a digraph which occurs in several natural languages.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Lombard (native name lumbàart, lumbard or lombard, depending on the orthography) is a language belonging to the Cisalpine or Gallo-Italic group, within the Romance languages.
The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").
Luba-Kasai, also known as Western Luba, Bena-Lulua, Ciluba/Tshiluba, Luba-Lulua or Luva, is a Bantu language (Zone L) of Central Africa and an official language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, alongside Lingala, Swahili, and Kikongo.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
MacLeod and McLeod are surnames in the English language.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Massachusett is an indigenous Algonquian language of the Algic language family.
Matthew Abraham Groening (born February 15, 1954) is an American cartoonist, writer, producer, animator, and voice actor.
Matthäus is a given name or surname.
Matthew is an English language given name.
Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
A Meerschaum pipe is a smoking pipe made from the mineral sepiolite.
Meru is the language spoken by the Meru people (Ameru) who live on the Eastern and Northern slopes of Mount Kenya, Kenya, Africa and on the Nyambene ranges.
The Mi'kmaq language (spelled and pronounced Micmac historically and now always Migmaw or Mikmaw in English, and Míkmaq, Míkmaw or Mìgmao in Mi'kmaq) is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by nearly 11,000 Mi'kmaq in Canada and the United States out of a total ethnic Mi'kmaq population of roughly 20,000.
The mid central vowel (also known as schwa) is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
Mpumpong (Mpongmpong) is a Bantu language of Cameroon.
Mu (uppercase Μ, lowercase μ; Ancient Greek μῦ, μι or μυ—both) or my is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Nambikwara (also called Nambiquara and Southern Nambiquara, to distinguish it from Mamaindê) is an indigenous language spoken by the Nambikwara, who reside on federal reserves covering approximately 50,000 square kilometres of land in Mato Grosso and neighbouring parts of Rondonia in Brazil.
Naro, also Nharo, is a Khoe language spoken in Ghanzi District of Botswana and in eastern Namibia.
Nasal clicks are click consonants pronounced with nasal airflow.
In phonetics, a nasal release is the release of a stop consonant into a nasal.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nh is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, a combination of N and H. Together with lh and the interpunct, it is a typical feature of Occitan, a language illustrated by medieval troubadours.
A nephew is a son of a person's sibling, and a niece is a daughter of a person's sibling.
Nje (Њ њ; italics: Њ њ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
Nuosu or Nosu (pronunciation: Nuosuhxop), also known as Northern Yi, Liangshan Yi, and Sichuan Yi, is the prestige language of the Yi people; it has been chosen by the Chinese government as the standard Yi language (in Mandarin: Yí yǔ, 彝語/彝语) and, as such, is the only one taught in schools, both in its oral and written forms.
Ny is a digraph in a number of languages such as Catalan, Ganda, Filipino/Tagalog, Hungarian, Swahili and Malay.
The Oaths of Strasbourg (Sacramenta Argentariae; Les Serments de Strasbourg; Die Straßburger Eide) were mutual pledges of allegiance between Louis the German (†876), ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald (†877), ruler of West Francia made on 12 February 842.
The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned international auxiliary language created by the Balto-German naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl, and published in 1922.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Oedipus (Οἰδίπους Oidípous meaning "swollen foot") was a mythical Greek king of Thebes.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
Open o (majuscule: Ɔ, minuscule: ɔ) is a letter of the extended Latin alphabet.
The open-mid back unrounded vowel, or low-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.
The palatal or palato-alveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found, as components of words, only in Africa.
The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.
The palatal nasal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
A pentagraph (from the πέντε, pénte, "five" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of five letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not correspond to the individual values of the letters.
The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
Phi (uppercase Φ, lowercase φ or ϕ; ϕεῖ pheî; φι fi) is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet.
In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a proposal by Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust (1991) that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
The phonological history of the English language includes various changes in the phonology of consonant clusters.
Pi (uppercase Π, lowercase π; πι) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the sound.
Piedmontese (Piemontèis or Lenga Piemontèisa, in Italian: Piemontese) is a Romance language spoken by some 700,000 people in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Pitjantjatjara is a dialect of the Western Desert language traditionally spoken by the Pitjantjatjara people of Central Australia.
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
In linguistics, pre-stopping, also known as pre-occlusion or pre-plosion, is a phonological process involving the historical or allophonic insertion of a very short stop consonant before a sonorant, such as a short before a nasal or a lateral.
Prenasalized consonants are phonetic sequences of a nasal and an obstruent (or occasionally a non-nasal sonorant such as) that behave phonologically like single consonants.
In English, the digraph th represents in most cases one of two different phonemes: the voiced dental fricative (as in this) and the voiceless dental fricative (thing).
The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.
Pular is a Fula language spoken primarily by the Fula people of Fouta Djallon, Guinea.
Purépecha P'urhépecha (Phorhé, Phorhépecha), often called Tarascan (Tarasco), is a language isolate or small language family that is spoken by a quarter-million Purépecha in the highlands of Michoacán, Mexico.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
A question is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or the request made using such an expression.
Rangi or Langi (there is no distinction between and; also known as Irangi, Kilaangi, etc.) is a Bantu language of spoken by the Rangi people of Kondoa District in the Dodoma Region of Central Tanzania.
Redruth (Resrudh) is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer system.
The Rheinische Dokumenta is a phonetic writing system developed in the early 1980s by a working group of academics, linguists, local language experts, and local language speakers of the Rhineland.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The Romani language has for most of its history been an entirely oral language, with no written form in common use.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.
The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
The Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA) or Hmong RPA (also Roman Popular Alphabet), is a system of romanization for the various dialects of the Hmong language.
Rose ffrench, 1st Baroness ffrench (died 8 December 1805) was an Irish peeress.
A rowlock, sometimes spur (due to the similarity in shape and size), oarlock (USA) or gate (Australia) is a brace that attaches an oar to a boat.
Ȿ (lowercase: ȿ) is a Latin letter s with a "swash tail" (encoded by Unicode, at codepoints U+2C7E for uppercase and U+023F for lowercase) that was used as a phonetic symbol by linguists studying African languages to represent the sound.
,, officially the, is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
Sandawe is a "click language" spoken by about 60,000 Sandawe people in the Dodoma region of Tanzania.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic orthography has evolved over many centuries.
Sephardi Hebrew (or Sepharadi Hebrew) is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Seri (Seri: cmiique iitom) is an indigenous language spoken by between 716La situación sociolingüística de la lengua seri en 2006.
Sh is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, a combination of S and H.
Shona (chiShona) is the most widely spoken Bantu language as a first language and is native to the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
In Swedish phonology, the sj-sound (sj-ljudet) is a voiceless fricative phoneme found in most dialects.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The Sorbian alphabet is based on the ISO basic Latin alphabet but uses diacritics such as the acute accent and the caron, making it similar to the Czech and Polish alphabets.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The different varieties of the Spanish language spoken in the Americas are distinct from Peninsular Spanish and Spanish spoken elsewhere, such as in Africa and Asia.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
A spelling reform is a deliberate, often officially sanctioned or mandated change to spelling rules of a language.
The Standard Written Form or SWF (Furv Skrifys Savonek) of the Cornish language is an orthography standard that is designed to "provide public bodies and the educational system with a universally acceptable, inclusive, and neutral orthography".
Standard Zhuang (autonym) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages.
Stephen or Steven is a common English first name.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Sundanese (in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Sundanese.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
The Swedish alphabet is the writing system used for the Swedish language.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Sz is a digraph of the Latin script, used in Hungarian, Polish, Kashubian and German, and in the Wade–Giles system of Romanization of Chinese.
Taa, also known as ǃXóõ (ǃKhong, ǃXoon – pronounced), is a Tuu language notable for its large number of phonemes, perhaps the largest in the world.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Tainan (Hokkien POJ: Tâi-lâm), officially Tainan City, is a special municipality of Taiwan, facing the Formosan Strait or Taiwan Strait in the west and south.
Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Taranaki is a region in the west of New Zealand's North Island, administered by the Taranaki Regional Council.
In phonology, tenseness or tensing is, most broadly, the pronunciation of a sound with greater muscular effort or constriction than is typical.
The voiceless or more precisely tenuis (post)alveolar click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa.
The voiceless or more precisely tenuis dental click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa.
The voiceless or more precisely tenuis lateral click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa.
The voiceless or more precisely tenuis palatal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa.
A tetragraph (from the τετρα-, tetra-, "four" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of four letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not necessarily correspond to the individual values of the letters.
Th is a digraph in the Latin script.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
Pö yig Kigajor--> The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin, is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names.
The Tlingit language has been recorded in a number of orthographies over the two hundred years since European contact.
The Tlingit language (Lingít) is spoken by the Tlingit people of Southeast Alaska and Western Canada.
Tongan (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga.
Tongyong Pinyin was the official romanization of Mandarin Chinese in Taiwan between 2002 and 2008.
Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Australian Aboriginal languages had been purely spoken languages, and had no writing system.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
Tteok-bokki or stir-fried rice cakes is a popular Korean food made from small-sized garae-tteok (long, white, cylinder-shaped rice cakes) called tteokmyeon ("rice cake noodles") or commonly tteok-bokki-tteok ("tteok-bokki rice cakes").
Tuvaluan, often called Tuvalu, is a Polynesian language of or closely related to the Ellicean group spoken in Tuvalu.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Unicode equivalence is the specification by the Unicode character encoding standard that some sequences of code points represent essentially the same character.
Arrernte or Aranda or more specifically Upper Arrernte (Upper Aranda), is a dialect cluster spoken in and around Alice Springs (Mparntwe in Arrernte) in the Northern Territory, Australia.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiced bilabial implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages.
The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
The voiced labial–velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiced labiodental affricate (in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a voiced labiodental stop and released as a voiced labiodental fricative.
The voiced palatal stop, or voiced palatal plosive, is a type of consonantal sound in some vocal languages.
The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiced retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless epiglottal or pharyngeal trill, also analyzed as a fricative, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless labial–velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless labialized velar (labiovelar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages.
The voiceless palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiceless retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
Walloon (Walon in Walloon) is a Romance language that is spoken in much of Wallonia in Belgium, in some villages of Northern France (near Givet) and in the northeast part of WisconsinUniversité du Wisconsin: collection de documents sur l'immigration wallonne au Wisconsin, enregistrements de témoignages oraux en anglais et wallon, 1976 until the mid 20th century and in some parts of Canada.
The Warlpiri language is spoken by about 3,000 of the Warlpiri people in Australia's Northern Territory.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
Westport (historically anglicised as Cahernamart) is a town in County Mayo in Ireland.
William Jordan (fl. 1611), Cornish dramatist, lived at Helston in Cornwall, and is supposed to have been the author of the Cornish language mystery or sacred drama Gwreans an Bys: the Creacon of the World.
Wolof is a language of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Wymysorys (Wymysiöeryś), also known as Vilamovian or Wilamowicean, is a variety of High German, spoken in the small town of Wilamowice, Poland (Wymysoü in Wymysorys), on the border between Silesia and Lesser Poland, near Bielsko-Biała.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Yale romanization of Cantonese was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952 but later published in 1958.
The Yale romanization of Mandarin was developed in 1943 by the Yale sinologist George Kennedy to help prepare American soldiers to communicate with their Chinese allies on the battlefield.
Yanyuwa is the language of the Yanyuwa people of the Sir Edward Pellew Group of Islands in the Gulf of Carpentaria outside Borroloola.
The Yele language, or Yélî Dnye, is the language of Rossel Island, the easternmost island in the Louisiade Archipelago off the eastern tip of Papua New Guinea.
A yeoman was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England.
The letter yogh (ȝogh) (Ȝ ȝ; Middle English: ȝogh) was used in Middle English and Older Scots, representing y and various velar phonemes.
Central Alaskan Yup'ik or just Yup'ik (also called Yupik, Central Yupik, or indigenously Yugtun) is one of the languages of the Yupik family, in turn a member of the Eskimo–Aleut language group, spoken in western and southwestern Alaska.
Ɀ (lowercase: ɀ) is a Latin letter z with a "swash tail" (encoded by Unicode, at codepoints U+2C7F for uppercase and U+0240 for lowercase) was used as a phonetic symbol by linguists studying African languages to represent a voiced labio-alveolar fricative.
The Zapotecan languages are a group of related Oto-Manguean languages which descend from the common proto-Zapotecan language spoken by the Zapotec people during the era of the dominance of Monte Albán.
The Zhuang languages (autonym:, pre-1982:, Sawndip: 話僮, from vah 'language' and Cuengh 'Zhuang') are any of more than a dozen Tai languages spoken by the Zhuang people of southern China in the province of Guangxi and adjacent parts of Yunnan and Guangdong.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
'B (digraph), 'D (digraph), 'Y (digraph), A' (digraph), Aa (digraph), Ae (digraph), Ah (digraph), Ai (digraph), Am (digraph), An (digraph), Ao (digraph), Aq (digraph), Au (digraph), Au (letter), Aw (digraph), Ay (digraph), Aí (digraph), Aî (digraph), Aû (digraph), Aŋ (digraph), A’ (digraph), Bb (digraph), Bd (digraph), Bh (digraph), Bp (digraph), Bz (digraph), Cc (digraph), Cg (digraph), Ci (digraph), Ck (digraph), Cn (digraph), Cs (digraph), Ct (digraph), Cu (digraph), Cx (digraph), Cz (digraph), Cö, Cö (digraph), Dc (digraph), Dd (digraph), Dg (digraph), Dh (digraph), Dj (digraph), Dl (digraph), Dm (digraph), Dn (digraph), Dp (digraph), Dq (digraph), Dr (digraph), Dt (digraph), Dx (digraph), Dx (letter), Dy (digraph), Dł (digraph), Dź, Dź (digraph), Dż, Dż (digraph), E' (digraph), Ea (digraph), Ee (digraph), Eh (digraph), Ei (digraph), Em (digraph), En (digraph), Eo (digraph), Eq (digraph), Eu (digraph), Ew (digraph), Ey (digraph), Eá (digraph), Eî (digraph), Eû (digraph), E′ (digraph), Ff (digraph), Fh (digraph), Fx (digraph), Gb (digraph), Gb (letter), Gc (digraph), Ge (digraph), Gg (digraph), Gi (digraph), Gj (digraph), Gj (letter), Gk (digraph), Gl (digraph), Gm (digraph), Gn (digraph), Go (digraph), Gq (digraph), Gr (digraph), Gu (digraph), Gv (digraph), Gw (digraph), Gx (digraph), Gy (digraph), Gñ (digraph), Gü (digraph), Gʻ, G̱w (digraph), Hh (digraph), Hj (digraph), Hl (digraph), Hm (digraph), Hn (digraph), Hr (digraph), Hs (digraph), Hu (digraph), Hungarian cs, Hungarian gy, Hungarian ty, Hungarian zs, Hv (digraph), Hw (digraph), Hx (digraph), I' (digraph), Ie (digraph), Ig (digraph), Ih (digraph), Ii (digraph), Il (digraph), Im (digraph), In (digraph), Io (digraph), Iq (digraph), Iu (digraph), Ix (digraph), Iú (digraph), Iŋ (digraph), I′ (digraph), Jh (digraph), Jj (digraph), Jx (digraph), Jö, Jö (digraph), Kg (digraph), Kh (digraph), Kj (digraph), Kk (digraph), Kl (digraph), Km (digraph), Kn (digraph), Kp (digraph), Kp (letter), Kr (digraph), Ku (digraph), Kv (digraph), Kw (digraph), Kx (digraph), Ky (digraph), Kz (digraph), LJ (digraph), LJ (letter), Latin digraphs, Lh (digraph), List of Latin digraphs, List of Latin script digraphs, List of digraphs, List of digraphs in Latin alphabets, Lj (letter), Lv (digraph), Lw (digraph), Lx (digraph), L·l (digraph), Mb (digraph), Mb (letter), Md (digraph), Mf (digraph), Mg (digraph), Mh (digraph), Ml (digraph), Mm (digraph), Mn (digraph), Mp (digraph), Mp (letter), Mt (digraph), Mv (digraph), Mw (digraph), Mx (digraph), N' (digraph), N- (digraph), ND (digraph), Nb (digraph), Nc (digraph), Nd (digraph), Nd (letter), Nf (digraph), Ng (character), Ng (digraph), Ng (letter), Ng’ (digraph), Nj (letter), Nk (digraph), Nk (letter), Nm (digraph), Nn (digraph), Np (digraph), Nq (digraph), Nr (digraph), Ns (digraph), Ns (letter), Nt (digraph), Nt (letter), Nv (digraph), Nw (digraph), Nx (digraph), Nz (digraph), Nz (letter), N͠g (digraph), N’ (digraph), O' (digraph), Oa (digraph), Oe (digraph), Oh (digraph), Oi (digraph, Oi (digraph), Om (digraph), On (digraph), Oo (digraph), Oq (digraph), Or (Digraph), Or (digraph), Ou (digraph), Ow (digraph), Oy (digraph), Oê (digraph), Oí (digraph), Oî (digraph), Oû (digraph), Oŷ (digraph), Oʻ, O͞o, O′ (digraph), Pf (digraph), Ph (digraph), Pl (digraph), Pm (digraph), Pn (digraph), Pp (digraph), Ps (digraph), Pt (digraph), Pw (digraph), Qg (digraph), Qh (digraph), Qk (digraph), Qo (digraph), Qq (digraph), Qu (digraph), Qv (digraph), Qw (digraph), Qy (digraph), Rd (digraph), Rh (Digraph), Rh (digraph), Rl (digraph), Rm (digraph), Rn (digraph), Rp (digraph), Rr (digraph), Rr (letter), Rs (digraph), Rt (digraph), Rw (digraph), Rz (digraph), S-c (digraph), S-cc (digraph), S-g (digraph), S-gg (digraph), SH (digraph), Sc (digraph), Sg (digraph), Si (digraph), Sj (digraph), Sk (digraph), Sl (digraph), Sp (digraph), Sr (digraph), Ss (digraph), St (digraph), Sv (digraph), Sx (digraph), Sy (digraph), Sç (digraph), Tc (digraph), Tg (digraph), Ti (digraph), Tj (digraph), Tl (digraph), Tm (digraph), Tn (digraph), Tp (digraph), Tr (digraph), Ts (digraph), Ts (letter), Ts̃ (digraph), Tt (digraph), Tw (digraph), Tx (digraph), Ty (digraph), Tz (digraph), Tł (digraph), U' (digraph), Uc (digraph), Ue (digraph), Ug (digraph), Uh (digraph), Ui (digraph), Um (digraph), Un (digraph), Uo (digraph), Uq (digraph), Ur (digraph), Uu (digraph), Uw (digraph), Ux (digraph), Uí (digraph), Uŋ (digraph), U′ (digraph), Vg (digraph), Vh (digraph), Vk (digraph), Vn (digraph), Vv (digraph), Wh (digraph), Wr (digraph), Wu (digraph), Ww (digraph), Wx (digraph), Xg (digraph), Xh (digraph), Xh (letter), Xi (digraph), Xk (digraph), Xu (digraph), Xw (digraph), Xx (digraph), Xy (digraph), Xö, Xö (digraph), X̱w (digraph), Yh (digraph), Yi (digraph), Yk (digraph), Ym (digraph), Yn (digraph), Yr (digraph), Yu (digraph), Yw (digraph), Yx (digraph), Yy (digraph), Zh (digraph), Zh (letter), Zs (digraph), Zv (digraph), Zz (digraph), Ái (digraph), Âm, Âm (digraph), Ân (digraph), Ãe (digraph), Ãi (digraph), Ão, Ão (digraph), Än (digraph), Äu (digraph), Ån (digraph), Éa (digraph), Éi (digraph), Ém (digraph), Én (digraph), Êm (digraph), Ên (digraph), Ím (digraph), Ín (digraph), Ío (digraph), În (digraph), Ñg (digraph), Òi (digraph), Ói (digraph), Ôm (digraph), Ôn (digraph), Õe (digraph), Ön (digraph), Øy, Øy (digraph), Úi (digraph), Úm (digraph), Ún (digraph), Ün (digraph), Čh (digraph), Ńg (digraph), Ńm (digraph), Ŋv (digraph), Œu (digraph), ŞH (digraph), Ɔn (digraph), Ɛn (digraph), ǀg (digraph), ǀh (digraph), ǀn (digraph), ǁg (digraph), ǁh (digraph), ǁn (digraph), ǂg (digraph), ǂh (digraph), ǂn (digraph), ǃg (digraph), ǃh (digraph), ǃn (digraph), Ǉ, Ǉ (digraph), ǈ, Ǌ, ǋ, Ǥw (digraph), Ḵw (digraph), Ḷḷ (digraph), ’B (digraph), ’D (digraph), ’Y (digraph), ’b (digraph), ’d (digraph), ’y (digraph).