451 relations: Acacian schism, Aemilianus, Africa (Roman province), Agrippina the Younger, Alba, Piedmont, Alexander (Byzantine emperor), Alexios I Komnenos, Alexios II Komnenos, Alexios III Angelos, Alexios IV Angelos, Alexios Komnenos (co-emperor), Alexios V Doukas, Amorium, Anastasian War, Anastasios II, Anastasius I Dicorus, Anatolic Theme, Andronikos Doukas (co-emperor), Andronikos I Komnenos, Andronikos II Palaiologos, Andronikos III Palaiologos, Andronikos IV Palaiologos, Andronikos V Palaiologos, Anthemius, Antonine Plague, Antoninus Pius, Anzio, Apotheosis, Appanage, Aquileia, Arabissus, Arbogast (general), Arcadius, Ariadne (empress), Arles, Armenians, Arqa, Artabasdos, Aspar, Athens, Augustus, Aurelian, Avitus, Balbinus, Balkans, Bardas, Basil I, Basil II, Basil Lekapenos, Basiliscus, ..., Battle of Abritus, Battle of Adrianople, Battle of Ankara, Battle of Bedriacum, Battle of Cap Bon (468), Battle of Carthage (238), Battle of Edessa, Battle of Manzikert, Battle of Naissus, 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The Acacian schism, between the Eastern and Western Christian Churches lasted thirty-five years, from 484 to 519.
Aemilianus (Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus Augustus; c. 207/213 – 253), also known as Aemilian, was Roman Emperor for three months in 253.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
Agrippina the Younger (Latin: Julia Agrippina; 6 November AD 15 – 23 March AD 59), also referred to as Agrippina Minor (Minor, which is Latin for "the Younger") was a Roman empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Alba (Alba Pompeia) is a town and comune of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Cuneo.
Alexander (Αλέξανδρος, Alexandros, 870 6 June 913), sometimes numbered Alexander III,Enumerated after Alexander Severus, and the usurper Domitius Alexander.
Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός., c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.
Alexios II Komnenos or Alexius II Comnenus (translit) (10 September 1169October 1183) was Byzantine emperor from 1180 to 1183.
Alexios III Angelos (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) (1211) was Byzantine Emperor from March 1195 to July 17/18, 1203.
Alexios IV Angelos or Alexius IV Angelus (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) (c. 1182 – 8 February 1204) was Byzantine Emperor from August 1203 to January 1204.
Alexios Komnenos, latinised as Alexius Comnenus (Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός), was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos and his wife Eirene of Hungary.
Alexios V Doukas, Alexios V Doukas Mourtzouphlos or Alexius V Ducas (Ἀλέξιος Εʹ Δούκας; December 1204) was Byzantine emperor from 5 February to 12 April 1204 during the second and final siege of Constantinople by the participants of the Fourth Crusade.
Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838.
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The Anastasian War was fought from 502 to 506 between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanid Empire.
Anastasius (Greek: Ἀρτέμιος Ἀναστάσιος Β΄), known in English as Anastasios II or Anastasius II (died 719), was the Byzantine Emperor from 713 to 715.
Anastasius I (Flavius Anastasius Augustus; Ἀναστάσιος; 9 July 518) was Byzantine Emperor from 491 to 518.
The Anatolic Theme (Άνατολικόν, Anatolikon), more properly known as the Theme of the Anatolics (Greek: θέμα Άνατολικῶν, thema Anatolikōn) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) in central Asia Minor (modern Turkey).
Andronikos Doukas (Ἀνδρόνικος Δούκας), Latinized as Andronicus Ducas, was the third son of Byzantine emperor Constantine X Doukas (r. 1059–1067) and younger brother of Byzantine emperor Michael VII Doukas (r. 1071–1078).
Andronikos I Komnenos (Ανδρόνικος Αʹ Κομνηνός, Andrónikos I Komnēnós; – 12 September 1185), usually Latinized as Andronicus I Comnenus, was Byzantine Emperor from 1183 to 1185.
Andronikos II Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Βʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332), usually Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 11 December 1282 to 23 or 24 May 1328.
Andronikos III Palaiologos (Ανδρόνικος Γʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1297 – 15 June 1341), commonly Latinized as Andronicus III Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 1328 to 1341.
Andronikos IV Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Δ' Παλαιολόγος; 11 April 1348 – 25/28 June 1385), often Latinized as Andronicus IV Palaeologus, was the eldest son of Emperor John V Palaiologos.
Andronikos V Palaiologos (or Andronicus V Palaeologus) (Ανδρόνικος Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (c. 1400 – c. 1407) was co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire with his father John VII Palaiologos.
Anthemius (Latin: Procopius Anthemius Augustus) (c. 420 – 11 July 472) was Western Roman Emperor from 467 to 472.
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The Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (from the name of the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it), was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.
Anzio is a city and comune on the coast of the Lazio region of Italy, about south of Rome.
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Apotheosis (from Greek ἀποθέωσις from ἀποθεοῦν, apotheoun "to deify"; in Latin deificatio "making divine"; also called divinization and deification) is the glorification of a subject to divine level.
An appanage or apanage (pronounced) or apanage is the grant of an estate, title, office, or other thing of value to a younger male child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture.
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Aquileia (Acuilee/Aquilee/Aquilea;bilingual name of Aquileja - Oglej in: Venetian: Aquiłeja/Aquiłegia; Aglar/Agley/Aquileja; Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times.
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Arabissus (Αραβισσóς) was a town in the Roman province of Armenia Secunda.
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Flavius Arbogastes (died September 8, 394), or Arbogast, was a Frankish general in the Roman Empire.
Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius Augustus; Ἀρκάδιος; 1 January 377 – 1 May 408) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 395 to 408.
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Aelia Ariadne (c. 450 – 515) was the Empress consort of Zeno and Anastasius I of the Roman Empire.
Arles (Provençal Arle in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.
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Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
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Arqa (عرقا.) (Phoenician: Irqata; ערקת, 'Arqat in the Bible) is a Sunni village near Miniara in Akkar Governorate, Lebanon, 22 km northeast of Tripoli, near the coast.
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Artavasdos or Artabasdos (Ἀρταύασδος or Ἀρτάβασδος, from Armenian: Արտավազդ, Artavazd, Ardavazt), Latinized as Artabasdus, was a Byzantine general of Armenian descent who seized the throne from June 741 or 742 until November 743.
Flavius Ardabur Aspar (c. 400471) was an Eastern Roman patrician and magister militum ("master of soldiers") of Alanic-Gothic descent.
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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
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Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
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Marcus Maecilius Flavius Eparchius Avitus c. 380/395 – after 17 October 456 or in 457) was Western Roman Emperor from 8 or 9 July 455 to 17 October 456. He was a senator and a high-ranking officer both in the civil and military administration, as well as Bishop of Piacenza. A Gallo-Roman aristocrat, he opposed the reduction of the Western Roman Empire to Italy alone, both politically and from an administrative point of view. For this reason, as Emperor he introduced several Gallic senators in the Imperial administration; this policy, however, was opposed by the Senatorial aristocracy and by the people of Rome, who had suffered from the sack of the city by the Vandals in 455. Avitus had a good relationship with the Visigoths, in particular with their king Theodoric II, who was a friend of his and who acclaimed Avitus Emperor. The possibility of a strong and useful alliance between the Visigoths and Romans faded, however, when Theodoric invaded Hispania at Avitus' behest, which rendered him unable to help Avitus against the rebel Roman generals who deposed him.
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Balbinus (Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus Pius Augustus; c. 178 – 29 July 238), was Roman Emperor with Pupienus for three months in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors.
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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
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Bardas (Βάρδας; died 21 April 866) was a Byzantine noble and high-ranking minister.
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Basil I, called the Macedonian (Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών, Basíleios ō Makedṓn; 811 – August 29, 886) was a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886.
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Basil II (Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.
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Basil Lekapenos (Βασίλειος Λεκαπηνός; ca. 925 – ca. 985), also called Basil the Parakoimomenos or Basil the Nothos (Βασίλειος ο Νόθος, "Basil the Bastard"), was an illegitimate child of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos who served as the parakoimomenos and chief minister of the Byzantine Empire for most of the period 947–985, under emperors Constantine VII (his brother-in-law), Nikephoros II Phokas, John I Tzimiskes, and Basil II (his half-sister's grandson).
Basiliscus (Flavius Basiliscus Augustus; Βασιλίσκος; d. 476/477) was Eastern Roman or Byzantine Emperor from 475 to 476.
The Battle of Abritus, also known as the Battle of Forum Terebronii, occurred near Abritus (modern Razgrad) in the Roman province of Moesia Inferior probably in July 251 between the Roman Empire and a federation of Scythian tribesmen under the Goth king Cniva.
The Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between an Eastern Roman army led by the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (largely Thervings as well as Greutungs, non-Gothic Alans, and various local rebels) led by Fritigern.
The Battle of Ankara (or Angora) was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Çubuk plain near Ankara between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and Timur (Tamerlane), ruler of the Timurid Empire.
The Battle of Bedriacum refers to two battles fought during the Year of the Four Emperors (69) near the village of Bedriacum (now Calvatone), about from the town of Cremona in northern Italy.
The Battle of Cap Bon was an engagement during a joint military expedition of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires led by Basiliscus against the Vandal capital of Carthage in 468.
The Battle of Carthage was fought in 238 AD between a Roman army loyal to Emperor Maximinus Thrax and the forces of Emperors Gordian I and Gordian II.
The Battle of Edessa took place between the armies of the Roman Empire under the command of Emperor Valerian and Sassanid forces under Shahanshah (King of the Kings) Shapur I in 260.
The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).
The Battle of Naissus (268 or 269 AD) was the defeat of a Gothic coalition by the Roman Empire under Emperor Gallienus (or Claudius II) near Naissus (Niš in present-day Serbia).
The Battle of Pliska or Battle of Vărbitsa Pass was a series of battles between troops, gathered from all parts of the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Nicephorus I Genik, and Bulgaria, governed by Khan Krum.
The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312.
The Battle of the Save was fought in 388 between the forces of Roman usurper Magnus Maximus and the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Battle of Verona was fought between the Roman general and usurper Decius, and Roman Emperor Philip the Arab in 249.
The Bessi (Βῆσσοι or Βέσσοι) were an independent Thracian tribe who lived in a territory ranging from Moesia to Mount Rhodope in southern Thrace, but are often mentioned as dwelling about Haemus, the mountain range that separates Moesia from Thrace and from Mount Rhodope to the northern part of Hebrus.
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The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
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The Byzantine civil war of 1321–1328 was a series of conflicts fought in the 1320s between the Byzantine emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos and his grandson Andronikos III Palaiologos over control of the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347, sometimes referred to as the Second Palaiologan Civil War, was a conflict that broke out in the Byzantine Empire after the death of Andronikos III Palaiologos over the guardianship of his nine-year-old son and heir, John V Palaiologos.
The Byzantine civil war of 1352–1357 marks the continuation and conclusion of a previous conflict that lasted from 1341 to 1347.
Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantine Iconoclasm (Εἰκονομαχία, Eikonomachía, literally, "image struggle" or "struggle over images") refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities within the Eastern Church and the temporal imperial hierarchy.
The Byzantine Senate or Eastern Roman Senate (Σύγκλητος, Synklētos, or Γερουσία, Gerousia) was the continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. It survived for centuries, but even with its already limited power that it theoretically possessed, the Senate became increasingly irrelevant until its eventual disappearance circa 14th century.
The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
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Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.
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Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.
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Carinus (Marcus Aurelius Carinus Augustus; died 285) was Roman Emperor from 283 to 285.
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Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
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Carus (Marcus Aurelius Carus Augustus; c. 222 – July or August 283) was Roman Emperor from 282 to 283, and was 60 at ascension.
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Flavius Castinus held the position of ''patricius'' in the court of Roman Emperor Honorius at the time of the Emperor's death, and most likely for some time before.
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Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
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Cherchell (older Cherchel, شرشال) is a seaport town in the Province of Tipaza, Algeria, 55 miles west of Algiers.
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The Theme of Cherson (θέμα Χερσῶνος, thema Chersōnos), originally and formally called the Klimata (Greek: τὰ Κλίματα) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) located in the southern Crimea, headquartered at Cherson.
Christopher Lekapenos or Lecapenus (Χριστόφορος Λακαπηνός) was the eldest son of Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos (r. 920–944) and co-emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire from 921 until his death in 931.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
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Claudius Gothicus (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus;Jones, pg. 209 May 10, 210 – January 270), also known as Claudius II, was Roman emperor from 268 to 270.
Clodius Albinus (Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus; c. 150 – 19 February 197) was a Roman usurper who was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain and Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) after the murder of Pertinax in 193 (known as the "Year of the Five Emperors"), and who proclaimed himself emperor again in 196, before his final defeat the following year.
Coca is a municipality in the province of Segovia, central Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile and Leon.
Commodus (31 August 161– 31 December 192AD), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from177 to his father's death in 180, and solely until 192.
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Constans (Flavius Julius Constans Augustus;Jones, p. 220 Κῶνστας Αʹ; c. 323 – 350) or Constans I was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350.
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Constans II (Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668.
Constans IIJones, pg.
Symbatios (Συμβάτιος, from the Armenian Smbat), variously also Sabbatios (Σαββάτιος) or Sambates (Σαμβάτης) in some sources,.
Constantine Doukas or Ducas (Κωνσταντίνος Δούκας, Kōnstantinos Doukas), (late 1074 – 1095) was Byzantine junior emperor from 1074–1078, and again from 1081–1087.
Constantine II (Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus;Jones, pg. 223 January/February 316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340.
Constantine III (Κωνσταντῖνος Γ΄; Heraclius Novus Constantinus Augustus; 3 May 612 – 20 April or 24/26 May 641) was Eastern Roman Emperor for four months in 641, making him the shortest reigning Byzantine emperor.
Flavius Claudius Constantinus,Jones, pg.
Constantine IV (translit; Flavius Constantinus Augustus; c. 652 – 14 September 685), sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos (Πωγωνάτος), "the Bearded", out of confusion with his father, was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685.
Constantine IX Monomachos, Latinized as Constantine IX Monomachus (translit; c. 1000 – 11 January 1055), reigned as Byzantine emperor from June 11, 1042 to January 11, 1055.
Constantine Laskaris (Greek Κωνσταντίνος Λάσκαρης) was Byzantine Emperor for a few months from 1204 to early 1205.
Constantine Lekapenos or Lecapenus (Κωνσταντίνος Λακαπηνός) was the third son of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos (r. 920–944), and co-emperor from 924 to 945.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantine V (Κωνσταντῖνος Ε΄; July, 718 AD – September 14, 775 AD), denigrated by his enemies as Kopronymos or Copronymus, meaning the dung-named, was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775.
Constantine VI (Κωνσταντῖνος Ϛ΄, Kōnstantinos VI; 771 – before 805Cutler & Hollingsworth (1991), pp. 501–502) was Byzantine Emperor from 780 to 797.
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
Constantine VIII (Κωνσταντῖνος Η΄, Kōnstantinos VIII) (960 – 11 November 1028) was the Byzantine Emperor from 15 December 1025 until his death in 1028.
Constantine X Doukas or Dukas, Latinized as Ducas (Κωνσταντῖνος Ι΄ Δούκας, Kōnstantinos X Doukas, 1006 – 22 May 1067) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 24 November 1059 to 22 May 1067.
Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Constantius I (Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus;Martindale, pg. 227 31 March 25 July 306), commonly known as Constantius Chlorus (Χλωρός, Kōnstantios Khlōrós, literally "Constantius the Pale"), was Caesar, a form of Roman co-emperor, from 293 to 306.
Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor.
Constantius III (Latin: Flavius Constantius Augustus), was Western Roman Emperor in 421, from 8 February 421 to 2 September 421.
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
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The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
Dacia Aureliana was a province in the eastern half of the Roman Empire established by Roman Emperor Aurelian in the territory of former Moesia Superior after his evacuation of Dacia Traiana beyond the Danube in 271.
Dara or Daras (Δάρας) was an important East Roman fortress city in northern Mesopotamia on the border with the Sassanid Empire.
Dardania (Δαρδανία; Dardania) was a Roman province in the Central Balkans, initially an unofficial region in Moesia (87–284), then a province administratively part of the Diocese of Moesia (293–337).
De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.
The De Ceremoniis (fully De cerimoniis aulae Byzantinae) is the conventional Latin name for a Greek book of ceremonial protocol at the court of the Byzantine emperors in Constantinople.
A death by natural causes, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is the end result of an illness or an internal malfunction of the body not directly caused by external forces, typically due to old age.
Trajan Decius (Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius Augustus; c. 201June 251) was Roman Emperor from 249 to 251.
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Where a monarchy is not hereditary, but relies on election, the reigning monarch may try to influence the succession by the designation of a preferred candidate.
The Despotate of Epirus (Δεσποτάτο της Ηπείρου) was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 by a branch of the Angelos dynasty.
The Despotate of the Morea (Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μορέως) or Despotate of Mystras (Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μυστρᾶ) was a province of the Byzantine Empire which existed between the mid-14th and mid-15th centuries.
Diadumenian (Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus Augustus) (September 14/19, 208 – 218), was briefly Roman Emperor, in 218.
Didius Julianus (Marcus Didius Severus Julianus Augustus; 30 January 133 or 2 February 137 – 1 June 193) was Roman emperor for nine weeks from March to June 193, during the Year of the Five Emperors.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
The origins of the word domesticus can be traced to the late 3rd century of the Late Roman army.
The Dominate or late Roman Empire is the name sometimes given to the "despotic" later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire.
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Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96 AD) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.
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The Duchy of Athens (Greek: Δουκᾶτον Ἀθηνῶν, Doukaton Athinon; Catalan: Ducat d'Atenes) was one of the Crusader states set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade, encompassing the regions of Attica and Boeotia, and surviving until its conquest by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
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The dynatoi (δυνατοί, "the powerful") was a legal term in the Byzantine Empire used from the 10th century on, denoting the senior levels of civil, military and ecclesiastic (including monastic) officialdom, who usually, but not always, also commanded considerable fortunes and landed estates.
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The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.
Elagabalus, also known as Heliogabalus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 203 – 11 March 222), was Roman emperor from 218 to 222.
The Empire of Nicaea or the Nicene Empire was the largest of the three Byzantine GreekA Short history of Greece from early times to 1964 by W. A. Heurtley, H. C. Darby, C. W. Crawley, C. M. Woodhouse (1967), page 55: "There in the prosperous city of Nicaea, Theodoros Laskaris, the son in law of a former Byzantine Emperor, establish a court that soon become the Small but reviving Greek empire." rump states founded by the aristocracy of the Byzantine Empire that fled after Constantinople was occupied by Western European and Venetian forces during the Fourth Crusade.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
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Eudokia Makrembolitissa (or Eudocia Macrembolitissa) (Εὐδοκία Μακρεμβολίτισσα) (c.1021 – 1096) was a Byzantine Empress by marriage to Emperor Constantine X Doukas.
The Exarchate of Africa was a division of the Byzantine Empire centered at Carthage, Tunisia, which encompassed its possessions on the Western Mediterranean.
The Excubitors (excubitores or excubiti, literally "those out of bed", i.e. "sentinels"; transcribed into Greek as ἐξκουβίτορες or ἐξκούβιτοι) were founded in c. 460 as the imperial guards of the early Byzantine emperors.
Eudokia or Eudocia (c. 580 – 13 August 612), originally named Fabia, was a Byzantine woman who became the first empress-consort of Heraclius from 610 to her death in 612.
Falacrine (Falacrīnum or vīcus Phalacrīnae; Falacrine) was a village of Ancient Rome that was the birthplace of the emperor Vespasian (9-79AD).
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The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
This is a family tree of the Roman Emperors, showing only the relationships between the emperors.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Ferentino is a town and comune in Italy, in the province of Frosinone, Lazio, southeast of Rome.
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The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
Florianus (Marcus Annius Florianus Augustus; died 276), also known as Florian, was Roman Emperor in 276, from July to September.
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The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.
Galba (Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus; 24 December 3 BC – 15 January 69 AD) was Roman emperor for seven months from 68 to 69.
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Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus; c. 250 – April or May 311) was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311.
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Aelia Galla Placidia (388 – 27 November 450), daughter of the Roman emperor Theodosius I, was regent to Valentinian III from 423 until his majority in 437, and a major force in Roman politics for most of her life.
Gallia Lugdunensis (French: Gaule Lyonnaise) was a province of the Roman Empire in what is now the modern country of France, part of the Celtic territory of Gaul formerly known as Celtica.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus; c. 218 – 268), also known as Gallien, was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268.
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Gamzigrad is an archaeological site, spa resort and UNESCO World Heritage Site of Serbia, located south of the Danube river, near the city of Zaječar.
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George Maniakes (transliterated as Georgios Maniaces, Maniakis, or Maniaches,; died 1043) was a prominent Eastern Roman general during the 11th century, he was the catepan of Italy in 1042.
George Mouzalon (Γεώργιος Μουζάλων, Geōrgios Mouzalōn; ca. 1220 – 25 August 1258) was a high official of the Empire of Nicaea - an empire that covered part of what is now Turkey - under Theodore II Laskaris (r. 1254–1258).
Germanicus (Latin: Germanicus Julius Caesar; 24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the Roman Empire, who was known for his campaigns in Germania.
Geta (Latin: Publius, or Lucius, Septimius Geta Augustus;In Classical Latin, Geta's name would be inscribed as PVBLIVS SEPTIMIVS GETA AVGVSTVS. 7 March 189 – 26 December 211) was Roman emperor with his father Septimius Severus and older brother Caracalla from 209, when he was named Augustus like his brother, who had held the title since 198.
Glycerius (Latin: D(ominus) N(oster) Glycerius Augustus) (after 474 AD) was Western Roman Emperor from 473 to 474.
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Gordian I (Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus; c. 159 AD – 12 April 238 AD) was Roman Emperor for 21 days with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors.
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Gordian II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus; c. 192 – April 12, 238) was Roman Emperor for 21 days with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors.
Gordian III (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius Augustus; 20 January 225 AD – 11 February 244 AD) was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
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Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
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Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus; Γρατιανός; 18 April/23 May 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor from 367 to 383.
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Gundobad (Flavius Gundobadus; 452 – 516 AD) was King of the Burgundians (473 – 516), succeeding his father Gundioc of Burgundy.
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Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
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The Henotikon (or in English; Greek ἑνωτικόν henōtikón "act of union") was a christological document issued by Byzantine emperor Zeno in 482, in an unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the differences between the supporters of the Council of Chalcedon and the council's opponents.
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Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
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Heraclius the Elder (Heraclius; Ἡράκλειος; died 610) was an East Roman (Byzantine) general and the father of Byzantine emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641).
Constantine Heraclius (Κωνσταντῖνος Ἡράκλειος; Latin: Flavius Constantinus Heraclius (Heraclianus) Augustus; 626–641), commonly known by the diminutive Heraklonas or Herakleonas (Ἡρακλωνᾶς/Ἡρακλεωνᾶς), or rarely, Heraclius II, was the son of Heraclius and his niece Martina.
Herennius Etruscus (Caesar Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius Augustus; 227–June 251), was Roman emperor in 251, ruling jointly with his father Decius.
Heterochromia is a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
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Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula).
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
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Honorius (Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423) was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423.
Hostilian (Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus Augustus, November 251) was a Roman emperor from July to November 251.
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Flavius Illus (Ἰλλός) (died 488) was a Byzantine general, who played an important role in the reigns of the Byzantine Emperors Zeno and Basiliscus.
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In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
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The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
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The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’.
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An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order.
Irene of Athens (Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία; 752 – 9 August 803 AD), also known as Irene Sarantapechaina (Εἰρήνη Σαρανταπήχαινα), was Byzantine empress consort by marriage to Leo IV from 775 to 780, Byzantine regent during the minority of her son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, and finally ruling Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress from 797 to 802.
Isaac I Komnenos (or Comnenus) (Ισαάκιος A' Κομνηνός, Isaakios I Komnēnos; c. 1007 – 1060/61) was Byzantine Emperor from 1057 to 1059, the first reigning member of the Komnenos dynasty.
Isaac II Angelos or Angelus (Ἰσαάκιος Β’ Ἄγγελος, Isaakios II Angelos; September 1156 – January 1204) was Byzantine Emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204.
Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus (Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios Komnēnos; 16 January 1093 – after 1152) was the third son of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) and Empress Irene Doukaina.
Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus (Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios Komnēnos; – after 1154), was the third son of Byzantine Emperor John II Komnenos by Piroska of Hungary.
Isauria (or; Ἰσαυρία), in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods, but generally covering what is now the district of Bozkır and its surroundings in the Konya Province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains.
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Italica (Itálica; north of modern-day Santiponce, 9 km NW of Seville, Spain) was an elaborate Roman city in the province of Hispania Baetica and the birthplace of Roman Emperors Trajan and Hadrian.
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Ioannes, (Latin: Iohannes Augustus) known in English as Joannes or even John, was a Roman usurper (423–425) against Valentinian III.
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John I Tzimiskes (Iōánnēs I Tzimiskēs; c. 925 – 10 January 976) was the senior Byzantine Emperor from 11 December 969 to 10 January 976.
John II Komnenos or Comnenus (Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos; 13 September 1087 – 8 April 1143) was Byzantine Emperor from 1118 to 1143.
John III Doukas Vatatzes, Latinized as Ducas Vatatzes (Ιωάννης Γ΄ Δούκας Βατάτζης, Iōannēs III Doukas Vatatzēs, c. 1193, Didymoteicho – 3 November 1254, Nymphaion), was Emperor of Nicaea from 1222 to 1254.
John IV Doukas Laskaris (or Ducas Lascaris) (Ἰωάννης Δ΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις, Iōannēs IV Doukas Laskaris) (December 25, 1250 – c. 1305) was emperor of Nicaea from August 18, 1258, to December 25, 1261.
John Kourkouas (Ἰωάννης Κουρκούας, fl. circa 915–946), also transliterated as Kurkuas or Curcuas, was one of the most important generals of the Byzantine Empire.
John the Orphanotrophos (Ἰωάννης ὁ Ὀρφανοτρόφος), was the chief court eunuch (parakoimomenos) during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Romanos III (r. 1028–1034).
John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos; 18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341 at age of eight.
John VI Kantakouzenos, Cantacuzenus, or Cantacuzene (Ἰωάννης ΣΤʹ Καντακουζηνός, Iōannēs ST′ Kantakouzēnos; Johannes Cantacuzenus; – 15 June 1383) was a Greek nobleman, statesman, and general.
John VII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs Z' Palaiologos; 1370 – 22 September 1408) was Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390.
John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Iōannēs Palaiologos; 18 December 1392 – 31 October 1448) was the penultimate reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling from 1425 to 1448.
Joseph Bringas (Ὶωσῆφ Βρίγγας) was an important Byzantine eunuch official in the reigns of Emperor Constantine VII (r. 945–959) and Emperor Romanos II (r. 959–963), serving as chief minister and effective regent during the latter.
Jovian (Flavius Jovianus Augustus; Ἰοβιανός; 331 – 17 February 364) was Roman Emperor from 363 to 364.
Julia the Elder (30 October 39 BC – AD 14), known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or Julia Augusti filia (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS•FILIA or IVLIA•AVGVSTI•FILIA), was the daughter and only biological child of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Julius NeposMartindale 1980, s.v. Iulius Nepos (3), pp.
Justin I (Flavius Iustinus Augustus; Ἰουστῖνος; 2 February 450 – 1 August 527) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 518 to 527.
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Justin II (Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus; Φλάβιος Ἰουστῖνος ὁ νεώτερος; c. 520 – 5 October 578) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 565 to 574.
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Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Justinian II (Ἰουστινιανός Β΄, Ioustinianos II; Flavius Iustinianus Augustus; 668 – 11 December 711), surnamed the Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus (ὁ Ῥινότμητος, "the slit-nosed"), was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711.
Justiniana Prima (Latin: Iustiniana Prima, Јустинијана Прима/Justinijana Prima or Царичин Град/Caričin Grad) was a Byzantine city that existed from 535 to 615, and currently an archaeological site, near today's Lebane, Leskovac district in southern Serbia.
Kahramanmaraş is a city in the Mediterranean Region, Turkey and the administrative center of Kahramanmaraş Province.
The Kingdom of Commagene (Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς; Կոմմագենեի թագավորություն) was an ancient Armenian kingdom of the Hellenistic period, located in and around the ancient city of Samosata, which served as its capital.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
Komnenos (Κομνηνός), Latinized Comnenus, plural Komnenoi or Comneni (Κομνηνοί), is a noble family who ruled the Byzantine Empire from 1081 to 1185, and later, as the Grand Komnenoi (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, Megalokomnenoi) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1461).
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Konstantios Doukas (Κωνστάντιος Δούκας, 1060–1082), Latinized as Constantius Ducas, was a junior Byzantine Emperor from 1060–1078, and a senior Byzantine Emperor for a short time in 1078.
Lanuvium (more frequently Lanivium in Imperial Roman times, later Civita Lavinia, modern Lanuvio) is an ancient city of Latium (Lānŭuĭum or Lānĭuĭum), some southeast of Rome, a little southwest of the Via Appia.
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The term Last of the Romans (Ultimus Romanorum) has historically been used to describe a man thought to embody the values of Ancient Roman civilization—values which, by implication, became extinct on his death.
The Empire of Romania (Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
Leo I (Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus; 401 – 18 January 474) was an Eastern Roman Emperor from 457 to 474.
Leo II (Flavius Leo Augustus; Λέων Β', Leōn II; 468 – 10 November 474) was briefly the Byzantine (East Roman) emperor in 474AD when he was a child aged 7.
Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian (Leōn III ho Isauros; 675 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741.
Leo IV the Khazar (Greek: Λέων Δ΄ ὁ Χάζαρος, Leōn IV ho Khazaros; 25 January 750 – 8 September 780) was Byzantine Emperor from 775 to 780 AD.
Leo Phokas (Λέων Φωκᾶς) was an early 10th-century Byzantine general of the noble Phokas clan.
Leo Tornikios (Λέων Τορνίκιος) was a mid-11th century Byzantine general and noble.
Leo V the Armenian (Λέων ὁ ἐξ Ἀρμενίας, Leōn ho ex Armenias; 775 – 24 December 820) was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 813 to 820.
Leo VI, called the Wise or the Philosopher (Λέων ΣΤ΄ ὁ Σοφός, Leōn VI ho Sophos, 19 September 866 – 11 May 912), was Byzantine Emperor from 886 to 912.
Leontios (or Leontius) (Λεόντιος, Leontius Augustus) (d. 15 February 706) was Byzantine emperor from 695 to 698.
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Leptis Magna (also Lepcis, Berber: Lubta, Neo-Punic: lpqy) was a prominent city in Roman Libya.
Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.
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Libius Severus (Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius Augustus) (Lucania, c. 420 – 15 August 465), also Severus III, was Western Roman Emperor from November 19, 461 to his death.
Licinius I (Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus;In Classical Latin, Licinius' name would be inscribed as GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. c. 263 – 325) was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324.
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This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
Damnatio memoriae was the ancient Roman practice of erasing the names of disgraced individuals from public memory.
This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.
A list of all of the Roman dictators and magistri equitum known from ancient sources.
The following is a list of usurpers in the Roman Empire.
Livia Drusilla (Classical Latin: Livia•Drvsilla, Livia•Avgvsta) (30 January 58 BC – 28 September 29 AD), also known as Julia Augusta after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14, was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser.
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The logothetēs tou genikou (λογοθέτης τοῦ γενικοῦ), often called genikos logothetēs or simply ho genikos (Greek: ὁ γενικός), and usually rendered in English as the General Logothete, was in charge of the "general financial ministry", the genikon logothesion of the middle Byzantine Empire.
The logothetēs toū stratiōtikou (λογοθέτης τοῦ στρατιωτικοῦ), rendered in English as the Logothete of the Military or Military Logothete, was a Byzantine imperial official in charge of the pay and provisioning of the Byzantine army.
Lucania (Leukanía) was an ancient area of Southern Italy.
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Lucius Verus (Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus; 15 December 130 – 23 January 169 AD) was the co-emperor of Rome with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius from 161 until his own death in 169.
Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon, France) was an important Roman city in Gaul.
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The Theme of Macedonia (θέμα Μακεδονίας) was a military-civilian province (theme) of the Byzantine Empire established between the late 8th century and the early 9th century.
Macedonian Renaissance is a label sometimes used to describe the period of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire (867–1056), especially the 10th century, which some scholars have seen as a time of increased interest in classical scholarship and the assimilation of classical motifs into Christian artwork.
Macrinus (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus; – June 218) was Roman Emperor from April 217 to 8 June 218.
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Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great.
Magnentius (Latin: Flavius Magnus Magnentius Augustus; r. 303 – August 11, 353) was an usurper of the Roman Empire from 350 to 353.
Magnus Maximus (Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus, Macsen Wledig) (August 28, 388) was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388.
Flavius Julius Valerius Majorianus (c. AD 420 – August 7, 461), usually known simply as Majorian, was the Western Roman Emperor from 457 to 461.
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Mangana (Μάγγανα) was one of the quarters of Byzantine-era Constantinople.
Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.
Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, Manouēl II Palaiologos; 27 June 1350 – 21 July 1425) was Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425.
Marcellinus (died August 468) was a Roman general and patrician who ruled over the region of Dalmatia in the Western Roman Empire and held sway with the army there from 454 until his death.
Marcian (Flavius Marcianus Augustus; Μαρκιανός; 392 – 26 January 457) was the Eastern Roman Emperor from 450 to 457.
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Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
Tacitus (Marcus Claudius Tacitus Augustus;Jones, pg. 873 c. 200 – June 276), was Roman Emperor from 275 to 276.
Maria of Antioch (1145–1182) was a Byzantine empress by marriage to Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos, and regent during the minority of her son porphyrogennetos Alexios II Komnenos from 1180 until 1182.
Martina (died after 641) was the second Empress consort of the Byzantine Empire by marriage to Heraclius, and Regent in 641 with her son.
Martinci is a village in Serbia.
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Martinian (in full Latin form: Sextus Marcius Martinianus), who died in 325, was Roman Emperor from July to September 18, 324.
Matthew Asen Kantakouzenos or Cantacuzenus (Greek: Ματθαίος Ασάνης Καντακουζηνός, Matthaios Asanēs Kantakouzēnos, Bulgarian: Матей Асен Кантакузин, "Matey Asen Kantakuzin" c. 1325 – 15 June 1383) was Byzantine Emperor from 1353 to 1357.
Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania; both pronounced) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb.
Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus;; 539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.
Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus; c. 278 – 28 October 312) was Roman Emperor from 306 to 312.
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Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus; c. 250 – c. July 310) was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305.
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Maximinus II (Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus Daia Augustus; 20 November c. 270 – July or August 313), also known as Maximinus Daia or Maximinus Daza, was Roman Emperor from 308 to 313.
Maximinus Thrax (Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus Augustus; c. 173 – May 238), also known as Maximinus I, was Roman Emperor from 235 to 238.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
Michael I Rhangabe (Μιχαῆλ Ῥαγγαβέ, Michaēl Rhangabe; c. 770 – 11 January 844) was Byzantine Emperor from 811 to 813.
Michael II (Μιχαήλ Β', Mikhaēl II), (770- 829), surnamed the Amorian (ὁ ἐξ Ἀμορίου) or the Stammerer (ὁ Τραυλός or ὁ Ψελλός), reigned as Byzantine Emperor from 25 December 820 to his death on 2 October 829, the first ruler of the Phrygian or Amorian dynasty.
Michael III (Μιχαήλ Γʹ, Mikhaēl III; January 19, 840 – September 23/24, 867) was Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867.
Michael IV the Paphlagonian (Μιχαὴλ (Δ´) ὁ Παφλαγών, Mikhaēl ho Paphlagōn; 1010 – 10 December 1041) was Byzantine Emperor from 11 April 1034 to his death on 10 December 1041.
Michael IX Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Μιχαήλ Θ΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl IX Palaiologos), (17 April 1277 – 12 October 1320, Thessalonica, reigned as Byzantine co-emperor with full imperial style 1294/1295–1320. Michael IX was the eldest son of Andronikos II Palaiologos and Anna of Hungary, daughter of Stephen V of Hungary.
Michael V (Greek: Μιχαήλ Ε΄, Mikhaēl V; 1015 – 24 August 1042) was Byzantine emperor for four months in 1041–1042, the nephew and successor of Michael IV and the adoptive son of his wife, the Empress Zoe.
Michael VI Bringas (Μιχαήλ ΣΤ΄ Βρίγγας, Mikhaēl VI Bringas), called Stratiotikos or Stratioticus ("the Military One", "the Warlike", or "the Bellicose") or Gerontas ("the Old"), reigned as Byzantine emperor from 1056 to 1057.
Michael VII Doukas or Dukas/Ducas (Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ Δούκας, Mikhaēl VII Doukas), nicknamed Parapinakes (Παραπινάκης, lit. "minus a quarter", with reference to the devaluation of the Byzantine currency under his rule), was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078.
Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Μιχαὴλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos; 1223 – 11 December 1282) reigned as Byzantine Emperor 1259–1282.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
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Mizizios (Μιζίζιος; Մժէժ, Mžēž or Mzhezh) was an Armenian noble who served as a general of Byzantium, later usurping the Byzantine throne in Sicily from 668 to 669.
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Moesia (Latin: Moesia; Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River.
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Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
The Muslim conquest of Sicily began in June 827 and lasted until 902, when the last major Byzantine stronghold on the island, Taormina, fell.
The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām) or Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Quintus Naevius Cordus Sutorius Macro (21 BC – 38 AD) was a prefect of the Praetorian Guard, from 31 until 38, serving under the Roman Emperors Tiberius and Caligula.
Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo,; Late Latin:Narbona) is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region.
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Narni (in Latin, Narnia) is an ancient hilltown and comune of Umbria, in central Italy, with 20,385 inhabitants (2008 census).
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Nea Moni (Νέα Μονή, lit. "New Monastery") is an 11th-century monastery on the island of Chios that has been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
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Nerva (Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus; 8 November 30 – 27 January 98 AD) was Roman emperor from 96 to 98.
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Niš (Ниш) is the third-largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District.
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Nicaea or Nicea (Νίκαια, Níkaia; İznik) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.
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Nicholas I Mystikos or Nicholas I Mysticus (Νικόλαος Α΄ Μυστικός, Nikolaos I Mystikos; 852 – 11 May 925) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from March 901 to February 907 and from May 912 to his death in 925.
Nikephoros I, or Nicephorus I (Νικηφόρος Α΄, Nikēphoros I; died July 26, 811), was Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska.
Nikephoros II Phokas (Latinized: Nicephorus II Phocas; Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphóros II Phōkãs; c. 912 – 11 December 969) was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969.
Nikephoros III Botaneiates, Latinized as Nicephorus III Botaniates (Νικηφόρος Βοτανειάτης, 1002 – 10 December 1081), was Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081.
Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes, that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.
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The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
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Numerian (Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus Augustus; died 20 November 284) was Roman Emperor from 283 to 284 with his older brother Carinus.
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Flavius Odoacer (c. 433Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. 2, s.v. Odovacer, pp. 791–793 – 493 AD), also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar (Odoacre, Odoacer, Odoacar, Odovacar, Odovacris), was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).
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Olybrius (Anicius Olybrius Augustus) (died October 22 or November 2, 472) was Western Roman Emperor from April or May 472 until his death; his rule was not recognised as legitimate by the Eastern Roman Empire.
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On Weights and Measures is a historical, lexical, metrological, and geographical treatise compiled in 392 CE in Constantia by Epiphanius of Salamis (c. 315–403).
The Opsician Theme (θέμα Ὀψικίου, thema Opsikiou) or simply Opsikion (Greek: Ὀψίκιον, from Obsequium) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) located in northwestern Asia Minor (modern Turkey).
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Orestes (died 28 August 476) was a Roman general and politician of Pannonian ancestry, who was briefly in control of the remnant Western Roman Empire in 475 and 476.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
Otho (Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus; 28 April 32 – 16 April 69 AD) was Roman emperor for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69.
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The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Palaiologos (Palaiologoi; Παλαιολόγος, pl. Παλαιολόγοι), also found in English-language literature as Palaeologus or Palaeologue, was the name of a Byzantine Greek family, which rose to nobility and ultimately produced the last ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.
Palladius (c. 415/425 – May 455) was Caesar of the Western Roman Empire for two months in 455, together with his father Petronius Maximus.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
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Pannonia Inferior, lit.
Paulicians (Պաւղիկեաններ, Pawłikeanner; Παυλικιανοί; Arab sources: Baylakānī, al Bayālika)Nersessian, Vrej (1998).
The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of relative peace and stability experienced by the Roman Empire between the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, and the death of Marcus Aurelius, last of the "good emperors".
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.
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Pertinax (Publius Helvius Pertinax Augustus; 1 August 126 – 28 March 193) was a Roman military leader and Roman Emperor for the first three months of 193, succeeding Commodus to become the first emperor during the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors.
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Pescennius Niger (Gaius Pescennius Niger Augustus; c. 135/140 – 194) was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors.
Petronius Maximus (Latin: Flavius Anicius Petronius Maximus Augustus) (c. 396 – 31 May 455Drinkwater, pg. 118) was Western Roman Emperor for two and a half months in 455.
Marcus Julius Philippus Severus, also known as Philippus II, Philip II and Philip the Younger (238–249) was the son and heir of the Roman Emperor Philip the Arab by his wife Roman Empress Marcia Otacilia Severa.
Marcus Julius Philippus (Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus 204 – 249 AD), also known commonly by his nickname Philip the Arab (Philippus Arabus, also known as Philip or Philip I), was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249.
Philippikos or Philippicus (Φιλιππικός) was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 711 to 713.
Phocas (Flavius Phocas Augustus; Φωκᾶς, Phokas; – 5 October 610) was Byzantine Emperor from 602 to 610.
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Phokas or Phocas (Φωκᾶς), feminine form Phokaina (Greek: Φώκαινα), was the name of a Byzantine aristocratic clan from Cappadocia, which in the 9th and 10th centuries provided a series of high-ranking generals and an emperor, Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963–969).
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
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Piacenza (Piacentino: Piaṡëinsa) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
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The Plague of Cyprian is the name given to a pandemic that afflicted the Roman Empire from about AD 249 to 262.
Marcus Cassianius Latinius PostumusJones & Martindale (1971), p. 720 was a Roman commander of provincial origin who ruled as emperor in the west.
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The Praetorian Guard (Latin: cohortes praetorianae) was an elite unit of the Imperial Roman army whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Roman emperors.
The praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was a high office in the Roman Empire.
Princeps (plural: principes) is a Latin word meaning "first in time or order; the first, foremost, chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person".
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The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate.
The Principality of Achaea or of the Morea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade.
The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in 27 BC to the end of the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate.
Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus; c. 19 August 232 – September/October 282), was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282.
Saint Aelia Pulcheria (Πουλχερία; 19 January 398 or 399 – July 453) was Regent of the Byzantine Empire during the minority of her brother Theodosius II, and empress by marriage to Marcian.
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Pupienus (Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus Augustus; born c. 165/170 – 29 July 238), also known as Pupienus Maximus, was Roman Emperor with Balbinus for three months in 238, during the Year of the Six Emperors.
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Quintillus (Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus Augustus; c. 212 – April 270) was Roman Emperor for a few months in 270.
Raetia (also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
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Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
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Flavius Ricimer (Classical; c. 405 – August 18, 472) was a Romanized Germanic general who effectively ruled the remaining territory of the Western Roman Empire from 461 until his death in 472, with a brief interlude in which he contested power with Anthemius.
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The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29, 1453.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
"Italia" was the name of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
Romanos I Lekapenos or Lakapenos (Ρωμανός Α΄ Λακαπηνός, Rōmanos I Lakapēnos; c. 870 – June 15, 948), Latinized as Romanus I Lecapenus, was an Armenian who became a Byzantine naval commander and reigned as Byzantine Emperor from 920 until his deposition on December 16, 944.
Romanos (or Romanus) II (Greek: Ρωμανός Β΄, Rōmanos II) (938 – 15 March 963) was a Byzantine Emperor.
Romanos III Argyros, or Romanus III Argyrus (Ρωμανός Γ΄ Αργυρός, Rōmanos III Argyros; 968 – 11 April 1034), was Byzantine emperor from 15 November 1028 until his death.
Romanos IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης, Rōmanós IV Diogénēs), also known as Romanus IV, was a member of the Byzantine military aristocracy who, after his marriage to the widowed empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, was crowned Byzantine emperor and reigned from 1068 to 1071.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
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Flavius Romulus Augustus (c. AD 460–after AD 476; possibly still alive as late as AD 507), known derisively and historiographically as Romulus Augustulus, was a Roman emperor and alleged usurper who ruled the Western Roman Empire from 31 October AD 475 until 4 September AD 476.
The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.
The siege and sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade.
The Sack of Thessalonica in 904 by Saracen pirates was one of the worst disasters to befall the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century.
Salona (Σάλωνα) was an ancient city and the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia.
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Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus (c. 242 – 260) was Roman Emperor in 260.
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Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
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The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Ali ibn Abu'l-Hayja 'Abdallah ibn Hamdan ibn al-Harith al-Taghlibi (سيف الدولة أبو الحسن ابن حمدان), more commonly known simply by his laqab (honorific epithet) of Sayf ud-Dawla ("Sword of the Dynasty"), was the founder of the Emirate of Aleppo, encompassing most of northern Syria and parts of western Jazira, and the brother of al-Hasan ibn Abdallah ibn Hamdan (better known as Nasir al-Dawla).
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; c.207 - 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty.
Shahba (شهبا / ALA-LC: Shahbā) is a city located 87 km south of Damascus in the Jabal el Druze in As-Suwayda Governorate of Syria, but formerly in the Roman province of Arabia Petraea.
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Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
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The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674–678 was a major conflict of the Arab–Byzantine wars, and the first culmination of the Umayyad Caliphate's expansionist strategy towards the Byzantine Empire, led by Caliph Mu'awiya I. Mu'awiya, who had emerged in 661 as the ruler of the Muslim Arab empire following a civil war, renewed aggressive warfare against Byzantium after a lapse of some years and hoped to deliver a lethal blow by capturing the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.
The Second Arab siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople.
Silentiarius, Hellenized to silentiarios (σιλεντιάριος) and Anglicized to silentiary, was the Latin title given to a class of courtiers in the Byzantine imperial court, responsible for order and silence (silentium) in the Great Palace of Constantinople.
Silivri (Selymbria) is a city and a district in Istanbul Province along the Sea of Marmara in Turkey, outside metropolitan Istanbul, containing many holiday and weekend homes for residents of the city.
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Simeon (also Symeon) I the Great (Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp.
Singidunum (Сингидунум/Singidunum, from Celtic *Sindi-dūn-) is the name for the ancient city which evolved into Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
Sirmium was a city in the Roman province of Pannonia.
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Aelia Sophia (c. 530 – c./aft. 601) was the Empress consort of Justin II of the Byzantine Empire, and regent during the incapacity of her spouse from 573 until 578.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
SPQR is an initialism of a phrase in ("The Roman Senate and People", or more freely as "The Senate and People of Rome"), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome.
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Staurakios or Stauracius (Σταυράκιος; After 778 – 11 January 812AD) was Byzantine Emperor from 26 July to 2 October 811.
Stephen Lekapenos or Lecapenus (Στέφανος Λακαπηνός; died 18 April 963) was the second son of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos (r. 920–944), and co-emperor from 924 to 945.
Strategos or Strategus, plural strategoi, (στρατηγός, pl.; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general.
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Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria refers to a conflict beginning in 967/968 and ending in 971, carried out in the eastern Balkans, and involving the Kievan Rus', Bulgaria, and the Byzantine Empire.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Tauresium (Тауресиум, Ancient Greek Tavresion, Ταυρήσιον) or known as Gradište (Градиште) is an archaeological site in Macedonia, approximately southeast of the capital Skopje.
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Terni (Interamna Nahars) is a city in the southern portion of the region of Umbria in central Italy.
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Terracina is a city and comune of the province of Latina - (until 1934 of the province of Rome), Italy, southeast of Rome by rail and by the Via Appia by car.
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Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
Theoderic the Great (454 – 30 August 526), often referred to as Theodoric (*𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃,, Flāvius Theodericus, Teodorico, Θευδέριχος,, Þēodrīc, Þjōðrēkr, Theoderich), was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Roman Empire.
Theodora (Θεοδώρα, c. 815 – after 867) was a Byzantine Empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos' death in 842 to 855.
Theodora Porphyrogenita (Θεοδώρα, Theodōra; AD 980 – 31 August 1056) was a Byzantine Empress born into the Macedonian dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost two hundred years.
Theodoros I Komnenos Laskaris (Θεόδωρος Α' Λάσκαρις, Theodōros I Laskaris; c. 1174/5 – 1221/August 1222) was the first Emperor of Nicaea (reigned 1204/05–1221/22).
Theodore II Doukas Laskaris or Ducas Lascaris (Θεόδωρος Β΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις, Theodōros II Doukas Laskaris) (1221/1222 – August 18, 1258) was Emperor of Nicaea from 1254 to 1258.
Theodoric II, Teodorico in Spanish and Portuguese, (426 – early 466) was the eighth King of Visigoths from 453 to 466.
Theodosius (Θεοδόσιος; August 4, 583/585 – after November 27, 602) was the eldest son of Byzantine Emperor Maurice (r. 582–602) and was co-emperor from 590 until his deposition and execution during a military revolt in November 602.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.
Theodosios III or Theodosius III (Θεοδόσιος Γ΄) was Byzantine Emperor from 715 to 25 March 717.
Theophano (Greek: Θεοφανώ, Theophanō; 941- dead after 978) was a Byzantine Empress by marriage to Romanos II and Nikephoros II Phokas, and regent during the minority of her sons Basil II and Constantine VIII in 963.
Theophilos (Θεόφιλος; sometimes Latinized or Anglicized as Theophilus; 800-805 20 January 842 AD) was the Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842.
Theophylact or Theophylaktos (Θεοφύλακτος) was the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Michael I Rhangabe (r. 811–813) and grandson, on his mother's side, of Nikephoros I (r. 802–811).
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
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Thomas the Slav (Θωμᾶς ὁ Σλάβος, 760 – October 823 AD) was a 9th-century Byzantine military commander, most notable for leading a wide-scale revolt in 821–23 against Emperor Michael II the Amorian (ruled 820–29).
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
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Thracia or Thrace (Θρᾴκη Thrakē) is the ancient name given to the southeastern Balkan region, the land inhabited by the Thracians.
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The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
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Tiberius III (Τιβέριος Γʹ, Tiberios III; Tiberius Augustus; 15 February 706)Kazhdan, pg.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
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Tiberius (Τιβέριος, Tiberios; 705–711AD) was the son of Emperor Justinian II and Theodora of Khazaria.
Tiberius II Constantine (Flavius Tiberius Constantinus Augustus; Τιβέριος Βʹ; 520 – 14 August 582) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 574 to 582.
Titus (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81.
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Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
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Trebonianus Gallus (Gaius Vibius Afinius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus; 206 – August 253), also known as Gallus, was Roman Emperor from 251 to 253, in a joint rule with his son Volusianus.
Turahan Bey or Turakhan Beg (Turahan Bey/Beğ; Turhan Bej; Τουραχάνης, Τουραχάν μπέης or Τουραχάμπεης;PLP 29165 died in 1456) was a prominent Ottoman military commander and governor of Thessaly from 1423 until his death in 1456.
Valens (Flavius Julius Valens Augustus; Οὐάλης; 328 – 9 August 378) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
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Valentinian I (Flavius Valentinianus Augustus; Οὐαλεντινιανός; 3 July 32117 November 375), also known as Valentinian the Great, was Roman emperor from 364 to 375.
Valentinian II (Flavius Valentinianus Augustus; 37115 May 392), was Roman Emperor from AD 375 to 392.
Valentinian III (Flavius Placidius Valentinianus Augustus; 2 July 41916 March 455) was Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455.
Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus; 193/195/200260 or 264), also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260 CE.
Valerius Severus (Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus; died September 307), also Severus II, was a Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 307.
Aurelius Valerius Valens (died March 1, 317) was Roman Emperor from late 316 to March 1, 317.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
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Aelia Verina (died 484) was the Empress consort of Leo I of the Byzantine Empire.
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Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
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Vetranio (Flavius Vetranio Augustus; died c. 356), sometimes incorrectly referred to as Vetriano, was a Roman soldier and statesman, a native of the province of Moesia (in modern Serbia).
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Victor (Latin: Flavius Victor Augustus; Unknown – August 388AD) was a Western Roman Emperor from either 383/384 or 387 to August 388.
Vinkovci is a city in Slavonia, in the Vukovar-Srijem County in eastern Croatia.
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The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
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Vitalian (Flavius Vitalianus, Βιταλιανός; died 520) was a general of the East Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus; 24 September 15 – 22 December 69 AD) was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December AD 69.
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Vladimir the Great (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.
Volusianus (Imperator Caesar Gaius Vibius Volusianus Augustus; died August 253), also known as Volusian, was a Roman Emperor from 251 to 253.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Year of the Five Emperors refers to the year 193 AD, in which there were five claimants for the title of Roman Emperor: Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus and Septimius Severus.
The Year of the Four Emperors, 69 AD, was a year in the history of the Roman Empire in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.
Zeno the Isaurian (Flavius Zeno Augustus; Ζήνων; c. 425 – 9 April 491), originally named Tarasis Kodisa RousombladadiotesThe sources call him "Tarasicodissa Rousombladadiotes", and for this reason it was thought his name was Tarasicodissa. However, it has been demonstrated that this name actually means "Tarasis, son of Kodisa, Rusumblada", and that "Tarasis" was a common name in Isauria (R.M. Harrison, "The Emperor Zeno's Real Name", Byzantinische Zeitschrift 74 (1981) 27–28)., was Eastern Roman Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire following the deposition of Romulus Augustus and the death of Julius Nepos, but he contributed much to stabilising the eastern Empire. In ecclesiastical history, Zeno is associated with the Henotikon or "instrument of union", promulgated by him and signed by all the Eastern bishops, with the design of solving the monophysite controversy.
Zoë (Ζωή "life"; 978 – June 1050) reigned as Byzantine Empress alongside her sister Theodora from 10April to 11June 1042.
Zoe Karbonopsina, also Karvounopsina or Carbonopsina, i.e., "with the Coal-Black Eyes" (Ζωή Καρβωνοψίνα, Zōē Karbōnopsina), was an empress consort and regent of the Byzantine empire.
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