442 relations: Acacian schism, Aemilianus, Africa (Roman province), Agrippina the Younger, Alba, Piedmont, Alexander (Byzantine emperor), Alexios I Komnenos, Alexios II Komnenos, Alexios III Angelos, Alexios IV Angelos, Alexios Komnenos (co-emperor), Alexios V Doukas, Amorium, Anastasian War, Anastasios II, Anastasius I Dicorus, Anatolic Theme, Andreas Palaiologos, Andronikos Doukas (co-emperor), Andronikos I Komnenos, Andronikos II Palaiologos, Andronikos III Palaiologos, Andronikos IV Palaiologos, Anthemius, Antonine Plague, Antoninus Pius, Anzio, Appanage, Aquileia, Arabissus, Arbogast (general), Arcadius, Ariadne (empress), Arles, Armenians, Arqa, Artabasdos, Aspar, Athens, Augustus, Aurelian, Avitus, Balbinus, Balkans, Bardas, Basil I, Basil II, Basil Lekapenos, Basiliscus, Battle of Abritus, ..., Battle of Adrianople, Battle of Ankara, Battle of Bedriacum, Battle of Cap Bon (468), Battle of Carthage (238), Battle of Edessa, Battle of Manzikert, Battle of Naissus, Battle of Pliska, Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Battle of the Save, Bessi, Bulgars, Byzantine civil war of 1321–28, Byzantine civil war of 1341–47, Byzantine civil war of 1352–57, Byzantine coinage, Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Iconoclasm, Byzantine Senate, Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Byzantium, Caesar (title), Caligula, Cappadocia, Caracalla, Carinus, Carthage, Carus, Castinus, Chalcedon, Cherchell, Cherson (theme), Christopher Lekapenos, Claudius, Claudius Gothicus, Clodius Albinus, Coca, Segovia, Commodus, Constans, Constans II, Constans II (usurper), Constantine (son of Leo V), Constantine Doukas (co-emperor), Constantine II (emperor), Constantine III (Byzantine emperor), Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor), Constantine IV, Constantine IX Monomachos, Constantine Laskaris, Constantine Lekapenos, Constantine the Great, Constantine V, Constantine VI, Constantine VII, Constantine VIII, Constantine X Doukas, Constantine XI Palaiologos, Constantinople, 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Tiberius II Constantine, Titus, Trajan, Trebonianus Gallus, Turahan Bey, Valens, Valentinian I, Valentinian II, Valentinian III, Valerian (emperor), Valerius Valens, Vandals, Verina, Verona, Vespasian, Vetranio, Vinkovci, Visigoths, Vitalian (general), Vitellius, Vladimir the Great, Volusianus, Western Roman Empire, Year of the Five Emperors, Year of the Four Emperors, Zeno (emperor), Zoe Karbonopsina, Zoe Porphyrogenita, 173. 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The Acacian schism between the Eastern and Western Christian Churches lasted thirty-five years, from 484–519.
Aemilianus (Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus Augustus; c. 207/213 – 253), also known as Aemilian, was Roman Emperor for three months in 253.
The Roman province of Africa Proconsularis was established after the Romans defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War.
Julia Agrippina, most commonly referred to as Agrippina Minor or Agrippina the Younger, and after AD 50 known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (Minor; Latin for the "younger"; 7 November 15 (or possibly 7 November AD 14 or 6 November 16) – 19/23 March 59), was a Roman Empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Alba (Alba Pompeia) is a town and comune of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Cuneo.
Alexander (Αλέξανδρος, Alexandros, 870 June 6, 913), sometimes numbered Alexander III,Enumerated after Alexander Severus, and the usurper Domitius Alexander.
Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, 1048Norwich, pg. 4 or 1056 – 15 August 1118), Latinized as Alexius I Comnenus, was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.
Alexios II Komnenos or Alexius II Comnenus (Αλέξιος Β’ Κομνηνός, Alexios II Komnēnos) (10 September 1169 – October 1183, Constantinople), Byzantine emperor (1180–1183), was the son of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos and Maria, daughter of Raymond, prince of Antioch.
Alexios III Angelos (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) (c. 1153–1211) was Byzantine Emperor from 1195 to 1203.
Alexios IV Angelos or Alexius IV Angelus (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) (c. 1182 – February 8, 1204) was Byzantine Emperor from August 1203 to January 1204.
Alexios Komnenos, latinised as Alexius Comnenus (Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός), was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos and his wife Eirene of Hungary.
Alexios V Doukas or Alexius V Ducas (Ἀλέξιος Εʹ Δούκας; December 1205) was the Byzantine emperor from 5 February to 12 April 1204 during the second and final siege of Constantinople by the participants of the Fourth Crusade.
Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838.
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The Anastasian War was fought from 502 to 506 between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanid Empire.
Anastasius (Greek: Ἀρτέμιος Ἀναστάσιος Β΄), known in English as Anastasios II or Anastasius II (died 719), was the Byzantine Emperor from 713 to 715.
Anastasius I (Flavius Anastasius Dicorus Augustus, Ἀναστάσιος; c. 431 – 9 July 518) was Byzantine Emperor from 491 to 518.
The Anatolic Theme (Άνατολικόν, Anatolikon), more properly known as the Theme of the Anatolics (Greek: θέμα Άνατολικῶν, thema Anatolikōn) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) in central Asia Minor (modern Turkey).
Andreas Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Ἀνδρέας Παλαιολόγος; Serbian: Андреја Палеолог; 1453–1502) was the pretender Byzantine emperor and Despot of Morea from 1465 until his death in 1502.
Andronikos Doukas (Ἀνδρόνικος Δούκας), Latinized as Andronicus Ducas, was the third son of Byzantine emperor Constantine X Doukas (r. 1059–1067) and younger brother of Byzantine emperor Michael VII Doukas (r. 1071–1078).
Andronikos I Komnenos (Ανδρόνικος Αʹ Κομνηνός, Andrónikos I Komnēnós; – September 12, 1185), usually Latinized as Andronicus I Comnenus, was Byzantine Emperor from 1183 to 1185.
Andronikos II Palaiologos (Ανδρόνικος Βʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332), usually Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 11 December 1282 to 23 or 24 May 1328.
Andronikos III Palaiologos (Ανδρόνικος Γʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1297 – 15 June 1341), commonly Latinized as Andronicus III Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 1328 to 1341.
Andronikos IV Palaiologos (or Andronicus IV Palaeologus) (Greek: Ἀνδρόνικος Δ' Παλαιολόγος, Andronikos IV Palaiologos) (2 April 1348 – 28 June 1385) was Byzantine Emperor from 1376 to 1379.
Anthemius (Latin: Procopius Anthemius Augustus) (c. 420 – 11 July 472) was Western Roman Emperor from 467 to 472.
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The Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD—also known as the Plague of Galen, who described it—was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Fulvus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius;Weigel, Antoninus Pius born 19 September, 86 AD – died 7 March, 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161.
Anzio is a city and comune on the coast of the Lazio region of Italy, about south of Rome.
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An appanage or apanage (pronounced) or apanage is the grant of an estate, title, office, or other thing of value to a younger male child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture.
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Aquileia (Acuilee/Aquilee/Aquilea,bilingual name of Aquileja - Oglej in: Venetian: Aquiłeja/Aquiłegia, Aglar) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times.
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Arabissus was a town in the Roman province of Armenia Secunda.
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Flavius Arbogastes (died September 8, 394), or Arbogast was a Frankish general in the Roman Empire.
Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius Augustus; Ἀρκάδιος; 377/378 – 1 May 408) was Byzantine Emperor from 395 to 408.
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Aelia Ariadne (ca. 450 – 515) was the Empress consort of Zeno and Anastasius I of the Byzantine Empire.
Arles (Arle in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in ancient Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.
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Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
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Arqa (Phoenician: Irqata; ערקת, 'Arqat in the Bible) is a Sunni village near Miniara in Akkar District of the North Governorate in Lebanon, 22 km northeast of Tripoli, near the coast.
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Artavasdos or Artabasdos (Ἀρταύασδος or Ἀρτάβασδος, from Armenian: Արտավազդ, Artavazd, Ardavazt), Latinized as Artabasdus, was a Byzantine general of Armenian descent who seized the throne from June 741 or 742 until November 743.
Flavius Ardabur Aspar (c. 400471) was an Eastern Roman patrician and magister militum ("master of soldiers") of Alanic-Gothic descent.
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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína,; Ἀθῆναι, Athēnai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.
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Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215 – September or October 275), was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
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Avitus (Eparchius Avitus Augustus; c. 380/395 – after 17 October 456 or in 457) was Western Roman Emperor from 8 or 9 July 455 to 17 October 456.
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Balbinus (Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus Pius Augustus; c. 178 – 29 July 238), was Roman Emperor with Pupienus for three months in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors.
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The Balkan Peninsula, popularly referred to as the Balkans, is a geographical region of Southeast Europe.
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Bardas (Βάρδας; died 21 April 866) was a Byzantine noble and high-ranking minister.
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Basil I, called the Macedonian (Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών, Basíleios hō Makedṓn; 811 – August 29, 886) was a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886.
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Basil II (Βασίλειος Β΄, Vasileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.
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Basil Lekapenos (Basil the Nothos ("bastard") (born c. 925 - died c. 985)"Basil The Nothos" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 270. ISBN 0195046528 was the parakoimomenos (chief administrator) of the Byzantine Empire from 945 until 985. An illegitimate son of the emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, he was castrated when young. In about 945, around the time his father was deposed, Basil was appointed parakoimomenos by Emperor Constantine VII, his brother-in-law. He retained this position under emperors Romanos II, Nikephoros II, John Tzimisces. As head of the Imperial administration, he amassed a large personal fortune. Reportedly, this led to tension with John Tzimisces shortly before the Emperor's death in 976. According to some sources, Basil poisoned the Emperor. He continued in office in the early reign of Basil II but in 985 the young Emperor - wishing to assume the government himself after being dominated by regents and caretaker emperors for thirty years - accused him of sympathizing with the rebel Bardas Phokas and removed Basil from power. All his lands and possessions were confiscated and all laws issued under his administration were declared null and void. Basil Lekapenos himself was exiled and died shortly afterwards.
Basiliscus (Flavius Basiliscus Augustus; Βασιλίσκος) (d. 476/477) was Byzantine Emperor from 475 to 476.
The Battle of Abritus, also known as the Battle of Forum Terebronii, occurred in the Roman province of Moesia Inferior (modern Razgrad, Bulgaria) probably in July, 251, between the Roman Empire and a federation of Scythian tribesmen under the Goth king Cniva.
The Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between an Eastern Roman army led by the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (largely Thervings as well as Greutungs, non-Gothic Alans, and various local rebels) led by Fritigern.
The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on 20 July 1402,"Ankara, Battle of" in The New Encyclopaedia Britannica.
The Battle of Bedriacum refers to two battles fought during the Year of the Four Emperors (69) near the village of Bedriacum (now Calvatone), about from the town of Cremona in northern Italy.
The Battle of Cap Bon was an engagement during a joint military expedition of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires led by Basiliscus against the Vandal capital of Carthage in 468.
The Battle of Carthage was fought in 238 AD between a Roman army loyal to Emperor Maximinus Thrax and the forces of Emperors Gordian I and Gordian II.
The Battle of Edessa took place between the armies of the Roman Empire under the command of Emperor Valerian and Sassanid forces under Shahanshah (King of the Kings) Shapur I in 260.
The Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt Muharebesi) was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuq Turks on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).
The Battle of Naissus (268 or 269 AD) was the defeat of a Gothic coalition by the Roman Empire under Emperor Gallienus (or Claudius II) near Naissus (Niš in present-day Serbia).
The Battle of Pliska or Battle of Vărbitsa Pass was a series of battles between troops, gathered from all parts of the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Nicephorus I Genik, and Bulgaria, governed by Khan Krum.
The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312.
The Battle of the Save was fought in 388 between the forces of Roman usurper Magnus Maximus and the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Bessi (Βῆσσοι or Βέσσοι) were an independent Thracian tribe who lived in a territory ranging from Moesia to Mount Rhodope in southern Thrace, but are often mentioned as dwelling about Haemus, the mountain range that separates Moesia from Thrace and from Mount Rhodope to the northern part of Hebrus.
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The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari; Proto-Bulgarians) were semi-nomadic warrior tribes of Turkic extraction who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
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The Byzantine civil war of 1321–1328 was a series of conflicts fought in the 1320s between the Byzantine emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos and his grandson Andronikos III Palaiologos over control of the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine civil war of 1341–47, sometimes referred to as the Second Palaiologan Civil War, was a conflict that broke out after the death of Andronikos III Palaiologos over the guardianship of his nine-year-old son and heir, John V Palaiologos.
The Byzantine civil war of 1352–1357 marks the continuation and conclusion of a previous conflict that lasted from 1341 to 1347.
Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins.
The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Byzantine Iconoclasm (Εἰκονομαχία, Eikonomachía) refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities within the Eastern Church and the temporal imperial hierarchy.
The Byzantine Senate or Eastern Roman Senate (Σύγκλητος, Sygklētos, or Γερουσία, Gerousia) was the continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. It survived for centuries, but even with its already limited power that it theoretically possessed the Senate became increasingly irrelevant until its eventual disappearance circa 14th century.
The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Persia.
Byzantium (Βυζάντιον Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony on the site that later became Constantinople, and later still Istanbul.
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Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
Caligula was the popular nickname of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41), Roman emperor (AD 37–41).
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Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Kapadokya, Καππαδοκία Kappadokía, Գամիրք (Gamirq), from Καππαδοκία, from Katpatuka) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
"Caracalla" was the popular nickname of Antoninus (Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus, 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), was Roman emperor from 198 to 217.
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Carinus (Marcus Aurelius Carinus Augustus; died 285) was Roman Emperor from 282 to 285.
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The city of Carthage (قرطاج) is a city in Tunisia that was once the center of the ancient Carthaginian civilization.
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Carus (Marcus Aurelius Carus Augustus; c. 224 – July or August 283) was Roman Emperor from 282 to 283.
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Flavius Castinus held the position of ''patricius'' in the court of Roman Emperor Honorius at the time of the Emperor's death, and most likely for some time before.
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Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
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Cherchell (older Cherchel, شرشال) is a seaport town in the Province of Tipaza, Algeria, 55 miles west of Algiers.
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The Theme of Cherson (θέμα Χερσῶνος, thema Chersōnos), originally and formally called the Klimata (Greek: τὰ Κλίματα) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) located in the southern Crimea, headquartered at Cherson.
Christopher Lekapenos or Lecapenus (Χριστόφορος Λακαπηνός) was the eldest son of Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos (r. 920–944) and co-emperor from 921 until his death in 931.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
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Claudius II (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus;Jones, pg. 209 May 10, 213 – January 270), commonly known as Claudius Gothicus, was Roman Emperor from 268 to 270.
Clodius Albinus (Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus; ca. 150 – 19 February 197) was a Roman usurper who was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain and Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) after the murder of Pertinax in 193 (known as "Year of the Five Emperors"), and who proclaimed himself emperor again in 196, before his final defeat the following year.
Coca is a municipality in the province of Segovia, central Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile and Leon.
Commodus (Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus; 31 August 161 AD – 31 December 192 AD), was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192.
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Constans (Flavius Iulius Constans Augustus;Jones, p. 220 c. 323 – 350) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350.
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Constans II (Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II Latin: Heraclius Constantinus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus); 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. Constans is a diminutive nickname given to the Emperor, who had been baptized Herakleios and reigned officially as Constantine. The nickname established itself in Byzantine texts and has become standard in modern historiography.
Constans IIJones, pg.
Symbatios (Συμβάτιος, from the Armenian Smbat), variously also Sabbatios (Σαββάτιος) or Sambates (Σαμβάτης) in some sources,.
Constantine Doukas or Ducas (Κωνσταντίνος Δούκας, Kōnstantinos Doukas), (1074 – c. 1095) was Byzantine co-emperor from c. 1074 to 1078 and from 1081 to 1087.
Constantine II (Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus;Jones, pg. 223 January/February 316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340.
Constantine III (Κωνσταντῖνος Γ΄ Latin: Heraclius Novus Constantinus Augustus); 3 May 612 – 20 April or 24/26 May 641) was Byzantine Emperor for four months in 641. He was the eldest son of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and his first wife Eudokia. Constantine's birth name was Heraclius Novus Constantinus, (Ἡράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντῖνος), which was also the official name under which he reigned. The name Constantine became established in later Byzantine texts as short for the Emperor and has become standard in modern historiography. In terms of official imperial nomenclature, the style "Constantine III" would be more appropriate for his son Constans II (r.
Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine III (died 411 by 18 September) was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in Britannia in 407 and established himself in Gaul. Recognised by the Emperor Honorius in 409, collapsing support and military setbacks saw him abdicate in 411. He was captured and executed shortly afterwards.
Constantine IV (Κωνσταντίνος Δ', Kōnstantinos IV, Flavius Constantinus IV) (c. 652 – 14 September 685), sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos, "the Bearded", out of confusion with his father, was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685.
Constantine IX Monomachos, Latinized as Constantine IX Monomachus (Κωνσταντίνος Θ΄ Μονομάχος, Kōnstantinos IX Monomakhos; c. 1000 – 11 January 1055), reigned as Byzantine emperor from June 11, 1042 to January 11, 1055.
Constantine Laskaris (Greek Κωνσταντίνος Λάσκαρης) was Byzantine Emperor for a few months from 1204 to early 1205.
Constantine Lekapenos or Lecapenus (Κωνσταντίνος Λακαπηνός) was the third son of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos (r. 920–944), and co-emperor from 924 to 945.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine (in the Orthodox Church as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles), was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD of Illyrian ancestry.
Constantine V (718 – September 14, 775) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε΄, Kōnstantinos V; denigrated by his enemies as Kopronymos or Copronymus, meaning the dung-christened) was Byzantine Emperor from 741 to 775.
Constantine VI (Κωνσταντῖνος Ϛ΄, Kōnstantinos VI; 14 January 771 – before 805Cutler & Hollingsworth (1991), pp. 501–502) was Byzantine Emperor from 780 to 797.
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, "the Purple-born" (that is, born in the purple marble slab paneled imperial bed chambers; Κωνσταντῖνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII Porphyrogennētos; September 2, 905 – November 9, 959), was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
Constantine VIII (Κωνσταντίνος Η΄, Kōnstantinos VIII) (960 – 11 November 1028) was reigning Byzantine Emperor from 15 December 1025 until his death in 1028.
Constantine X Doukas or Dukas, Latinized as Ducas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι΄ Δούκας, Kōnstantinos X Doukas) (1006 – May 1067) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1059 to 1067.
Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Κωνσταντινος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, reigning as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis or Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstantinoúpoli; Constantinopolis; قسطنطینية, Kostantiniyye; Цариград; modern Istanbul) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1924) empires.
Constantius I (Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus;Martindale, pg. 227 31 March 25 July 306) was Roman Emperor from 293 to 306, commonly known as Constantius Chlorus (Χλωρός, Kōnstantios Khlōrós, "Constantius the Pale").
Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming his opponent as his successor.
Constantius (Latin: Flavius Constantius Augustus) (died 2 September 421), commonly known as Constantius III, was Western Roman Emperor for seven months in 421.
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel (Basle in the once-preferred English spelling) by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, and the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
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The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis, (AD 235–284) was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
Dacia Aureliana was a province of the Roman Empire established by Emperor Aurelian in the territory of former Moesia Superior after his evacuation of Dacia Traiana beyond the Danube in 271.
Dara or Daras (Δάρας) was an important East Roman fortress city in northern Mesopotamia on the border with the Sassanid Empire.
Dardania (Δαρδανία; Dardania) was a Roman and Byzantine (Eastern Roman) province in the Balkans, initially an unofficial region in Moesia (87–284), then a province administratively part of the Diocese of Moesia (293–337).
De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.
The De Ceremoniis (fully De cerimoniis aulae Byzantinae) is the conventional Latin name for a book of ceremonial protocol at the court of the Byzantine emperors in Constantinople.
A death by natural causes, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is one that is primarily attributed to an illness or an internal malfunction of the body not directly influenced by external forces.
Trajan Decius (Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus; c. 201 – June 251), was Roman Emperor from 249 to 251.
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Demetrios Palaiologos or Demetrius Palaeologus (Δημήτριος Παλαιολόγος, Dēmētrios Palaiologos; ca. 1407–1470) was a Byzantine prince and Despot.
The Despotate of Epirus (Δεσποτάτο της Ηπείρου) was one of the late Byzantine successor states of the Byzantine Empire established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 by a (matrilineally linked) branch of the Doukas noble clan.
The Despotate of the Morea or Despotate of Mystras (Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μορέως, Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μυστρᾶ) was a province of the Byzantine Empire which existed between the mid-14th and mid-15th centuries.
Diadumenian (Marcvs Opellivs Antoninvs Diadvmenianvs Avgvstvs) (September 14/19, 208 – 218), was the son of the Roman Emperor Macrinus, and served his father briefly as Caesar (May 217–218) and as Augustus (in 218). He was so named due to being born with a caul that formed a 'diadem'. Diadumenian was born on 14 September 208 or, according to Historia Augusta, on September 19 because he shared the same birthday with the Emperor Antoninus Pius. His mother was Empress Nonia Celsa, although little is known of her: she is only mentioned by the Historia Augusta. He was born Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus, but his name was changed and added Antoninus to solidify connection to the family of Marcus Aurelius as done by Caracalla. Diadumenian had little time to enjoy his position or to learn anything from its opportunities because the legions of Syria revolted and declared Elagabalus ruler of the Roman Empire. When Macrinus was defeated on 8 June 218, at Antioch, Diadumenian's death followed his father's.
Didius Julianus (Marcus Didius Severus Iulianus Augustus; 30 January 133 or 2 February 137 – 1 June 193) was Roman Emperor for nine weeks during the year 193.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles, (245–311)Barnes, "Lactantius and Constantine", 32–35; Barnes, New Empire, 31–32.
A domesticus was a member of the protectores domestici, an elite guard unit of the Late Roman army, who served as bodyguards and staff officers to the emperor.
The Dominate or late Roman Empire was the "despotic" later phase of government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire.
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Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.
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The Duchy of Athens (Greek: Δουκᾶτον Ἀθηνῶν, Catalan: Ducat d'Atenes) was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade, encompassing the regions of Attica and Boeotia, and surviving until its conquest by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century.
Durrës is the second largest city and a municipality of Albania.
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The dynatoi (δυνατοί, "the powerful") was a legal term in the Byzantine Empire used from the 10th century on, denoting the senior levels of civil, military and ecclesiastic (including monastic) officialdom, who usually, but not always, also commanded considerable fortunes and landed estates.
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The East–West Schism is the break of communion between what are now the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, and which began in the 11th century.
Elagabalus or Heliogabalus (Μάρκος Αυρήλιος Αντωνίνος Αύγουστος; Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 203 – March 11, 222), was Roman Emperor from 218 to 222.
The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the three Byzantine GreekA Short history of Greece from early times to 1964 “There in the prosperous city of Nicea, Theodoros Laskaris, the son in law of a former Byzantine Emperor, establish a court that soon become the Small but reviving Greek empire.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
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Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
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Eudokia Makrembolitissa (or Eudocia Macrembolitissa) (Εὐδοκία Μακρεμβολίτισσα) (c.1021 – 1096) was the second wife of the Byzantine emperor Constantine X Doukas.
The Exarchate of Africa or of Carthage, after its capital, was the name of an administrative division of the Eastern Roman Empire encompassing its possessions on the Western Mediterranean, ruled by an exarch, or viceroy.
The Excubitors (excubitores or excubiti, literally "those out of bed", i.e. "sentinels"; Greek: ἐξκουβίτορες or ἐξκούβιτοι) were founded in circa 460 AD as the imperial guards of the early Byzantine emperors.
Eudokia or Eudocia (c. 580 – 13 August 612), originally named Fabia, was a Byzantine woman who became the first empress-consort of Heraclius from 610 to her death in 612.
Falacrine (Falacrīnum or vīcus Phalacrīnae; Falacrine) was a village of Ancient Rome that was the birthplace of the emperor Vespasian (9-79AD).
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The Fall of Constantinople (Άλωση της Κωνσταντινούπολης, Alōsē tēs Kōnstantinoupolēs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday, 29 May 1453.
This is a family tree of the Roman Emperors, showing only the relationships between the emperors.
The Fatimid Caliphate (الفاطميون) (909-1171) was a Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Ferentino is a town and comune in Italy, in the province of Frosinone, Lazio, southeast of Rome.
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The First Bulgarian Empire (modern Първo българско царство, Parvo Balgarsko Tsarstvo) is the historiographical term for the khanate founded by the Bulgars circa 681, when they settled in the northeastern Balkans, subdued or drove out the Byzantines and made the South Slavic settlers their allies.
The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Lands, called by Pope Urban II in 1095.
Severus II (Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus; died September 307), was a Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 307.
Flavius Victor (Latin: Flavius Victor Augustus) was the son of Magnus Maximus.
Florianus (Marcus Annius Florianus Augustus;Jones, pg. 367 died 276), also known as Florian, was Roman Emperor for a few months in 276.
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The Fourth Crusade (1202–04) was a Western European armed expedition originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.
Galba (Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus; 24 December 3 BC – 15 January 69), was Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69.
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Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus; c. 260 – April or May 311), was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311.
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Aelia Galla Placidia (388 – 27 November 450), daughter of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I, was the Regent for Emperor Valentinian III from 423 until his majority in 437, and a major force in Roman politics for most of her life.
Gallia Lugdunensis (French: Gaule Lyonnaise) was a province of the Roman Empire in what is now the modern country of France, part of the Celtic territory of Gaul formerly known as Celtica.
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus; c. 218 – 268) was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268.
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Gamzigrad (-sr-cyr) is an archaeological site, spa resort and UNESCO World Heritage Site of Serbia, located south of the Danube river, near the city of Zaječar.
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George Maniakes (transliterated as Georgios Maniaces, Maniakis, or Maniaches) (died 1043) was a prominent Byzantine Greek general during the 11th century, he was the catepan of Italy in 1042.
George Mouzalon (Γεώργιος Μουζάλων, Geōrgios Mouzalōn; ca. 1220 – 25 August 1258) was a high official of the Empire of Nicaea under Theodore II Laskaris (r. 1254–1258).
Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19), commonly known as Germanicus, was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire.
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Gordian I (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus; c. 159 – 12 April 238) was Roman Emperor for one month with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors.
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Gordian II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus; c. 192 – April 12, 238), was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors.
Gordian III (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius Augustus; 20 January 225 AD – 11 February 244 AD), was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD.
The Goths (*Gut-þiuda,Most commonly translated as "Gothic people".; Gutar/Gotar; Gothi; Γότθοι, Gótthoi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe.
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Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus; 18 April/23 May 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor from 375 to 383.
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Gundobad (c. 452–516) was King of the Burgundians (473–516), succeeding his father Gundioc of Burgundy.
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Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus;In Classical Latin, Hadrian's name would be inscribed as PVBLIVS AELIVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.As emperor his name was Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus. 24 January, 76 AD – 10 July, 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. He is also known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Britannia. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family. Although Italica near Santiponce (in modern-day Spain) is often considered his birthplace, his place of birth remains uncertain. However, it is generally accepted that he comes of a family with centuries-old roots in Hispania. His predecessor Trajan was a maternal cousin of Hadrian's father. Trajan never officially designated an heir, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. Trajan's wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well-disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian traveled to nearly every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and ordered the construction of many opulent temples in the city. He used his relationship with his Greek lover Antinous to underline his philhellenism and led to the creation of one of the most popular cults of ancient times. He spent extensive amounts of his time with the military; he usually wore military attire and even dined and slept amongst the soldiers. He ordered military training and drilling to be more rigorous and even made use of false reports of attack to keep the army alert. Upon his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajan's conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia, and even considered abandoning Dacia. Late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina. In 136 an ailing Hadrian adopted Lucius Aelius as his heir, but the latter died suddenly two years later. In 138, Hadrian resolved to adopt Antoninus Pius if he would in turn adopt Marcus Aurelius and Aelius' son Lucius Verus as his own eventual successors. Antoninus agreed, and soon afterward Hadrian died at Baiae.
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The Henotikon (or in English; ἑνωτικόν "act of union") was issued by Byzantine emperor Zeno in 482, in an unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the differences between the supporters of the Council of Chalcedon and the council's opponents.
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Heraclius (Flavius Heraclius Augustus, Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, Հերակլես Փլավիոս, c. 575 – February 11, 641) was Byzantine Emperor from 610 to 641.
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Heraclius the Elder (Heraclius; Ἡράκλειος) (died 610) was an East Roman (Byzantine) general and the father of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641).
Constantine Heraclius (Κωνσταντῖνος Ἡράκλειος, Latin: Flavius Constantinus Heraclius (Heraclianus) Augustus; 626–641), commonly known by the diminutive Heraklonas or Herakleonas (Ἡρακλωνᾶς/Ἡρακλεωνᾶς), or rarely, Heraclius II, was the son of Heraclius and his niece Martina, and was Byzantine Emperor briefly between February and September 641.
Herennius Etruscus (Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius Augustus; ca. 227 – June 251), was Roman emperor in 251, in a joint rule with his father Decius.
In anatomy, heterochromia (ancient Greek: ἕτερος, héteros, different + χρώμα, chróma, color) is a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
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Hispania Baetica was one of three Imperial Roman provinces in Hispania, (modern Iberia).
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
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Honorius (Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423), was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423.
Hostilian (Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus Augustus; 230? – 251) was Roman emperor in 251.
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Illus (Ἰλλός) (died 488) was a Byzantine general, who played an important role in the reigns of the Byzantine Emperors Zeno and Basiliscus.
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In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
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The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans and the south-eastern coasts of the Italian peninsula (Messapia).
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The Latin word imperator was originally a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic.
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An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order.
Irene of Athens or Irene the Athenian (Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία; c. 752 – 9 August 803) is the commonly known name of Irene Sarantapechaina (Εἰρήνη Σαρανταπήχαινα), Byzantine empress regnant from 797 to 802.
Isaac I Komnenos (or Comnenus) (Ισαάκιος A' Κομνηνός, Isaakios I Komnēnos; c. 1007 – 1060/61) was Byzantine Emperor from 1057 to 1059, the first reigning member of the Komnenos dynasty.
Isaac II Angelos or Angelus (Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος, Isaakios II Angelos; September 1156 – January 1204) was Byzantine Emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204.
Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus (Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios Komnēnos; 16 January 1093 – after 1152) was the third son of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) and Empress Irene Doukaina.
Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus (Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios Komnēnos; – after 1154), was the third son of Byzantine Emperor John II Komnenos by Piroska of Hungary.
Isauria (or; Ἰσαυρία), in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods, but generally covering what is now the district of Bozkır and its surroundings in the Konya Province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains.
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Italica (Itálica; north of modern day Santiponce, 9 km NW of Seville, Spain) is a magnificent and well-preserved Roman city and the birthplace of Roman Emperors Trajan and Hadrian.
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Ioannes, (Latin: Iohannes Augustus) known in English as Joannes or even John, was a Roman usurper (423–425) against Valentinian III.
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Johannes is a Medieval Latin form of the personal name that usually appears as "John" in English language contexts.
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John I Tzimiskes (Iōannēs I Tzimiskēs; circa 925 – January 10, 976) was the senior Byzantine Emperor from December 11, 969 to January 10, 976.
John II Komnenos or Comnenus (Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos; September 13, 1087 – April 8, 1143) was Byzantine Emperor from 1118 to 1143.
John III Doukas (or Dukas) Vatatzes, Latinized as Ducas Vatatzes (Ιωάννης Γ΄ Δούκας Βατάτζης, Iōannēs III Doukas Vatatzēs, c. 1193, Didymoteicho – 3 November 1254, Nymphaion), was Emperor of Nicaea from 1222 to 1254.
John IV Doukas Laskaris (or Ducas Lascaris) (Ἰωάννης Δ΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις, Iōannēs IV Doukas Laskaris) (December 25, 1250 – c. 1305) was emperor of Nicaea from August 18, 1258 to December 25, 1261.
John Kourkouas (Ἰωάννης Κουρκούας, fl. circa 915–946), also transliterated as Kurkuas or Curcuas, was one of the most important generals of the Byzantine Empire.
John the Orphanotrophos (Ἰωάννης ὁ Ὀρφανοτρόφος), was the chief court eunuch (parakoimomenos) during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Romanos III (r. 1028–1034).
John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos; 18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341 at age eight.
John VI Kantakouzenos or Cantacuzenus (Ἰωάννης ΣΤʹ Καντακουζηνός, Iōannēs ST′ Kantakouzēnos; – 15 June 1383) was the Byzantine emperor from 1347 to 1354.
John VII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs Z' Palaiologos; 1370 – 22 September 1408) was Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390.
John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Ίωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs Ē' Palaiologos; 18 December 1392 – 31 October 1448), was the penultimate reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling from 1425 to 1448.
Joseph Bringas (Ὶωσῆφ Βρίγγας) was an important Byzantine eunuch official in the reigns of Emperor Constantine VII (r. 945–959) and Emperor Romanos II (r. 959–963), serving as chief minister and effective regent during the latter.
Jovian (Flavius Iovianus Augustus; 331 – 17 February 364) was Roman Emperor from 363 to 364.
Julia the Elder (30 October 39 BC – AD 14), known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or Julia Augusti filia (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS•FILIA or IVLIA•AVGVSTI•FILIA), was the daughter and only biological child of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and notable author of Latin prose.
Julius NeposMartindale 1980, s.v. Iulius Nepos (3), pp.
Justin I (Flavius Iustinus Augustus, Ἰουστίνος; 2 February 450 – 1 August 527) was Byzantine Emperor from 518 to 527.
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Justin II (Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus; Φλάβιος Ἰουστίνος ὁ νεώτερος; c. 520 – 5 October 578) was Byzantine Emperor from 565 to 574.
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Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus, Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós) (482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was a Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565.
Justinian II (Ἰουστινιανός Β΄, Ioustinianos II, Iustinianus II) (669 – 11 December 711), surnamed the Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus (ὁ Ῥινότμητος, "the slit-nosed"), was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711.
Justiniana Prima (Царичин град) was a Byzantine city that existed from 535 to 615, and currently an archaeological site, near today's Lebane, Leskovac district in southern Serbia.
Kahramanmaraş is a city in the southern Turkey (The Mediterranean Region) and the administrative center of Kahramanmaraş Province.
The Kingdom of Commagene (Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς) was an ancient kingdom of the Hellenistic period, located in and around the ancient city of Samosata (now submerged by the Atatürk Dam), which served as its capital.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000-1946 with the exception of 1918-1920).
Komnenos or Comnenus (Κομνηνός), plural Komnenoi or Comneni (Κομνηνοί, pronounced /komniní/), was the name of a ruling family of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, who ruled the Byzantine state from 1081 to 1185, and later, as the Grand Komnenoi (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, Megalokomnenoi) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1461).
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Konstantios Doukas (Κωνστάντιος Δούκας, 1060–1082), Latinized as Constantius Ducas, was the son of Byzantine Emperor Constantine X Doukas and younger brother of Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas.
Lanuvium (more frequently Lanivium in Imperial Roman times, later Civita Lavinia, modern Lanuvio) is an ancient city of Latium (Lānŭuĭum or Lānĭuĭum), some southeast of Rome, a little southwest of the Via Appia.
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The Empire of Romania (Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire (Λατινική Αυτοκρατορία) or Latin Empire of Constantinople, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire.
Leo I (Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus; 401 – 18 January 474) was Byzantine Emperor from 457 to 474.
Leo II (Flavius Leo Iunior Augustus, Λέων Β', Leōn II; 467 – 17 November 474) was Byzantine Emperor for less than a year in 474.
Leo III the Isaurian also known as the Syrian (Greek: Λέων Γ΄ ὁ Ἴσαυρος, Leōn III ho Isauros), (685 – 18 June 741) was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741.
Leo IV the Khazar (Greek: Λέων Δ΄ ὁ Χάζαρος, Leōn IV ho Khazaros) (25 January 750 – 8 September 780) was Byzantine Emperor from 775 to 780 AD.
Leo Phokas (Λέων Φωκᾶς) was an early 10th-century Byzantine general of the noble Phokas clan.
Leo Tornikios (Λέων Τορνίκιος) was a mid-11th century Byzantine general and noble, who in 1047 rebelled against the Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomachos (r. 1042–1055).
Leo V the Armenian (Λέων Ε΄ ὁ Ἀρμένιος, Leōn V ho Armenios; Լևոն Ե Հայ; 775 – 25 December 820) was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 813 to 820.
Leo VI, surnamed the Wise or the Philosopher (Λέων ΣΤ΄ ὁ Σοφός, Leōn VI ho Sophos, 19 September 866 – 11 May 912), was Byzantine Emperor from 886 to 912.
Leontios (or Leontius) (Λεόντιος, LEONTIVS) (died 15 February 706)Kazhdan, pg.
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Leptis Magna (لَبْدَة Labdah) also known as Lectis Magna (or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled), also called Lpqy, Neapolis, Lebida or Lebda to modern-day residents of Libya, was a prominent city of the Roman Empire.
Lesbos (Λέσβος), sometimes referred to as Mytilini after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.
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Libius Severus (Latin: Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius Augustus) (Lucania, c. 420 – 15 August 465) was Western Roman Emperor from November 19, 461 to his death.
Licinius I (Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus;In Classical Latin, Licinius' name would be inscribed as GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. c. 263–325) was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324.
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This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
This is a list of Roman consuls, the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic and a high office of the Empire.
The following is a list of dictators in ancient Rome as reported by ancient sources.
The following is a list of usurpers in the Roman Empire.
Livia Drusilla (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, LIVIA•AVGVSTA) (30 January 58 BC– 28 September AD 29), also known as Julia Augusta after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14, was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser.
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The logothetēs tou genikou (λογοθέτης τοῦ γενικοῦ), often called genikos logothetēs or simply ho genikos (Greek: ὁ γενικός), and usually rendered in English as the General Logothete, was in charge of the "general financial ministry", the genikon logothesion of the middle Byzantine Empire.
The logothetēs toū stratiōtikou (λογοθέτης τοῦ στρατιωτικοῦ), rendered in English as the Logothete of the Military or Military Logothete, was a Byzantine imperial official in charge of the pay and provisioning of the Byzantine army.
Lucania (Greek: Λευκανία, Leukania) was an ancient district of Southern Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto.
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Lucius Verus (lvcivs avrelivs vervs avgvstvs; 15 December 130 – 169) was the Roman Emperor from 161 to 169.
Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon, France) was a very important Roman city in Gaul.
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The Theme of Macedonia (θέμα Μακεδονίας) was a military-civilian province (theme) of the Byzantine Empire established between the late 700s and the early 800s.
Macedonian Renaissance is a label sometimes used to describe the period of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire (867-1056), especially the 10th century, which some scholars have seen as a time of increased interest in classical scholarship and the assimilation of classical motifs into Christian artwork.
Macrinus (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus; ca. 165 – June 218), was Roman Emperor from 217 to 218.
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Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine.
Magnentius (Latin: Flavius Magnus Magnentius Augustus r.303 – August 11, 353) was a usurper of the Roman Empire from 350 to 353.
Magnus Maximus (Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus, Macsen Wledig) (ca. 335 – August 28, 388) was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388.
Majorian (Flavius Iulius Valerius Maiorianus Augustus; ca. 420 – August 7, 461) was the Western Roman Emperor from 457 to 461.
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Mangana (Μάγγανα) was one of the quarters of Byzantine-era Constantinople.
Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.
Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, Manouēl II Palaiologos) (27 June 1350 – 21 July 1425) was Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425.
Marcian (Flavius Marcianus Augustus; 392 – 27 January 457) was Byzantine Emperor from 450 to 457.
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Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180.
Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus; c. 19 August 232 – September/October 282), was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282.
Tacitus (Marcus Claudius Tacitus Augustus;Jones, pg. 873 c. 200 – June 276), was Roman Emperor from 275 to 276.
Maria of Antioch (1145–1182) was a Byzantine empress as the wife of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos.
Martina (died after 641) was the second Empress consort of Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire.
Martinci is a village in Serbia.
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Martinian (in full Latin form: Sextus Marcius Martinianus), who died in 325, was Roman Emperor from July to September 18, 324.
Matthew Kantakouzenos or Cantacuzenus (Greek: Ματθαίος Ασάνης Καντακουζηνός, Matthaios Asanēs Kantakouzēnos, c. 1325 – 15 June 1383) was Byzantine Emperor from 1353 to 1357.
Mauretania (also spellled Mauritania) was in ancient times a part of North Africa corresponding to the Mediterranean coast of what is today Morocco (and the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla).
Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus) (539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.
Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus; c. 278 – 28 October 312) was Roman Emperor from 306 to 312.
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Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus; c. 250 – c. July 310) was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305.
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Maximinus II (Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus Daia Augustus; c. 20 November 270 – July or August 313), also known as Maximinus Daia or Maximinus Daza, was Roman Emperor from 308 to 313.
Maximinus Thrax (Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus Augustus; c. 173 – May 238), also known as Maximinus I, was Roman Emperor from 235 to 238.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى,; II.; also known as, الفاتح, "the Conqueror" in Ottoman Turkish; in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Han; also called Mahomet II in early modern Europe), also known as Muhammed bin Murad, Mehmed the Conqueror, Grand Turk, Kayser-i Rûm (Caesar of Rome) and Turcarum Imperator, and Fatih Sultan Mehmed (30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), was an Ottoman sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
Mezezius (Μιζίζιος; Մժէժ, Mžēž or Mzhezh) was an Armenian noble who served as a general of Byzantium, later usurping the Byzantine throne in Sicily from 668 to 669.
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Michael I Rhangabe (Μιχαῆλ A' Ῥαγγαβέ, Mikhaēl I Rhangabe; c. 770 – 11 January 844) was Byzantine Emperor from 811 to 813.
Michael II (Μιχαήλ Β', Mikhaēl II), surnamed the Amorian (ὁ ἐξ Ἀμορίου) or the Stammerer (ὁ Τραυλός or ὁ Ψελλός), reigned as Byzantine Emperor from December 820 to his death on 2 October 829, the first ruler of the Phrygian or Amorian dynasty.
Michael III (Μιχαήλ Γʹ, Mikhaēl III; January 19, 840 – September 23/24, 867) was Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867.
Michael IV the Paphlagonian (Μιχαὴλ (Δ´) ὁ Παφλαγών, Mikhaēl ho Paphlagōn; 1010 – 10 December 1041) was Byzantine Emperor from 11 April 1034 to his death on 10 December 1041.
Michael IX Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Μιχαήλ Θ΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl IX Palaiologos), (17 April 1277 – 12 October 1320, Thessalonica, Greece), reigned as Byzantine co-emperor with full imperial style 1294/1295–1320.
Michael V (Greek: Μιχαήλ Ε΄, Mikhaēl V; 1015 – 24 August 1042) was Byzantine emperor for four months in 1041–1042, the nephew and successor of Michael IV and the adoptive son of his wife, the Empress Zoe.
Michael VI Bringas (Μιχαήλ ΣΤ΄ Βρίγγας, Mikhaēl VI Bringas), called Stratiotikos or Stratioticus ("the Military One", "the Warlike" or "the Bellicose") or Gerontas ("the Old"), was Byzantine emperor from 1056 to 1057.
Michael VII Doukas or Dukas/Ducas (Greek: Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ Δούκας, Mikhaēl VII Doukas), nicknamed Parapinakēs (Παραπινάκης), was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078.
Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Μιχαὴλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos; 1223 – 11 December 1282) reigned as Byzantine Emperor 1259–1282.
Milan (or; Milano; Milanese: Milan), the second-most populous city in Italy, serves as the capital of Lombardy.
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Moesia (or; Latin: Moesia; Μοισία) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River.
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Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature"), is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical Incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
The Muslim conquest of Sicily began in 827 and lasted until 902, when the last major Byzantine stronghold on the island, Taormina, fell.
The Muslim conquest of Syria (Arabic: الفتح الإسلامي لبلاد الشام) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo) is a commune in southern France in the Languedoc-Roussillon region. It lies from Paris in the Aude department, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Once a prosperous port, and a major city in Roman times, it is now located about from the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. It is marginally the largest commune in Aude, although the prefecture is the slightly smaller commune of Carcassonne.
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Narni (in Latin, Narnia) is an ancient hilltown and comune of Umbria, in central Italy, with 20,100 inhabitants, according to the 2003 census.
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Nea Moni (Νέα Μονή, lit. "New Monastery") is an 11th-century monastery on the island of Chios that has been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Nero (Latin: Nerō Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68) was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
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Nerva (Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus; 8 November, 30 AD – 27 January, 98 AD), was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98.
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Niš (Ниш,, sometimes rendered Nish or Nissa in English) is the city of southern Serbia and the third-largest city in Serbia (after Belgrade and Novi Sad).
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Nicaea or Nicea (İznik Νίκαια) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.
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Nicholas I Mystikos or Nicholas I Mysticus (Greek: Νικόλαος Α΄ Μυστικός, Nikolaos I Mystikos) (852 – May 15, 925) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from March 901 to February 907 and from May 912 to his death in 925.
Nikephoros I or Nicephorus I, also Logothetes or Genikos (Νικηφόρος Α΄, Nikēphoros I, "Bringer of Victory"; died July 26, 811), was Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811 AD, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska.
Nikephoros II Phokas (Latinized: Nicephorus II Phocas) (Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphoros II Phōkas) (c. 912 – 10–11 December 969) was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969.
Nikephoros III Botaneiates, Latinized as Nicephorus III Botaniates (Νικηφόρος Βοτανειάτης, c. 1002 – 10 December 1081), was Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081.
Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of twelve tribes, including most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.
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The Normans (Normands; Nortmanni) were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
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Numerian (Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus Augustus; died November 284) was Roman Emperor from 282 to 284 with his older brother Carinus.
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Flavius Odoacer (433–493), also known as Flavius Odovacer (Odoacre, OdoacerusLouis Maimbourg, The History of Arianism, Volume 2, 1729 Odoaker), was a soldier, who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).
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Anicius Olybrius (died October 22 or November 2, 472) was Western Roman Emperor from April or May 472 to his death.
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The Opsician Theme (θέμα Ὀψικίου, thema Opsikiou) or simply Opsikion (Greek: Ὀψίκιον, from Obsequium) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) located in northwestern Asia Minor (modern Turkey).
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Orestes (died 28 August AD 476) was a Roman general and politician of Pannonian ancestry, who was briefly in control of the remnant Western Roman Empire in 475–6.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi) were a branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
Otho (Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus; 28 April 32 – 16 April 69), was Roman Emperor for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69.
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The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
Palaiologos (Palaiologoi; Παλαιολόγος, -οι), also romanized as Palaeologus or Palaeologue, was the name of a Byzantine Greek family, which rose to nobility and ultimately produced the last ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.
Pannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
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Pannonia Inferior, lit.
Paulicians (Պաւղիկեաններ, Pawłikeanner; Παυλικιανοί; Arab sources: Baylakānī, al Bayālika)Nersessian, Vrej (1998).
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family.
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Pertinax (Publius Helvius Pertinax Augustus; 1 August 126 – 28 March 193) was Roman Emperor for the first three months of 193.
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Pescennius Niger (Gaius Pescennius Niger Augustus; c. 135/140 – 194) was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors.
Petronius Maximus (Latin: Flavius Anicius Petronius Maximus Augustus) (c. 396 – 31 May 455Drinkwater, pg. 118) was Western Roman Emperor for two and a half months in 455.
Marcus Julius Philippus (Marcus Iulius Philippus Augustus; 204 – 249) also known commonly by his nickname Philip the Arab (Philippus Arabs, فيليب العربي), also known as Philip, was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249.
Philippikos or Philippicus (Φιλιππικός) was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 711 to 713.
Marcus Julius Philippus Severus, also known as Philippus II, Philip II and Philip the Younger (238–249) was the son and heir of the Roman Emperor Philip the Arab by his wife Roman Empress Marcia Otacilia Severa.
Phocas (Flavius Phocas Augustus; Φωκᾶς, Phokas) (547 – 5 October 610) was Byzantine Emperor from 602 to 610.
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Phokas or Phocas (Φωκᾶς), feminine form Phokaina (Greek: Φώκαινα), was the name of a Byzantine aristocratic clan from Cappadocia, which in the 9th and 10th centuries provided a series of high-ranking generals and an emperor, Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963–969).
In antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία,, Frigya) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Turkey, centered on the Sakarya River.
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Piacenza (Emiliano-Romagnolo: Piasëinsa) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
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The Plague of Cyprian is the name given to a pandemic, probably of smallpox, that afflicted the Roman Empire from AD 250 onwards during the larger Crisis of the Third Century.
Marcus Cassianius Latinius PostumusJones & Martindale (1971), p. 720 was a Roman commander of provincial origin who ruled as emperor in the west.
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The Praetorian Guard (Praetoriani) was a force of bodyguards used by Roman Emperors.
Praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was the title of a high office in the Roman Empire.
The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate.
The Principality of Achaea or of the Morea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade.
The principate (27 BC – 284 AD), the first period of the Roman Empire, extended from the beginning of the reign of Augustus Caesar to the Crisis of the Third Century, after which it evolved into the dominate.
Geta (Publius Septimius Geta Augustus; 7 March 189 –19 December 211), was a Roman emperor who ruled with his father Septimius Severus and his older brother Caracalla from 209 until his death, when he was murdered on Caracalla's orders.
Aelia Pulcheria (January 19, 398 or 399 – 453) was the second child of Eastern Roman Emperor Arcadius and Empress Aelia Eudoxia.
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Pupienus (Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus Augustus; born c. 165/170 – 29 July 238), also known as Pupienus Maximus, was Roman Emperor with Balbinus for three months in 238, during the Year of the Six Emperors.
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Quintillus (Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus Augustus; c. 220 – April 270), was Roman Emperor for a few months in 270.
Raetia (or,, also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
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Ravenna (also; Ravêna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.
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Flavius Ricimer (c. 405 – August 18, 472) was a Romanized Germanic general who effectively ruled the remaining territory of the Western Roman Empire from 456 until his death in 472.
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The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire (1299 – 29 May 1453) is the period that started with the weakening of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in the very early 14th century and ended with the fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") is the name given to the areas of the island of Great Britain that were governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 409 or 410.
A consul was the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, and the consulship was considered the highest level of the cursus honorum (the sequential order of public offices through which aspiring politicians sought to ascend).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in the Roman Empire, in modern-day France, southern Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, western Switzerland and western Germany.
Roman Italy was created officially by the Roman Emperor Augustus with the Latin name Italia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Romanos I Lekapenos or Lakapenos (Ρωμανός Α΄ Λακαπηνός, Rōmanos I Lakapēnos; c. 870 – June 15, 948), Latinized as Romanus I Lecapenus, was an Armenian who became a Byzantine naval commander and reigned as Byzantine Emperor from 920 until his deposition on December 16, 944.
Romanos (or Romanus) II (Greek: Ρωμανός Β΄, Rōmanos II) (938 – 15 March 963) was a Byzantine Emperor.
Romanos III Argyros, or Romanus III Argyrus (Ρωμανός Γ΄ Αργυρός, Rōmanos III Argyros; 968 – 11 April 1034), was Byzantine emperor from 15 November 1028 until his death.
Romanos IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δʹ Διογένης, Rōmanós IV Diogénēs), also known as Romanus IV, was a member of the Byzantine military aristocracy who, after his marriage to the widowed empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, was crowned Byzantine emperor and reigned from 1068 to 1071.
Rome (Roma, Rōma) is a city and special comune (named "Roma Capitale") in Italy.
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Romulus Augustus (born perhaps around 461 – died after 476, and was apparently still alive as late as 507) was an Emperor (alleged usurper) reigning over the Western Roman Empire from 31 October 475 until 4 September 476.
The Rus (Русь; Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group or people who gave their name to the lands of Russia, Ruthenia, and Belarus.
The Sack of Thessalonica in 904 by Saracen pirates was one of the worst disasters to befall the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century.
Salona (Σάλωνα) was an ancient city and capital of Roman province on the Dalmatian coast located in modern-day Croatia.
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Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus (c. 242 – 260) was Roman Emperor in 260.
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Saracen was a generic term for Muslims widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the later medieval era.
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The Sasanian Empire (or; also known as Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian language, was the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam, ruled by the Sasanian dynasty from 224 AD to 651 AD.
Ali ibn Abu'l-Hayja 'Abdallah ibn Hamdan ibn al-Harith Sayf al-Dawla al-Taghlibi (سيف الدولة أبو الحسن ابن حمدان), more commonly known simply by his laqab (honorific epithet) of Sayf al-Dawla ("Sword of the Dynasty"), was the founder of the Emirate of Aleppo, encompassing most of northern Syria and parts of western Jazira, and the brother of al-Hasan ibn Abdallah ibn Hamdan (better known as Nasir al-Dawla).
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsartsvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396 or 1422.
The Seljuq dynasty (سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; Selçuklular; Selçuklar) was a Turkish Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually adopted Persian culture and contributed to the Turko-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; 1 October 208 – 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235.
Shahba (شهبا / ALA-LC: Shahbā), known in Late Antiquity as Philippopolis, is a city located 87 km south of Damascus in the Jabal el Druze in As-Suwayda Governorate of Syria, but formerly in the Roman province of Arabia Petraea.
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Sicily (Sicilia, Old Norse: Sikiley) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea; along with surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy officially referred to as Regione Sicilia.
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The Sack of Constantinople or Siege of Constantinople (also called the Fourth Crusade) occurred in 1204; it looted and destroyed parts of the capital of the Byzantine Empire as the city was captured by Western European and Venetian Crusaders.
The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674–678 was a major conflict of the Arab–Byzantine Wars, and the first culmination of the Umayyad Caliphate's expansionist strategy towards the Byzantine Empire, led by Caliph Mu'awiya I. Mu'awiya, who had emerged in 661 as the ruler of the Muslim Arab empire following a civil war, renewed aggressive warfare against Byzantium after a lapse of some years and hoped to deliver a lethal blow by capturing the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.
The Second Arab siege of Constantinople in 717–718 (98–100 AH) was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople.
Silentiarius, Hellenized to silentiarios (σιλεντιάριος) and Anglicized to silentiary, was the Latin title given to a class of courtiers in the Byzantine imperial court, responsible for order and silence (silentium) in the Great Palace of Constantinople.
Silivri is a city and a district in Istanbul Province along the Sea of Marmara in Turkey, outside metropolitan Istanbul, containing many holiday and weekend homes for residents of the city.
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Simeon (also Symeon) I the Great (Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp.
Singidunum (Сингидунум/Singidunum, from a Celtic *Sindi-dūn-) is the name for the ancient city in Serbia which became Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
Sirmium was a city in Pannonia, an ancient province of the Roman Empire.
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Aelia Sophia (c. 530 – c./aft. 601) was the Empress consort of Justin II of the Byzantine Empire from 565 to 578.
Split (Spalato, see Name section) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia.
SPQR is an acronym of a Latin phrase, '''S'''enātus '''P'''opulus'''q'''ue '''R'''ōmānus ("The Senate and People of Rome"), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome.
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Staurakios or Stauracius (Σταυράκιος; died January 11, 812) was Byzantine Emperor from July 26 to October 2, 811 in succession to his father, Nikephoros I, who had fallen at the Battle of Pliska.
Stephen Lekapenos or Lecapenus (Στέφανος Λακαπηνός; died 18 April 963) was the second son of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos (r. 920–944), and co-emperor from 924 to 945.
Strategos, plural strategoi, (στρατηγός, pl.; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; literally meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general.
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Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria refers to a conflict beginning in 967/968 and ending in 971, carried out in the eastern Balkans, and involving the Kievan Rus', Bulgaria, and the Byzantine Empire.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city in Sicily, the capital of the province of Syracuse.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
Tauresium (Тауресиум, Ancient greek Tavresion, Ταυρήσιον) or known as Gradište (Градиште) is an archaeological site in Macedonia, located approximately southeast of the capital Skopje.
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Terni (Interamna Nahars) is a city in the southern portion of the Region of Umbria in central Italy.
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Terracina is a town and comune of the province of Latina - (until 1934 of the province of Rome), Italy, southeast of Rome by rail and by the Via Appia by car.
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Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
Theoderic the Great (thē-ŏd'ə-rik, 𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃; Flāvius Theodericus; Θευδέριχος, Theuderikhos; Þēodrīc; Theoderich; 454 – August 30, 526), often referred to as Theodoric, was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Roman Empire.
Theodora (Θεοδώρα, Theodōra; 980 – late August/early September 1056) was a Byzantine Empress born into the Macedonian dynasty that had ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost two hundred years.
Theodora (Θεοδώρα, c. 815 – after 867) was a Byzantine Empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos' death in 842 to 855.
Theodoros I Komnenos Laskaris (Θεόδωρος Α' Λάσκαρις, Theodōros I Laskaris; c. 1174/5 – 1221/August 1222) was the first Emperor of Nicaea (reigned 1204–1221 or 1205–1222).
Theodore II Doukas Laskaris or Ducas Lascaris (Θεόδωρος Β΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις, Theodōros II Doukas Laskaris) (1221/1222 – August 16, 1258) was Emperor of Nicaea from 1254 to 1258.
Theodoric II (Gothic: Þiudareiks II), Teodorico in Spanish and Portuguese (died 466) was the eighth King of Visigoths from 453 to 466.
Theodosius (Θεοδόσιος; August 4, 583/585 – after November 27, 602) was the eldest son of Byzantine Emperor Maurice (r. 582–602) and was co-emperor from 590 until his deposition and execution during a military revolt in November 602.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire; he failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them, and after the Gothic War they established a homeland south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He fought two destructive civil wars, in which he defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius at great cost to the power of the Empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made orthodox Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessolonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. It was not until the end of the 19th century, in 1896, that Olympics were held again. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the East and West halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united.
Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.
Theodosios III or Theodosius III (Θεοδόσιος Γ΄) was Byzantine Emperor from 715 to 25 March 717.
Theophano (Greek: Θεοφανώ, Theophanō) was a Byzantine empress.
Theophilos (Θεόφιλος; 813 – 20 January 842) was the Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842.
Theophylact or Theophylaktos (Θεοφύλακτος) was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Michael I Rhangabe (r. 811–813) and grandson, on his mother's side, of Nikephoros I (r. 802–811).
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), also known as Thessalonica, Salonika or Salonica, is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
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Thomas Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Θωμᾶς Παλαιολόγος Thomas Palaiologos; 1409 – 12 May 1465) was Despot in Morea from 1428 until the Ottoman conquest in 1460.
Thomas the Slav (760 – October 823 AD) was a 9th-century Byzantine military commander, most notable for leading a wide-scale revolt in 821–23 against Emperor Michael II the Amorian (ruled 820–29).
Thrace (demonym Thracian; Θρᾴκη, Thrāikē; modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakija; Trakya; in Antiquity also referred to as Europe prior to extending the meaning for the whole continent) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe, centered on the modern borders of Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey.
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Thracia or Thrace (Θρᾴκη Thrakē) is the ancient name given to the southeastern Balkan region, the land inhabited by the Thracians.
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The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes, Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Southeastern Europe.
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Tiberius III (Γʹ Latin: Tiberius, Tiberios III; 15 February 706)Kazhdan, pg.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Dīvī Augustī Fīlius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was a Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD.
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Tiberius (Τιβέριος, Tiberios) was the only son of the Byzantine emperor Justinian II, and his only child by his second wife Theodora of Khazaria, whom he married ca.
Tiberius II Constantine (Flavius Tiberius Constantinus Augustus) (520 – 14 August 582) was Byzantine Emperor from 574 to 582.
Titus (Titus Flāvius Caesar Vespasiānus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81) was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81.
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Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Traianus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; September 18, 53 – August 8, 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 AD until his death in 117 AD.
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Trebonianus Gallus (Gaius Vibius Afinius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus; 206 – August 253), also known as Gallus, was Roman Emperor from 251 to 253, in a joint rule with his son Volusianus.
Turahan Bey or Turakhan Beg (Turahan Bey/Beğ; Turhan Bej; Τουραχάνης, Τουραχάν μπέης or Τουραχάμπεης;PLP 29165 died in 1456) was a prominent Ottoman military commander and governor of Thessaly from 1423 until his death in 1456.
Valens (328 – 9 August 378), fully Flavius Julius Valens Augustus (flavivs ivlivs valens avgvstvs), was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
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Valentinian I (Flavius Valentinianus Augustus; 321 – 17 November 375), also known as Valentinian the Great, was Roman emperor from 364 to 375.
Flavius Valentinianus (371 – 15 May 392), commonly known as Valentinian II, was Roman Emperor from AD 375 to 392.
Valentinian III (Flavius Placidius Valentinianus Augustus; 2 July 419 – 16 March 455), was Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455.
Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus; 193/195/200 – 260 or 264, also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260 AD. He was taken captive by Sassanian Persian king Shapur I after the Battle of Edessa, becoming the only Roman Emperor who was captured as a prisoner of war, causing instability in the Empire.
Aurelius Valerius Valens (died 317) was Roman Emperor from late 316 to March 1, 317.
The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe, or group of tribes, who were first heard of in southern Poland, but later moved around Europe establishing kingdoms in Spain and later North Africa in the 5th century.
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Aelia Verina (died 484) was the Empress consort of Leo I of the Byzantine Empire.
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Verona (Venetian: Verona, Veròna) is a city straddling the Adige river in Veneto, northern Italy, with approximately 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven chef-lieus of the region.
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Vespasian (Titus Flāvius Caesar Vespasiānus Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became the third emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared Emperor by the Roman Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system at Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects. He built the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural sonJulius Caesar was succeeded by his adopted son Augustus, but Caesar was not styled an emperor, nor was he Augustus's biological father. and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
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Vetranio (Flavius Vetranio Augustus; died c. 356), sometimes incorrectly referred to as Vetriano, was a Roman soldier and statesman, a native of the province of Moesia (in modern Serbia).
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Vinkovci is a city in Slavonia, in the Vukovar-Srijem County in eastern Croatia.
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The Visigoths (UK:; US:, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi) were branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
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Vitalian (Flavius Vitalianus, Βιταλιανός; died 520) was a general of the East Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus; 24 September 15 – 22 December 69) was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69.
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Vladimir Sviatoslavich the Great (Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse as Valdamarr Sveinaldsson, Влади́мир, Vladimir, Володимир, Volodymyr, Уладзiмiр, Uladzimir; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.
Volusianus (Gaius Vibius Volusianus Augustus; died August 253), also known as Volusian, was a Roman Emperor from 251 to 253.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire consists of the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with (or only nominally subordinate to) that administering the eastern half.
The Year of the Five Emperors refers to the year 193 AD, in which there were five claimants for the title of Roman Emperor.
The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, AD 69, in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.
Zeno the Isaurian (Flavius Zeno Augustus; Ζήνων; c. 425 – 9 April 491), originally named Tarasis Kodisa RousombladadiotesThe sources call him "Tarasicodissa Rousombladadiotes", and for this reason it was thought his name was Tarasicodissa. However, it has been demonstrated that this name actually means "Tarasis, son of Kodisa, Rusumblada", and that "Tarasis" was a common name in Isauria (R.M. Harrison, "The Emperor Zeno's Real Name", Byzantinische Zeitschrift 74 (1981) 27–28)., was Byzantine Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire under Julius Nepos, but he contributed much to stabilizing the eastern Empire. In ecclesiastical history, Zeno is associated with the Henotikon or "instrument of union", promulgated by him and signed by all the Eastern bishops, with the design of solving the monophysite controversy.
Zoe Karbonopsina, also Karvounopsina or Carbonopsina, i.e., "with the Coal-Black Eyes" (Ζωή Καρβωνοψίνα, Zōē Karbōnopsina), was fourth wife of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise and the mother of Constantine VII.
Zoe (Ζωή, Zōē meaning "life") (978 – June 1050) reigned as Byzantine Empress alongside her sister Theodora from April 19 to June 11, 1042.
Year 173 (CLXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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