1651 relations: Abnormal psychology, Abrahamic religions, Academic department, Academic genealogy, Academic journal, Academic study of Western esotericism, Academy, Accompaniment, Accounting scholarship, Acoustical engineering, Acoustics, Acting, Action (philosophy), Actuarial science, Administrative law, Admiralty law, Advertising, Aerial warfare, Aerobics, Aerobiology, Aeronautics, Aerospace engineering, Aesthetics, Affect control theory, Affine geometry, African studies, Africana studies, Agnosticism, Agricultural chemistry, Agricultural economics, Agricultural education, Agricultural engineering, Agricultural policy, Agroecology, Agrology, Agronomy, Air combat manoeuvring, Algebra, Algebraic geometry, Algebraic number theory, Algebraic topology, Algorithm, Alternative education, Alternative medicine, American literature, American studies, Amphibious warfare, Analysis of variance, Analytic number theory, Analytic philosophy, ..., Analytical chemistry, Analytical sociology, Anarchism, Anarchist economics, Anatomical pathology, Anatomy, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Greece, Ancient history, Ancient philosophy, Ancient Rome, Ancient warfare, Andrology, Animal communication, Animal husbandry, Animal law, Animal rights, Animal science, Animation, Anthropological criminology, Anthropological linguistics, Anthropology, Anthropology of religion, Antipositivism, Appalachian studies, Applied economics, Applied ethics, Applied linguistics, Applied physics, Applied psychology, Approximation theory, Aquaculture, Arachnology, Architectural analytics, Architectural engineering, Architecture, Archival science, Areas of mathematics, Aristotelianism, Arithmetic combinatorics, Armoured warfare, Artificial intelligence, Artificial neural network, Artillery, Arts administration, Asian psychology, Asian studies, Assignment problem, Associative algebra, Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Astronautics, Astronomy, Astrophysical plasma, Astrophysics, Asymmetric warfare, Atheism, Athletic training, Atmospheric chemistry, Atomic, molecular, and optical physics, Attrition warfare, Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification, Australian studies, Automata theory, Automated reasoning, Automotive engineering, Bariatric surgery, Battle, Battlespace, Beekeeping, Behavioral economics, Behavioral geography, Behavioral neuroscience, Behavioural genetics, Biblical Hebrew, Biblical studies, Bibliometrics, Bilingual education, Biochemical engineering, Biochemical systems theory, Biochemistry, Biocybernetics, Bioethics, Biogeography, Bioinformatics, Biological anthropology, Biological engineering, Biological systems engineering, Biological warfare, Biomaterial, Biomechanical engineering, Biomechanics, Biomedical engineering, Biomolecular engineering, Biophysics, Biostatistics, Biotechnology, Black hole, Black psychology, Block design, Bootstrapping (statistics), Botany, Brass instrument, British literature, Broadcast journalism, Broadcasting of sports events, 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Expand index (1601 more) » « Shrink index
Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
An academic department is a division of a university or school faculty devoted to a particular academic discipline.
An academic, or scientific, genealogy, organizes a family tree of scientists and scholars according to mentoring relationships, often in the form of dissertation supervision relationships.
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.
Western Esotericism is an academic field of research, scholarship, and education that focuses on the history of European and Western esotericism.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Accompaniment is the musical part which provides the rhythmic and/or harmonic support for the melody or main themes of a song or instrumental piece.
Accounting scholarship is an academic discipline oriented towards the profession of accounting, usually taught at a business school.
Acoustical engineering (also known as acoustic engineering) is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
Acting is an activity in which a story is told by means of its enactment by an actor or actress who adopts a character—in theatre, television, film, radio, or any other medium that makes use of the mimetic mode.
In philosophy, an action is something which is done by an agent.
Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions.
Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government.
Admiralty law or maritime law is a body of law that governs nautical issues and private maritime disputes.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Aerial warfare is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare.
Aerobics is a form of physical exercise that combines rhythmic aerobic exercise with stretching and strength training routines with the goal of improving all elements of fitness (flexibility, muscular strength, and cardio-vascular fitness).
Aerobiology (from Greek ἀήρ, aēr, "air"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of biology that studies organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal spores, very small insects, pollen grains and viruses, which are passively transported by the air.
Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
In control theory, affect control theory proposes that individuals maintain affective meanings through their actions and interpretations of events.
In mathematics, affine geometry is what remains of Euclidean geometry when not using (mathematicians often say "when forgetting") the metric notions of distance and angle.
African studies is the study of Africa, especially the continent's cultures and societies (as opposed to its geology, geography, zoology, etc.). The field includes the study of Africa's history (Pre-colonial, colonial, post-colonial), demography (ethnic groups), culture, politics, economy, languages, and religion (Islam, Christianity, traditional religions).
Africana studies, black studies, African-American studies or Africology, in US education, is the multidisciplinary study of the histories, politics and cultures of peoples of African origin in both Africa and the African diaspora.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Agricultural chemistry is the study of both chemistry and biochemistry which are important in agricultural production, the processing of raw products into foods and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and remediation.
Agricultural economics is an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fibre—a discipline known as agricultural economics.
Agricultural Education is the teaching of agriculture, natural resources, and land management.
Agricultural Engineering is the engineering discipline that studies agricultural production and processing.
Agricultural policy describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products.
Agroecology is the study of ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems.
Agrology (from Greek ἀγρός, agros, "field, tilled land"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of soil science dealing with the production of crops.
Agronomy (Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.
Air combat manoeuvring (also known as ACM or dogfighting) is the tactical art of moving, turning and/or situating one's fighter aircraft in order to attain a position from which an attack can be made on another aircraft.
Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.
Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials.
Algebraic number theory is a branch of number theory that uses the techniques of abstract algebra to study the integers, rational numbers, and their generalizations.
Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Alternative education encompasses many pedagogical approaches differing from mainstream pedagogy.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
American literature is literature written or produced in the United States and its preceding colonies (for specific discussions of poetry and theater, see Poetry of the United States and Theater in the United States).
American studies or American civilization is an interdisciplinary field of scholarship that examines American history, society, and culture.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models and their associated estimation procedures (such as the "variation" among and between groups) used to analyze the differences among group means in a sample.
In mathematics, analytic number theory is a branch of number theory that uses methods from mathematical analysis to solve problems about the integers.
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Analytical sociology is a strategy for understanding the social world.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anarchist economics is the set of theories and practices of economic activity within the political philosophy of anarchism.
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or Anatomic pathology (U.S.) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period.
Andrology (from ἀνήρ, anēr, genitive ἀνδρός, andros, "man"; and -λογία, -logia) is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men.
Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behavior of the receivers.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Animal law is a combination of statutory and case law in which the nature legal, social or biological of nonhuman animals is an important factor.
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.
Animal Science (also Animal Bioscience) is described as "studying the biology of animals that are under the control of humankind." It can also be described as the production and management of farm animals.
Animation is a dynamic medium in which images or objects are manipulated to appear as moving images.
Anthropological criminology (sometimes referred to as criminal anthropology, literally a combination of the study of the human species and the study of criminals) is a field of offender profiling, based on perceived links between the nature of a crime and the personality or physical appearance of the offender.
Anthropological linguistics is the subfield of linguistics and anthropology, which deals with the place of language in its wider social and cultural context, and its role in making and maintaining cultural practices and societal structures.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Anthropology of religion is the study of religion in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures.
In social science, antipositivism (also interpretivism and negativism) proposes that the social realm cannot be studied with the scientific method of investigation applied to the natural world; investigation of the social realm requires a different epistemology.
Appalachian studies is the area studies field concerned with the Appalachian region of the United States.
Applied economics is the application of economic theory and econometrics in specific settings.
Applied ethics is the branch of ethics concerned with the analysis of particular moral issues in private and public life.
Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of linguistics which identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems.
Applied physics is intended for a particular technological or practical use.
Applied psychology is the use of psychological methods and findings of scientific psychology to solve practical problems of human and animal behavior and experience.
In mathematics, approximation theory is concerned with how functions can best be approximated with simpler functions, and with quantitatively characterizing the errors introduced thereby.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
Arachnology is the scientific study of spiders and related animals such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, and harvestmen, collectively called arachnids.
Architectural analytics is the field of study that focuses on the discovery and identification of meaningful patterns in architecture.
Architectural engineering, also known as building engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Archival science, or archival studies, is the study and theory of building and curating archives, which are collections of recordings and data storage devices.
Mathematics encompasses a growing variety and depth of subjects over history, and comprehension requires a system to categorize and organize the many subjects into more general areas of mathematics.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
In mathematics, arithmetic combinatorics is a field in the intersection of number theory, combinatorics, ergodic theory and harmonic analysis.
Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Arts administration (alternatively arts management) is the field that concerns business operations around an arts organization.
Asian psychology is a branch of cultural psychology that studies psychological concepts as they relate to Asian culture.
Asian studies, a term used usually in North America for Oriental studies and is concerned with the Asian people, their cultures, languages, history and politics.
The assignment problem is one of the fundamental combinatorial optimization problems in the branch of optimization or operations research in mathematics.
In mathematics, an associative algebra is an algebraic structure with compatible operations of addition, multiplication (assumed to be associative), and a scalar multiplication by elements in some field.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
Astrochemistry is the study of the abundance and reactions of molecules in the Universe, and their interaction with radiation.
Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An astrophysical plasma is a plasma (highly ionized gas) that occurs beyond the solar system.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Athletic training has been recognized by the American Medical Association (AMA) as an allied health care profession since June 1991.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions; at the scale of one or a few atoms and energy scales around several electron volts.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification (ANZSRC) is a set of three classifications developed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics to measure and analyse of research and development (R&D) undertaken in Australia and New Zealand.
Australia studies is the academic field of cultural studies of Australia.
Automata theory is the study of abstract machines and automata, as well as the computational problems that can be solved using them.
Automated reasoning is an area of computer science and mathematical logic dedicated to understanding different aspects of reasoning.
Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and marine engineering, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems.
Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity.
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants.
Battlespace is a term used to signify a unified military strategy to integrate and combine armed forces for the military theatre of operations, including air, information, land, sea, cyber and space to achieve military goals.
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.
Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory.
Behavioral geography is an approach to human geography that examines human behavior using a disaggregate approach.
Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.
Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Biblical studies is the academic application of a set of diverse disciplines to the study of the Bible (the Tanakh and the New Testament).
Bibliometrics is statistical analysis of written publications, such as books or articles.
Bilingual education involves teaching academic content in two languages, in a native and secondary language with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model.Bilingual education refers to the utilization of two languages as means of instruction for students and considered part of or the entire school curriculum.
Biochemical engineering also bioprocess engineering, is a branch of chemical engineering or biological engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules, such as bioreactors.
Biochemical systems theory is a mathematical modelling framework for biochemical systems, based on ordinary differential equations (ODE), in which biochemical processes are represented using power-law expansions in the variables of the system.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biocybernetics is the application of cybernetics to biological science, composed of biological disciplines that benefit from the application of cybernetics including neurology and multicellular systems.
Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.
Biological systems engineering or biosystems engineering is a broad-based engineering discipline with particular emphasis on biology and chemistry.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
A biomaterial is any substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical purpose - either a therapeutic (treat, augment, repair or replace a tissue function of the body) or a diagnostic one.
Biomechanical engineering is a bioengineering subdiscipline, which applies principles of mechanical engineering to biological systems and stems from the scientific discipline of biomechanics.
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic).
Biomolecular engineering is the application of engineering principles and practices to the purposeful manipulation of molecules of biological origin.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
Black psychology (also called African psychology) is an African cosmological lens applied to social or psychological phenomena.
In combinatorial mathematics, a block design is a set together with a family of subsets (repeated subsets are allowed at times) whose members are chosen to satisfy some set of properties that are deemed useful for a particular application.
In statistics, bootstrapping is any test or metric that relies on random sampling with replacement.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips.
British literature is literature in the English language from the United Kingdom, Isle of Man, and Channel Islands.
Broadcast journalism is the field of news and journals which are "broadcast", that is, published by electrical methods instead of the older methods, such as printed newspapers and posters.
The broadcasting of sports events (also known as a sportscast) is the live coverage of sports as a television program, on radio, and other broadcasting media.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist studies, also known as Buddhology (although the latter term is sometimes reserved for the study of Buddhas rather than that of Buddhism as a whole), is the academic study of Buddhism.
Business administration is management of a business.
Business analysis is a research discipline of identifying business needs and determining solutions to business problems.
Business economics is a field in applied economics which uses economic theory and quantitative methods to analyze business enterprises and the factors contributing to the diversity of organizational structures and the relationships of firms with labour, capital and product markets.
Business English is a part of English for specific purposes and can be considered a specialism within English language learning and teaching, or a variant of international English.
Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment.
Business informatics (BI) or organizational informatics is a discipline combining information technology (IT), informatics and management concepts.
Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.
Canadian studies is a college-level study of Canadian culture, the spoken languages of Canada, Canadian literature, Quebec, agriculture in Canada, the history of Canada, and Canadian government and politics.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
Caodaism (Chữ nôm: 道高臺) is a monotheistic religion officially established in the city of Tây Ninh in southern Vietnam in 1926.
Carcinology is a branch of zoology that consists of the study of crustaceans, a group of arthropods that includes lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, barnacles and crabs.
Cardiac electrophysiology is the science of elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
Cardiothoracic surgery (also known as thoracic surgery) is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax (the chest)—generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease) and lungs (lung disease).
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a labeled directed graph called a category, whose nodes are called objects, and whose labelled directed edges are called arrows (or morphisms).
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
For much of history, humans have used some form of cavalry for war and, as a result, cavalry tactics have evolved over time.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Celtic studies or Celtology is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to the Celtic people.
Central Asian studies is the discipline of studying the culture, history, and languages of Central Asia.
Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials.
Cetology (from Greek κῆτος, kētos, "whale"; and -λογία, -logia) or Whalelore is the branch of marine mammal science that studies the approximately eighty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoise in the scientific order Cetacea.
Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room.
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
A charge is a maneuver in battle in which combatants advance towards their enemy at their best speed in an attempt to engage in close combat.
Chemical biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
Chemical reaction engineering (reaction engineering or reactor engineering) is a specialty in chemical engineering or industrial chemistry dealing with chemical reactors.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics, chemioinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chemistry education (or chemical education) is the study of the teaching and learning of chemistry in all schools, colleges and universities.
Cheondoism (spelled Chondoism in North Korean sources) (Korean: Cheondogyo; hanja 天道教; hangul 천도교; literally "Religion of the Heavenly Way") is a 20th-century Korean religious ideology, based on the 19th-century Donghak religious movement founded by Ch'oe Che-u and codified under Son Pyŏng-Hi.
Child protection is the protection of children from violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect.
Child psychopathology refers to the scientific study of mental disorders in children and adolescents.
Children's geographies is an area of study within human geography and Childhood studies which involves researching the places and spaces of children's lives.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.
Choreography is the art or practice of designing sequences of movements of physical bodies (or their depictions) in which motion, form, or both are specified.
Christian ethics is a branch of Christian theology that defines virtuous behavior and wrong behavior from a Christian perspective.
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
Church music is music written for performance in church, or any musical setting of ecclesiastical liturgy, or music set to words expressing propositions of a sacred nature, such as a hymn.
Citation analysis is the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in documents.
Civics is the study of the theoretical, political and practical aspects of citizenship, as well as its rights and duties; the duties of citizens to each other as members of a political body and to the government.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
Civil law is a branch of the law.
Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters).
Classical archaeology is the archaeological investigation of the Mediterranean civilizations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.
A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
The Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) is a taxonomy of academic disciplines at institutions of higher education in the United States and Canada.
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Clinical neuropsychology is a sub-field of psychology concerned with the applied science of brain-behaviour relationships.
Clinical pathology (US, UK, Ireland, Commonwealth, Portugal, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Peru), Laboratory Medicine (Germany, Romania, Poland, Eastern Europe), Clinical analysis (Spain) or Clinical/Medical Biology (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, North and West Africa...), is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids, such as blood, urine, and tissue homogenates or extracts using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology.
Clinical physiology is both an academic discipline within the medical sciences and a clinical medical specialty for physicians in the health care systems of Sweden, Denmark and Finland.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.
In sports, a coach is a person involved in the direction, instruction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople.
Coastal engineering is a branch of civil engineering concerned with the specific demands posed by constructing at or near the coast, as well as the development of the coast itself.
Coastal geography is the study of the constantly changing region between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast.
Coastal management is defence against flooding and erosion, and techniques that stop erosion to claim lands.
Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes and their respective fitness for specific applications.
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
A cold war is a state of conflict between nations that does not involve direct military action but is pursued primarily through economic and political actions, propaganda, acts of espionage or proxy wars waged by surrogates.
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.
The expression collective behavior was first used by Franklin Henry Giddings (1908) and employed later by Robert E. Park (1921), Herbert Blumer (1939), Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian (1957), and Neil Smelser (1962) to refer to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure (laws, conventions, and institutions), but which emerge in a "spontaneous" way.
Combinatorics is an area of mathematics primarily concerned with counting, both as a means and an end in obtaining results, and certain properties of finite structures.
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a governmental policy governing economic transactions across international borders.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
A communication design is a mixed discipline between design and information-development which is concerned with how media intervention such as printed, crafted, electronic media or presentations communicate with people.
Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.
Community informatics (CI) is an interdisciplinary field that is concerned with using information and communication technology (ICT) to empower members of communities and support their social, cultural, and economic development.
Community organizing is a process where people who live in proximity to each other come together into an organization that acts in their shared self-interest.
Community practice also known as macro practice is a branch of social work in the United States of America that focuses on larger social systems and social change, and is tied to the historical roots of United States social work.
Community psychology studies the individuals' contexts within communities and the wider society,Jim Orford, Community Psychology: Challenges, Controversies and Emerging Consensus, John Wiley and Sons, 2008 and the relationships of the individual to communities and society.
Commutative algebra is the branch of algebra that studies commutative rings, their ideals, and modules over such rings.
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.
Comparative education Comparative education is a discipline in the social sciences which entails the scrutiny and evaluation of different educational systems, such as those in various countries.
Comparative law is the study of differences and similarities between the law of different countries.
Comparative literature is an academic field dealing with the study of literature and cultural expression across linguistic, national, and disciplinary boundaries.
Comparative politics is a field in political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method.
Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior.
Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.
Comparative sociology involves comparison of the social processes between nation states, or across different types of society (for example capitalist and socialist).
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers.
A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.
Complexity economics is the application of complexity science to the problems of economics.
Composition studies (also referred to as composition and rhetoric, rhetoric and composition, writing studies, or simply composition) is the professional field of writing, research, and instruction, focusing especially on writing at the college level in the United States.
Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, of computer science, and of the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.
Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.
Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.
Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.
Computational economics is a research discipline at the interface of computer science, economics, and management science.
Computational finance is a branch of applied computer science that deals with problems of practical interest in finance.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.
Computational geometry is a branch of computer science devoted to the study of algorithms which can be stated in terms of geometry.
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.
Computational mathematics may refer to two different aspect of the relation between computing and mathematics.
Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.
In mathematics and computer science, computational number theory, also known as algorithmic number theory, is the study of algorithms for performing number theoretic computations.
Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists.
Computational science (also scientific computing or scientific computation (SC)) is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems.
Computational sociology is a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena.
Computational statistics, or statistical computing, is the interface between statistics and computer science.
In computational mathematics, computer algebra, also called symbolic computation or algebraic computation, is a scientific area that refers to the study and development of algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects.
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of computer science and electronics engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is the broad usage of computer software to aid in engineering analysis tasks.
A conceptual system is a system that is composed of non-physical objects, i.e. ideas or concepts.
A concert band, also called wind ensemble, symphonic band, wind symphony, wind orchestra, wind band, symphonic winds, symphony band, or symphonic wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of members of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families of instruments, along with the double bass or bass guitar.
Conchology (from κόγχος konkhos, "cockle") is the study of mollusc shells.
Concurrent computing is a form of computing in which several computations are executed during overlapping time periods—concurrently—instead of sequentially (one completing before the next starts).
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert.
Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology and social psychology that emphasize a materialist interpretation of history, dialectical method of analysis, a critical stance toward existing social arrangements, and political program of revolution or, at least, reform.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
Conservation psychology is the scientific study of the reciprocal relationships between humans and the rest of nature, with a particular focus on how to encourage conservation of the natural world.
With respect to cultural heritage, conservation science is the interdisciplinary study of conservation of art, architecture, technical art history and other cultural works through the use of scientific inquiry.
Constitutional law is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments.
Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services, including the consumer's emotional, mental and behavioural responses that precede or follow these activities.
Consumer economics is a branch of economics.
Consumer education is the preparation of an individual through skills, concepts and understanding that are required for everyday living to achieve maximum satisfaction and utilization of his/her resources.
Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.
Contemporary philosophy is the present period in the history of Western philosophy beginning at the end of the 19th century with the professionalization of the discipline and the rise of analytic and continental philosophy.
Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.
Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Control engineering or control systems engineering is an engineering discipline that applies automatic control theory to design systems with desired behaviors in control environments.
A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.
Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.
Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.
In mathematics, convex geometry is the branch of geometry studying convex sets, mainly in Euclidean space.
Cooperative learning is an educational approach which aims to organize classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences.
Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
In criminal justice, particularly in North America, correction, corrections, and correctional, are umbrella terms describing a variety of functions typically carried out by government agencies, and involving the punishment, treatment, and supervision of persons who have been convicted of crimes.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
Cosmochemistry (from Greek κόσμος kósmos, "universe" and χημεία khemeía) or chemical cosmology is the study of the chemical composition of matter in the universe and the processes that led to those compositions.
Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health.
Counselor Education is a field focused on the preparation of students to professionally apply the theory and principles of guidance and counseling for the personal, social, educational, and vocational development of others.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".
A counter-offensive is the term used by the military to describe large-scale, usually strategic offensive operations by forces that had successfully halted the enemy's offensive, while occupying defensive positions.
A counterattack is a tactic employed in response to an attack, with the term originating in "war games".
In military combat, the concept of cover refers to anything which is capable of physically protecting an individual from enemy fire.
Creative nonfiction (also known as literary nonfiction or narrative nonfiction) is a genre of writing that uses literary styles and techniques to create factually accurate narratives.
Creative writing is any writing that goes outside the bounds of normal professional, journalistic, academic, or technical forms of literature, typically identified by an emphasis on narrative craft, character development, and the use of literary tropes or with various traditions of poetry and poetics.
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law.
Criminal psychology, also referred to as criminological psychology, is the study of the wills, thoughts, intentions, and reactions of criminals and all that partakes in the criminal behavior.
Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.
Critical management studies (CMS) is a loose but extensive grouping of theoretically informed critiques of management, business and organisation, grounded originally in a critical theory perspective.
Critical pedagogy is a philosophy of education and social movement that has developed and applied concepts from critical theory and related traditions to the field of education and the study of culture.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
Cross-cultural communication is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavour to communicate across cultures.
Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology and sister sciences (sociology, psychology, economics, political science) that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture.
Cryobiology is the branch of biology that studies the effects of low temperatures on living things within Earth's cryosphere or in science.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans.
Cultural geography is a subfield within human geography.
Cultural policy is the government actions, laws and programs that regulate, protect, encourage and financially (or otherwise) support activities related to the arts and creative sectors, such as painting, sculpture, music, dance, literature, and filmmaking, among others and culture, which may involve activities related to language, heritage and diversity.
Cultural psychology is the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members.
Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.
Culturology or science of culture is a branch of social sciences concerned with the scientific understanding, description, analysis, and prediction of cultures as a whole.
In education, a curriculum (plural: curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.
Curriculum and Instruction (C&I) is a field within education which seeks to research, develop, and implement curriculum changes that increase student achievement within and outside schools.
Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
A cyberweapon is a malware agent employed for military, paramilitary, or intelligence objectives.
Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with how the chromosomes relate to cell behaviour, particularly to their behaviour during mitosis and meiosis.
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.
Dance notation is the symbolic representation of human dance movement and form, using methods such as graphic symbols and figures, path mapping, numerical systems, and letter and word notations.
Data management comprises all disciplines related to managing data as a valuable resource.
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
Decision analysis (DA) is the discipline comprising the philosophy, theory, methodology, and professional practice necessary to address important decisions in a formal manner.
Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.
A defensive fighting position (DFP) is a type of earthwork constructed in a military context, generally large enough to accommodate anything from one man to a small number of soldiers.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
A dental hygienist or oral hygienist is a licensed dental professional, registered with a dental association or regulatory body within their country of practice.
A dental implant (also known as an endosseous implant or fixture) is a surgical component that interfaces with the bone of the jaw or skull to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture, facial prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor.
Dental surgery is any of a number of medical procedures that involve artificially modifying dentition; in other words, surgery of the teeth and jaw bones.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
Deontic logic is the field of philosophical logic that is concerned with obligation, permission, and related concepts.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
Dermatopathology (from Greek δέρμα, derma, "skin"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a joint subspecialty of dermatology and pathology and to a lesser extent of surgical pathology that focuses on the study of cutaneous diseases at a microscopic and molecular level.
Descriptive ethics, also known as comparative ethics, is the study of people's beliefs about morality.
The design of experiments (DOE, DOX, or experimental design) is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries.
Development geography is a branch of geography which refers to the standard of living and its quality of life of its human inhabitants.
Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Developmental systems theory (DST) is an overarching theoretical perspective on biological development, heredity, and evolution.
In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule (e.g., crime), as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores).
A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.
In mathematics, differential rings, differential fields, and differential algebras are rings, fields, and algebras equipped with finitely many derivations, which are unary functions that are linear and satisfy the Leibniz product rule.
Differential psychology studies the ways in which individuals differ in their behavior and the processes that underlie it.
In mathematics, differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds.
Digital humanities (DH) is an area of scholarly activity at the intersection of computing or digital technologies and the disciplines of the humanities.
In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.
Digital journalism also known as online journalism is a contemporary form of journalism where editorial content is distributed via the Internet as opposed to publishing via print or broadcast.
Digital sociology is a sub-discipline of sociology that focuses on understanding the use of digital media as part of everyday life, and how these various technologies contribute to patterns of human behavior, social relationships and concepts of the self.
A direct numerical simulation (DNS) is a simulation in computational fluid dynamics in which the Navier–Stokes equations are numerically solved without any turbulence model.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.
Discrete geometry and combinatorial geometry are branches of geometry that study combinatorial properties and constructive methods of discrete geometric objects.
Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school.
A distributed algorithm is an algorithm designed to run on computer hardware constructed from interconnected processors.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
A distributed database is a database in which storage devices are not all attached to a common processor.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
Dogmatic theology is that part of theology dealing with the theoretical truths of faith concerning God and God's works, especially the official theology recognized by an organized Church body, such as the Roman Catholic Church, Dutch Reformed Church, etc.
Domestic policy are administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a nation's borders.
Doxastic logic is a type of logic concerned with reasoning about beliefs.
The word Dramaturgy, is from the greek δραματουργέιν 'to write a drama'.
Dramaturgy is a sociological perspective commonly used in microsociological accounts of social interaction in everyday life.
Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.
A drug policy is the policy, usually of a government, regarding the control and regulation of drugs considered dangerous, particularly those which are addictive.
Drug policy reform, also known as drug law reform, is any proposed changes to the way governments respond to the socio-cultural influence on perception of psychoactive substance use.
Dual inheritance theory (DIT), also known as gene–culture coevolution or biocultural evolution, was developed in the 1960s through early 1980s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic evolution and cultural evolution.
Dynamic programming is both a mathematical optimization method and a computer programming method.
In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.
Dynamical systems theory is an area of mathematics used to describe the behavior of the complex dynamical systems, usually by employing differential equations or difference equations.
Early childhood education (ECE; also nursery education) is a branch of education theory which relates to the teaching of older children (formally and informally) up until the age of about eighteen (birth to Grade 2).
Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive, including artillery and firearms; for this reason the era is also referred to as the age of gunpowder warfare (a concept introduced by Michael Roberts in the 1950s).
Early music generally comprises Medieval music (500–1400) and Renaissance music (1400–1600), but can also include Baroque music (1600–1760).
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Earth systems engineering and management (ESEM) is a discipline used to analyze, design, engineer and manage complex environmental systems.
Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind.
In the study of comparative religion, the East Asian religions form a subset of the Eastern religions.
East Asian studies is a distinct multidisciplinary field of scholarly enquiry and education that promotes a broad humanistic understanding of East Asia past and present.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, and Indian philosophy (including Buddhist philosophy) which are dominant in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia.
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.
Ecological engineering uses ecology and engineering to predict, design, construct or restore, and manage ecosystems that integrate "human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both".
Ecological psychology is a term claimed by several schools of psychology with the main one involving the work of James J. Gibson and his associates, and another one the work of Roger G. Barker, Herb Wright and associates at the University of Kansas in Lawrence.
Ecological systems theory, also called development in context or human ecology theory, identifies five environmental systems with which an individual interacts.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Econometrics is the application of statistical methods to economic data and is described as the branch of economics that aims to give empirical content to economic relations.
Economic anthropology is a field that attempts to explain human economic behavior in its widest historic, geographic and cultural scope.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.
The economic history of the world is a record of the economic activities (i.e. the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services) of all humans, spanning both recorded history and evidenced prehistory.
The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy.
Economic sociology is the study of the social cause and effect of various economic phenomena.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
The Oxford English Dictionary defines economic warfare or economic war as involving "an economic strategy based on the use of measures (e.g. blockade) of which the primary effect is to weaken the economy of another state".
Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework.
Edaphology (from Greek ἔδαφος, edaphos, "ground", and -λογία, -logia) is one of two main divisions of soil science, the other being pedology.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Education policy consists of the principles and government policies in the educational sphere as well as the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.
School leadership is the process of enlisting and guiding the talents and energies of teachers, pupils, and parents toward achieving common educational aims.
Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning.
Educational technology is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources".
Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
Online Business or e-business is a term which can be used for any kind of business or commercial transaction that includes sharing information across the internet.
Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits) to design electronic circuits, devices, VLSI devices and their systems.
Electronic warfare (EW) is any action involving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum or directed energy to control the spectrum, attack of an enemy, or impede enemy assaults via the spectrum.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
Emergency management or disaster management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, and recovery).
Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with caring for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Endodontics (from the Greek roots endo- "inside" and odont- "tooth") is the dental specialty concerned with the study and treatment of the dental pulp.
Energy economics is a broad scientific subject area which includes topics related to supply and use of energy in societies.
Energy policy is the manner in which a given entity (often governmental) has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production, distribution and consumption.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Engineering cybernetics or technical cybernetics, established by H.S. Tsien, is a field of cybernetics, which deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems as well as chemical or biological systems.
Engineering geology is the application of the geology to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for.
Engineering physics or engineering science refers to the study of the combined disciplines of physics, mathematics and engineering, particularly computer, nuclear, electrical, electronic, materials or mechanical engineering.
This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States.
English studies (usually called simply English) is an academic discipline taught in primary, secondary, and post-secondary education in English-speaking countries; it is not to be confused with English taught as a foreign language, which is a distinct discipline.
Enterprise systems engineering (ESE) is the discipline that applies systems engineering to the design of an enterprise.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Entrepreneurial economics is the study of the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship within the economy.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
Environmental communication refers to the study and practice of how individuals, institutions, societies, and cultures craft, distribute, receive, understand, and use messages about the environment and human interactions with the environment.
Environmental economics is a sub-field of economics that is concerned with environmental issues.
Environmental engineering system is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factors; protection of environments, both local and global, from potentially deleterious effects of natural and human activities; and improvement of environmental quality.
Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to including the non-human world.
Environmental history is the study of human interaction with the natural world over time, emphasising the active role nature plays in influencing human affairs and vice versa.
Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.
Environmental policy is the commitment of an organization to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues.
Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings.
Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Environmental sociology is the study of interactions between societies and their natural environments.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ergodic theory (Greek: έργον ergon "work", όδος hodos "way") is a branch of mathematics that studies dynamical systems with an invariant measure and related problems.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Ethnic studies, in the United States, is the interdisciplinary study of difference—chiefly race, ethnicity, and nation, but also sexuality, gender, and other such markings—and power, as expressed by the state, by civil society, and by individuals.
Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people.
Ethnochoreology (also dance ethnology, dance anthropology) is the study of dance through the application of a number of disciplines such as anthropology, musicology, ethnomusicology, ethnography, etc.
Ethnoecology is the scientific study of how different groups of people living in different locations understand the ecosystems around them, and their relationships with surrounding environments.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Ethnohistory is the study of cultures and indigenous peoples' customs by examining historical records as well as other sources of information on their lives and history.
Ethnolinguistics (sometimes called cultural linguistics) is a field of linguistics that studies the relationship between language and culture and how different ethnic groups perceive the world.
Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "nation") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them (cf. cultural, social, or sociocultural anthropology).
Ethnomethodology is the study of methods people use for understanding and producing the social order in which they live.
Ethnomusicology is the study of music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it.
Ethnozoology is the study of the past and present interrelationships between human cultures and the animals in their environment.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
European studies is a field of study offered by many academic colleges and universities that focuses on current developments in European integration.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Evolutionary economics is part of mainstream economics as well as a heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
Exercise physiology is the physiology of physical exercise.
Experimental archaeology (also called experiment archaeology and experiential archaeology) is a field of study which attempts to generate and test archaeological hypotheses, usually by replicating or approximating the feasibility of ancient cultures performing various tasks or feats.
Experimental economics is the application of experimental methods to study economic questions.
Experimental physics is the category of disciplines and sub-disciplines in the field of physics that are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments.
Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it.
In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert.
A faculty is a division within a university or college comprising one subject area, or a number of related subject areas.
Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.
Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.
Fashion design is the art of applying design, aesthetics and natural beauty to clothing and its accessories.
Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure (or one or more faults within) some of its components.
Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.
Feminine psychology is an approach that focuses on social, economic, and political issues confronting women all throughout their lives.
Feminist economics is the critical study of economics including its methodology, epistemology, history and empirical research, attempting to overcome alleged androcentric (male and patriarchal) biases.
Feminist geography is an approach in human geography which applies the theories, methods and critiques of feminism to the study of the human environment, society and geographical space.
Feminist philosophy is an approach to philosophy from a feminist perspective and also the employment of philosophical methods to feminist topics and questions.
Feminist sociology is a conflict theory and theoretical perspective which observes gender in its relation to power, both at the level of face-to-face interaction and reflexivity within a social structure at large.
Femtochemistry is the area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales (approximately 10−15 seconds or one femtosecond, hence the name) in order to study the very act of atoms within molecules (reactants) rearranging themselves to form new molecules (products).
Fiction is any story or setting that is derived from imagination—in other words, not based strictly on history or fact.
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.
Figurational sociology is a research tradition in which figurations of humans—evolving networks of interdependent humans—are the unit of investigation.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films and the film medium.
Film studies is an academic discipline that deals with various theoretical, historical, and critical approaches to films.
Film theory is a set of scholarly approaches within the academic discipline of cinema studies that questions the essentialism of cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large.
Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
Financial econometrics is the application of statistical methods to financial market data.
Financial economics is the branch of economics characterized by a "concentration on monetary activities", in which "money of one type or another is likely to appear on both sides of a trade".
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.
The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.
A finite geometry is any geometric system that has only a finite number of points.
Fire ecology is a scientific discipline concerned with natural processes involving fire in an ecosystem and the ecological effects, the interactions between fire and the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem, and the role of fire as an ecosystem process.
Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires.
Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire.
In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy.
Fisheries management is the activity of protecting fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible, drawing on fisheries science, and including the precautionary principle.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
In flow chemistry, a chemical reaction is run in a continuously flowing stream rather than in batch production.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Food engineering is a multidisciplinary field which combines microbiology, applied physical sciences, chemistry and engineering for food and related industries.
Food policy is the area of public policy concerning how food is produced, processed, distributed, and purchased.
Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food.
Foodservice (US English) or catering industry (British English) defines those businesses, institutions, and companies responsible for any meal prepared outside the home.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting.
Forensic developmental psychology is a field of psychology that focuses on "children's actions and reactions in a forensic context" and "children's reports that they were victims or witnesses of a crime".
Forensic entomology is the scientific study of the invasion of the succession pattern of arthropods with their developmental stages of different species found on the decomposed cadavers during legal investigations.
Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse.
Forensic psychology is the intersection between psychology and the justice system.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.
In computer science, specifically software engineering and hardware engineering, formal methods are a particular kind of mathematically based techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems.
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosophical theories concerning the nature of mathematics.
In mathematics, Fourier analysis is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions.
Fourth-generation warfare (4GW) is conflict characterized by a blurring of the lines between war and politics, combatants and civilians.
In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.
Futures studies (also called futurology) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them.
Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1.
The study of galaxy formation and evolution is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time, and the processes that have generated the variety of structures observed in nearby galaxies.
Galois geometry (so named after the 19th century French Mathematician Évariste Galois) is the branch of finite geometry that is concerned with algebraic and analytic geometry over a finite field (or Galois field).
Game design is the art of applying design and aesthetics to create a game for entertainment or for educational, exercise, or experimental purposes.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
Gamma-ray astronomy is the astronomical observation of gamma rays,Astronomical literature generally hyphenates "gamma-ray" when used as an adjective, but uses "gamma ray" without a hyphen for the noun.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
Gemology or gemmology is the science dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials.
Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.
General practice is the name given in the United Kingdom to the service provided by General practitioners.
In mathematics, general topology is the branch of topology that deals with the basic set-theoretic definitions and constructions used in topology.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
In mathematics, geometric topology is the study of manifolds and maps between them, particularly embeddings of one manifold into another.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
In number theory, the geometry of numbers studies convex bodies and integer vectors in n-dimensional space.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.
Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials.
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.
German studies is the field of humanities that researches, documents, and disseminates German language and literature in both its historic and present forms.
Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing.
Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Grand strategy or high strategy comprises the "purposeful employment of all instruments of power available to a security community".
In mathematics, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects.
A category of fine art, graphic art covers a broad range of visual artistic expression, typically two-dimensional, i.e. produced on a flat surface.
Graphic design is the process of visual communication and problem-solving through the use of typography, photography and illustration.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The green economy is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment.
Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.
Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that take place predominantly on the battlespace land surface of the planet.
Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics).
In the mathematical field of representation theory, group representations describe abstract groups in terms of linear transformations of vector spaces; in particular, they can be used to represent group elements as matrices so that the group operation can be represented by matrix multiplication.
In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Harmonic analysis is a branch of mathematics concerned with the representation of functions or signals as the superposition of basic waves, and the study of and generalization of the notions of Fourier series and Fourier transforms (i.e. an extended form of Fourier analysis).
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.
Health informatics (also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics) is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information.
Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society".
Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare.
Health technology is defined by the World Health Organization as the application of organized knowledge and skills in the form of devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem and improve quality of life.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
Helioseismology, a term coined by Douglas Gough, is the study of the structure and dynamics of the Sun through its oscillations.
Helminthology is the study of parasitic worms (helminths), while helminthiasis describes the medical condition of being infected with helminths.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
Hematopathology or hemopathology is the study of diseases and disorders affecting blood cells, their production, and any organs and tissues involved in hematopoiesis, such as bone marrow, the spleen, and the thymus.
Hepatology is the branch of medicine that incorporates the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas as well as management of their disorders.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
Heterosexism is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships.
High availability is a characteristic of a system, which aims to ensure an agreed level of operational performance, usually uptime, for a higher than normal period.
High energy astronomy is the study of astronomical objects that release electromagnetic radiation of highly energetic wavelengths.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) is the official agency for the collection, analysis and dissemination of quantitative information about higher education in the United Kingdom.
Highway engineering is an engineering discipline branching from civil engineering that involves the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of roads, bridges, and tunnels to ensure safe and effective transportation of people and goods.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.
Historic preservation (US), heritage preservation or heritage conservation (UK), is an endeavour that seeks to preserve, conserve and protect buildings, objects, landscapes or other artifacts of historical significance.
Historical geography is the branch of geography that studies the ways in which geographic phenomena have changed over time.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
Historical sociology is a branch of sociology focusing on how societies develop through history.
Historical theology as a branch of theology investigates the socio-historical and cultural mechanisms that give rise to theological ideas, statements, and systems.
The history of Africa begins with the emergence of hominids, archaic humans and – around 5.6 to 7.5 million years ago.
The history of Asia can be seen as the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions such as, East Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe.
The History of Australia refers to the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.
The history of computer science began long before our modern discipline of computer science.
The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers.
The history of dance is difficult to access because dance does not often leave behind clearly identifiable physical artifacts that last over millennia, such as stone tools, hunting implements or cave paintings.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The history of Indonesia has been shaped by its geographic position, its natural resources, a series of human migrations and contacts, wars and conquests, as well as by trade, economics and politics.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The term "Latin America" primarily refers to the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries in the New World.
Linguistics, as a study, endeavors to describe and explain the human faculty of language.
The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry that attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/listener/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces.
The history of political thought dates back to antiquity while the political history of the world and thus the history of political thinking by man stretches up through the Medieval period and the Renaissance.
The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is similar to other sides of the history of humanity.
The history of the United States began with the settlement of Indigenous people before 15,000 BC.
The history of theatre charts the development of theatre over the past 2,500 years.
Homiletics (ὁμιλητικός homilētikós, from homilos, "assembled crowd, throng"), in religion, is the application of the general principles of rhetoric to the specific art of public preaching.
Homological algebra is the branch of mathematics that studies homology in a general algebraic setting.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
Human behavioral ecology (HBE) or human evolutionary ecology applies the principles of evolutionary theory and optimization to the study of human behavioral and cultural diversity.
Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, anatomy, epidemiology, anthropology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics and sociocultural influences.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human development is the science that seeks to understand how and why the people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time.
Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments.
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.
Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems.
Human geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.
Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the strategic approach to the effective management of organization workers so that they help the business gain a competitive advantage, Commonly referred to as the HR Department, it is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives.
Human resources are the people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Humanistic Informatics (also known as Humanities informatics) is one of several names chosen for the study of the relationship between human culture and technology.
Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.
Humanistic sociology is a domain of sociology which originated mainly from the work of the University of Chicago Polish philosopher-turned-sociologist, Florian Znaniecki.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Hypermedia, an extension of the term hypertext, is a nonlinear medium of information that includes graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks.
Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthys, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study"), also known as fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish.
An immigration policy is any policy of a state that deals with the transit of people across its borders into the country, but especially those that intend to work and stay in the country.
Immunochemistry is a branch of chemistry that involves the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of the immune system, especially the nature of antibodies, antigens and their interactions.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
Incomes policies in economics are economy-wide wage and price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to inflation, and usually seeking to establish wages and prices below free market level.
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indigenous psychology is defined by Kim and Berry (1993) as "the scientific study of human behavior or mind that is native, that is not transported from other regions, and that is designed for its people." Indigenous psychology generally advocates examining knowledge, skills and beliefs people have about themselves and studying them in their natural contexts.
Indology or South Asian studies is the academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies.
Industrial and organizational psychology (I/O psychology), which is also known as occupational psychology, organizational psychology, and work and organizational psychology, is an applied discipline within psychology.
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production.
Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems, or organizations.
In economics, industrial organization or industrial economy is a field that builds on the theory of the firm by examining the structure of (and, therefore, the boundaries between) firms and markets.
The industrial policy of a country, sometimes denoted IP, is its official strategic effort to encourage the development and growth of part or all of the manufacturing sector as well as other sectors of the economy.
Industrial relations is a multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship.
Industrial sociology, until recently a crucial research area within the field of sociology of work, examines "the direction and implications of trends in technological change, globalization, labour markets, work organization, managerial practices and employment relations to the extent to which these trends are intimately related to changing patterns of inequality in modern societies and to the changing experiences of individuals and families the ways in which workers challenge, resist and make their own contributions to the patterning of work and shaping of work institutions.".
Industrial warfare is a period in the history of warfare ranging roughly from the early 19th century and the start of the Industrial Revolution to the beginning of the Atomic Age, which saw the rise of nation-states, capable of creating and equipping large armies, navies, and air forces, through the process of industrialization.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infographics (a clipped compound of "information" and "graphics") are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present information quickly and clearly.
Informatics is a branch of information engineering.
Information architecture (IA) is the structural design of shared information environments; the art and science of organizing and labelling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability; and an emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.
Information economics or the economics of information is a branch of microeconomic theory that studies how information and information systems affect an economy and economic decisions.
Information management (IM) concerns a cycle of organizational activity: the acquisition of information from one or more sources, the custodianship and the distribution of that information to those who need it, and its ultimate disposition through archiving or deletion.
Information retrieval (IR) is the activity of obtaining information system resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources.
Information science is a field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.
An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
Information warfare (IW) is a concept involving the battlespace use and management of information and communication technology (ICT) in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent.
Infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that studies astronomical objects visible in infrared (IR) radiation.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of the evolutionary process and the role of institutions in shaping economic behaviour.
Instrumentation is a collective term for measuring instruments used for indicating, measuring and recording physical quantities, and has its origins in the art and science of scientific instrument-making.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
In mathematics, integral geometry is the theory of measures on a geometrical space invariant under the symmetry group of that space.
Integrated geography (also referred to as integrative geography, environmental geography or human–environment geography) is the branch of geography that describes and explains the spatial aspects of interactions between human individuals or societies and their natural environment.
Intellectual history refers to the historiography of ideas and thinkers.
Interaction design, often abbreviated as IxD, is "the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services." Beyond the digital aspect, interaction design is also useful when creating physical (non-digital) products, exploring how a user might interact with it.
In sociology, interactionism is a theoretical perspective that derives social processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human interaction.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
Interior Architecture is the design of a space inside any building or shelter type home that can be fixed.
Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space.
Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of linguistic communication.
Intermodal passenger transport, also called mixed-mode commuting, involves using two or more modes of transportation in a journey.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
International economics is concerned with the effects upon economic activity from international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the international institutions that affect them.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Intuitionistic logic, sometimes more generally called constructive logic, refers to systems of symbolic logic that differ from the systems used for classical logic by more closely mirroring the notion of constructive proof.
Material theory (or more formally the mathematical theory of inventory and production) is the sub-specialty within operations research and operations management that is concerned with the design of production/inventory systems to minimize costs: it studies the decisions faced by firms and the military in connection with manufacturing, warehousing, supply chains, spare part allocation and so on and provides the mathematical foundation for logistics.
An investment policy is any government regulation or law that encourages or discourages foreign investment in the local economy, e.g. currency exchange limits.
Iranian studies (ايرانشناسی), also referred to as Iranology and Iranistics, is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the history, literature, art and culture of Iranian peoples.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic economics (الاقتصاد الإسلامي) is a term used to refer to Islamic commercial jurisprudence (فقه المعاملات, fiqh al-mu'āmalāt).
Islamic studies refers to the study of Islam.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Japanese studies or Japan studies (sometimes Japanology in Europe) is a division of area studies or East Asian studies involved in social sciences and humanities research on Japan.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jewish studies (or Judaic studies) is an academic discipline centered on the study of Jews and Judaism.
Job shop scheduling or the job-shop problem (JSP) is an optimization problem in computer science and operations research in which jobs are assigned to resources at particular times.
The Joint Academic Coding System (JACS) system is used by the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in the United Kingdom to classify academic subjects.
The Journal of Family Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association.
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
In mathematics, K-theory is, roughly speaking, the study of a ring generated by vector bundles over a topological space or scheme.
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers.
Kinesiology is the scientific study of human or non-human body movement.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Knowledge management (KM) is the process of creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organisation.
Knowledge policies policies provide institutional foundations for creating, managing, and using organizational knowledge as well as social foundations for balancing global competitiveness with social order and cultural values.
Korean studies, or Koreanology is an academic discipline that focuses on the study of Korea, which includes the Republic of Korea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and diasporic Korean populations.
Labor history or labour history is a sub-discipline of social history which specialises on the history of the working classes and the labor movement.
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.
Land management is the process of managing the use and development (in both urban and rural settings) of land resources.
Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.
Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practised by landscape designers, combining nature and culture.
Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems.
Landscape planning is a branch of landscape architecture.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language education refers to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language.
Many countries have a language policy designed to favor or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin American studies (LAS) is an academic and research field associated with the study of Latin America.
A lattice is an abstract structure studied in the mathematical subdisciplines of order theory and abstract algebra.
Law and economics or economic analysis of law is the application of economic theory (specifically microeconomic theory) to the analysis of law that began mostly with scholars from the Chicago school of economics.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
A learned society (also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organisation that exists to promote an academic discipline, profession, or a group of related disciplines such as the arts.
Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law.
Legal management (also offered as: legal studies, or paralegal studies) is an academic and professional discipline that is a hybrid between the study of law and management (i.e. business administration, public administration, etc.). It is generally considered as the best preparatory law program for those who aspire to become members of a bar.
Legal psychology involves empirical, psychological research of the law, legal institutions, and people who come into contact with the law.
Leisure studies is a branch of the social sciences that focuses on understanding and analyzing leisure.
Lex mercatoria (from the Latin for "merchant law"), often referred to as "the Law Merchant" in English, is the body of commercial law used by merchants throughout Europe during the medieval period.
Lexicology is the part of linguistics that studies words.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced "Lee") is a vector space \mathfrak g together with a non-associative, alternating bilinear map \mathfrak g \times \mathfrak g \rightarrow \mathfrak g; (x, y) \mapsto, called the Lie bracket, satisfying the Jacobi identity.
A limited war is one in which the belligerents do not expend all of the resources at their disposal, whether human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, technological, or otherwise in a specific conflict.
Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.
Linear programming (LP, also called linear optimization) is a method to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented by linear relationships.
Linear time-invariant theory, commonly known as LTI system theory, comes from applied mathematics and has direct applications in NMR spectroscopy, seismology, circuits, signal processing, control theory, and other technical areas.
Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life.
In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.
This is the list of the fields of doctoral studies in the United States used for the annual Survey of Earned Doctorates, conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago for the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies, as used for the 2015 survey.
This is a list of articles on public policy topics, arranged by country.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Live action is a form of cinematography or videography that uses actors and actresses instead of animation or animated pictures.
Living systems are open self-organizing life forms that interact with their environment.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logic in computer science covers the overlap between the field of logic and that of computer science.
Logic programming is a type of programming paradigm which is largely based on formal logic.
Informally, two kinds of logical reasoning can be distinguished in addition to formal deduction: induction and abduction.
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Macrosociology is an approach to sociology which emphasizes the analysis of social systems and populations on a large scale, at the level of social structure, and often at a necessarily high level of theoretical abstraction.
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine).
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD; also magneto-fluid dynamics or hydro­magnetics) is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids.
Malacology is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods.
In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Management cybernetics is the application of cybernetics to management and organizations.
Management information system or management information systems (MIS) refers to the complementary networks of hardware and software cooperating to collect, process, store, and disseminate information in order to support the managerial role of leveraging information technology to increase business value and profits.
Managerial economics deals with the application of the economic concepts,theories,tools and methodologies to solve practical problems in a business.it helps the manager in decision making and acts as a link between practice and theory".
Manufacturing Engineering is a branch of professional engineering concerned with the understanding and application of Engineering Procedures in Manufacturing Processes and Production Methods.
In logic, a many-valued logic (also multi- or multiple-valued logic) is a propositional calculus in which there are more than two truth values.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water.
Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline within archaeology as a whole that specifically studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of associated physical remains, be they vessels, shore side facilities, port-related structures, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes.
Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
Marxian economics, or the Marxian school of economics, refers to a school of economic thought tracing its foundations to the critique of classical political economy first expounded upon by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Marxist sociology is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective.
Masculine Psychology refers to an archetypal gender-related psychology supposedly of male human identity.
Mass communication is the study of how people exchange information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning stream, phase, fraction or component, to another.
Mastery learning (or, as it was initially called, "learning for mastery") is an instructional strategy and educational philosophy, first formally proposed by Benjamin Bloom in 1968.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.
Mathematical and theoretical biology is a branch of biology which employs theoretical analysis, mathematical models and abstractions of the living organisms to investigate the principles that govern the structure, development and behavior of the systems, as opposed to experimental biology which deals with the conduction of experiments to prove and validate the scientific theories.
Mathematical chemistry is the area of research engaged in novel applications of mathematics to chemistry; it concerns itself principally with the mathematical modeling of chemical phenomena.
Mathematical economics is the application of mathematical methods to represent theories and analyze problems in economics.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.
Mathematical psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior.
Mathematical sociology is the area of sociology that uses mathematics to construct social theories.
Mathematical statistics is the application of mathematics to statistics, as opposed to techniques for collecting statistical data.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In contemporary education, mathematics education is the practice of teaching and learning mathematics, along with the associated scholarly research.
In mathematical analysis, a measure on a set is a systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size.
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g., stress-corrosion cracking or enhanced oxidation), tribology, polymer degradation under shear, cavitation-related phenomena (e.g., sonochemistry and sonoluminescence), shock wave chemistry and physics, and even the burgeoning field of molecular machines.
Mechatronics is a multidisciplinary field of science that includes a combination of mechanical engineering, electronics, computer engineering, telecommunications engineering, systems engineering and control engineering.
Media psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the interaction of human behavior and media and technology.
Media studies is a discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history, and effects of various media; in particular, the mass media.
Medical anthropology studies "human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation".
Medical cybernetics is a branch of cybernetics which has been heavily affected by the development of the computer, which applies the concepts of cybernetics to medical research and practice.
Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician (i.e., medical school and internship), or additional training thereafter (e.g., residency, fellowship and continuing medical education).
A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are carried out on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient in order to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.
Medical physics (also called biomedical physics, medical biophysics or applied physics in medicine) is, generally speaking, the application of physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine or healthcare.
Medical psychology is the application of psychological principles to the practice of medicine, and is clearly comprehensive rather than primarily drug-oriented, for both physical and mental disorders.
Medical social work is a sub-discipline of social work, also known as hospital social work.
Medical toxicology is a subspecialty of medicine focusing on toxicology and providing the diagnosis, management, and prevention of poisoning and other adverse effects due to medications, occupational and environmental toxicants, and biological agents.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (that is, the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. AD 500 to the beginning of the Florentine Renaissance in the late 15th century).
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. to the Renaissance in the 16th century.
Medieval warfare is the European warfare of the Middle Ages.
Melittology (from Greek μέλιττα, melitta, "bee"; and -λογία -logia) is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of bees.
Men's studies, often called men and masculinities in academic settings, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning men, masculinity, feminism, gender, and politics.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
Mesosociology is the study of intermediate (meso) social forces and stratification such as income, age, gender, race, ethnicity, organizations and geographically circumscribed communities.
Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metaphilosophy (sometimes called philosophy of philosophy) is "the investigation of the nature of philosophy".
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
Microeconomics (from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.
Microsociology is one of the main points (or focuses) of sociology, concerning the nature of everyday human social interactions and agency on a small scale: face to face.
Middle Eastern studies (sometimes referred to as Near Eastern studies) is a name given to a number of academic programs associated with the study of the history, culture, politics, economies, and geography of the Middle East, an area that is generally interpreted to cover a range of nations including Israel, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Oman.
The term military campaign applies to large scale, long duration, significant military strategy plans incorporating a series of inter-related military operations or battles forming a distinct part of a larger conflict often called a war.
Military deception refers to attempts to mislead enemy forces during warfare.
Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles.
Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications.
Military geography is a sub-field of geography that is used by the military, as well as academics and politicians, to understand the geopolitical sphere through the military lens.
Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing local and international relationships.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
Military justice (or military law) is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces.
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.
The term military medicine has a number of potential connotations.
A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Military policy (also called defence policy or defense policy) is public policy dealing with international security and the military.
Military psychology is the research, design and application of psychological theories and empirical data towards understanding, predicting, and countering behaviours either in friendly or enemy forces or the civilian population that may be undesirable, threatening or potentially dangerous to the conduct of military operations.
Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines.
Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force.
Military sociology aims toward the systematic study of the military as a social group rather than as a Military organization.
The military sports are sport mainly practiced by the military, the subject of international competitions, with an objective relates to the physical training of military, preparation for combat, skill, toughness, the development of physical qualities of the warfighter and improve the professional proficiency based on the different areas of the military action: land, sea and air.
Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services for military applications.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.
Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that applies science and technology to the extraction of minerals from the earth.
Missiology is the area of practical theology that investigates the mandate, message, and mission of the Christian church, especially the nature of missionary work.
Mobile computing is human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage, which allows for transmission of data, voice and video.
Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.
In mathematics, model theory is the study of classes of mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) from the perspective of mathematical logic.
Modelling biological systems is a significant task of systems biology and mathematical biology.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
A modern language is any human language that is currently in use.
Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity.
Modern warfare is warfare using the concepts, methods, and military technology that have come into use during and after World Wars I and II.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular engineering is an emerging field of study concerned with the design and testing of molecular properties, behavior and interactions in order to assemble better materials, systems, and processes for specific functions.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
Molecular mechanics uses classical mechanics to model molecular systems.
Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within pathology which is focused in the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids.
Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms as well as the molecular dynamics.
Molecular virology is the study of viruses on a molecular level.
Monetary economics is a branch of economics that provides a framework for analyzing money in its functions as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Moral psychology is a field of study in both philosophy and psychology.
Morale, also known as esprit de corps, is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
In mathematics, multilinear algebra extends the methods of linear algebra.
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
Multivariate analysis (MVA) is based on the statistical principle of multivariate statistics, which involves observation and analysis of more than one statistical outcome variable at a time.
Museology or museum studies is the study of museums.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music.
Music history, sometimes called historical musicology, is the highly diverse subfield of the broader discipline of musicology that studies music from a historical viewpoint.
Music psychology, or the psychology of music, may be regarded as a branch of both psychology and musicology.
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.
Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.
Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music.
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.
Myrmecology (from Greek: μύρμηξ, myrmex, "ant" and λόγος, logos, "study") is a branch of entomology focusing on the scientific study of ants.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Nanoengineering is the practice of engineering on the nanoscale.
Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 to 1000 nanometres (10−9 meter) but usually is 1 to 100 nm (the usual definition of nanoscale).
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
Nationalism studies is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of nationalism and related issues.
Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Natural resource economics deals with the supply, demand, and allocation of the Earth's natural resources.
Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations (stewardship).
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Naval architecture, or naval engineering, along with automotive engineering and aerospace engineering, is an engineering discipline branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the engineering design process, shipbuilding, maintenance, and operation of marine vessels and structures.
Naval strategy is the planning and conduct of war at sea, the naval equivalent of military strategy on land.
Naval tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy ship or fleet in battle at sea during naval warfare, the naval equivalent of military tactics on land.
Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
Near Eastern Archaeology (sometimes known as Middle Eastern archaeology) is a regional branch of the wider, global discipline of archeology.
Nematology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms.
Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).
Network science is an academic field which studies complex networks such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks, and social networks, considering distinct elements or actors represented by nodes (or vertices) and the connections between the elements or actors as links (or edges).
Network-centric warfare, also called network-centric operations or net-centric warfare, is a military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense in the 1990s.
Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system.
Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.
Neuroeconomics and Economic Psychology is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to follow a course of action.
Neuroethology is the evolutionary and comparative approach to the study of animal behavior and its underlying mechanistic control by the nervous system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for re-distribution.
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and which occupies a peripheral place within its society's dominant religious culture.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
A non-associative algebra (or distributive algebra) is an algebra over a field where the binary multiplication operation is not assumed to be associative.
In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.
Non-fiction or nonfiction is content (sometimes, in the form of a story) whose creator, in good faith, assumes responsibility for the truth or accuracy of the events, people, or information presented.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
The history of calculus is fraught with philosophical debates about the meaning and logical validity of fluxions or infinitesimal numbers.
Noncommutative geometry (NCG) is a branch of mathematics concerned with a geometric approach to noncommutative algebras, and with the construction of spaces that are locally presented by noncommutative algebras of functions (possibly in some generalized sense).
In mathematics, more specifically abstract algebra and ring theory, a noncommutative ring is a ring whose multiplication is not commutative; that is, there exists a and b in R with a·b ≠ b·a.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
Nonverbal communication (NVC) between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless cues.
Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.
Nuclear energy policy is a national and international policy concerning some or all aspects of nuclear energy and the nuclear fuel cycle, such as uranium mining, ore concentration, conversion, enrichment for nuclear fuel, generating electricity by nuclear power, storing and reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, and disposal of radioactive waste.
Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of breaking down atomic nuclei (fission) or of combining atomic nuclei (fusion), or with the application of other sub-atomic processes based on the principles of nuclear physics.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
Nurse education consists of the theoretical and practical training provided to nurses with the purpose to prepare them for their duties as nursing care professionals.
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
An object database is a database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models.
Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".
Occupational health psychology (OHP) is an interdisciplinary area of psychology that is concerned with the health and safety of workers.
Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.
Ocean chemistry, also known as marine chemistry, is influenced by turbidity currents, sediments, pH levels, atmospheric constituents, metamorphic activity, and ecology.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
Oenology (enology) is the science and study of wine and winemaking; distinct from viticulture, the agricultural endeavours of vine-growing and of grape-harvesting.
An offensive is a military operation that seeks through aggressive projection of armed force to occupy territory, gain an objective or achieve some larger strategic, operational, or tactical goal.
Official statistics are statistics published by government agencies or other public bodies such as international organizations as a public good.
Offshore construction is the installation of structures and facilities in a marine environment, usually for the production and transmission of electricity, oil, gas and other resources.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Oology (or oölogy) is a branch of ornithology studying bird eggs, nests and breeding behaviour.
, also known as, is a religion founded in 1892 by Deguchi Nao (1836–1918), often categorised as a new Japanese religion originated from Shinto.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Operations management is an area of management concerned with designing and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods or services.
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
In mathematics, operator theory is the study of linear operators on function spaces, beginning with differential operators and integral operators.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Optical engineering is the field of study that focuses on applications of optics.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Optimal maintenance is the discipline within operations research concerned with maintaining a system in a manner that maximizes profit or minimizes cost.
Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS or OMFS) specializes in treating many diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral (mouth) and maxillofacial (jaws and face) region.
Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.
Order theory is a branch of mathematics which investigates the intuitive notion of order using binary relations.
In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation containing one or more functions of one independent variable and its derivatives.
In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Organizational behavior (OB) or organisational behaviour is "the study of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself".
In communication studies, organizational communication is the study of communication within organizations.
Organizational studies is "the examination of how individuals construct organizational structures, processes, and practices and how these, in turn, shape social relations and create institutions that ultimately influence people", organizational studies comprise different areas that deal with the different aspects of the organizations, many of the approaches are functionalist but critical research also provide alternative frame for understanding in the field.
Organizational theory consists of approaches to organizational analysis.
Organology (from Greek: ὄργανον – organon, "instrument" and λόγος – logos, "study") is the science of musical instruments and their classification.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
Orthodontia, also called orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, is a specialty field of dentistry that deals primarily with malpositioned teeth and the jaws: their diagnosis, prevention and correction.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Orthoptics is a profession allied to eye care profession whose primary emphasis is the diagnosis and non-surgical management of strabismus (wandering eye), amblyopia (lazy eye) and eye movement disorders.
Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.
The oud (عود) is a short-neck lute-type, pear-shaped stringed instrument (a chordophone in the Hornbostel-Sachs classification of instruments) with 11 or 13 strings grouped in 5 or 6 courses, commonly used in Egyptian, Syrian, Palestinian, Lebanese, Iraqi, Arabian, Jewish, Persian, Greek, Armenian, Turkish, Azerbaijani, North African (Chaabi, Classical, and Spanish Andalusian), Somali, and various other forms of Middle Eastern and North African music.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to academia: Academia – nationally and internationally recognized establishment of professional scholars and students, working for the most part in colleges and universities, who are engaged in higher education and research.
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to aesthetics: Aesthetics – branch of philosophy and axiology concerned with the nature of beauty.
Algebra is one of the main branches of mathematics, covering the study of structure, relation and quantity.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to anarchism: Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful, The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy: Slevin, Carl.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India: Ancient India is the Indian Subcontinent from prehistoric times to the start of Medieval India, which is typically dated (when the term is still used) to the end of the Gupta Empire.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient Rome: Ancient Rome – former civilization that thrived on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ants: Ants – social insects with elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that forms a slender waist.
The following outline is an overview and topical guide to architecture: Architecture – the process and the product of designing and constructing buildings.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence: Artificial intelligence (AI) – intelligence exhibited by machines or software.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy: Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to atheism: Atheism – rejection of belief in the existence of deities.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry: Biochemistry – study of chemical processes in living organisms, including living matter.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biophysics: Biophysics – interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physics to study biological systems.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biotechnology: Biotechnology – field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to birds: Birds (class Aves) – winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrate animals.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to botany: Botany – biological discipline which involves the study of plants.
Buddhism (Pali/बौद्ध धर्म Buddha Dharma) is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha, "the awakened one".
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to management: Business management – management of a business.
Calculus is a branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cartography: Cartography (also called mapmaking) – study and practice of making and using maps or globes.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cell biology: Cell biology – A branch of biology that includes study of cells regarding their physiological properties, structure, and function; the organelles they contain; interactions with their environment; and their life cycle, division, and death.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chemical engineering: Chemical engineering – deals with the application of physical science (e.g., chemistry and physics), and life sciences (e.g., biology, microbiology and biochemistry) with mathematics and economics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Christian theology: Christian theology is the study of God and His Word from a Christian point of view.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Christianity: Christianity – monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to classical studies: Classical studies (Classics for short) – earliest branch of the humanities, which covers the languages, literature, history, art, and other cultural aspects of the ancient Mediterranean world.
Combinatorics is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of finite or countable discrete structures.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to computer engineering: Computer engineering – discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer hardware and software.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to computer vision: Computer vision – interdisciplinary field that deals with how computers can be made to gain high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to criminal justice: Criminal justice – system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to critical theory: Critical theory – the examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across the social sciences and humanities.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to dance: Dance – human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to databases: Database – organized collection of data, today typically in digital form.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to dentistry and oral health: Dentistry – branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to drawing and drawings.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ecology: Ecology – scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to emergency medicine: Emergency medicine – medical specialty involving care for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate medical attention.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to epistemology: Epistemology or theory of knowledge – branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ergonomics: Ergonomics – study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body, its movements, and its cognitive abilities.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ethics: Ethics – major branch of philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to fiction: Fiction – narrative which is made up by the author.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to film: Film – refers to motion pictures as individual projects and to the field in general.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to finance: Finance – addresses the ways in which individuals and organizations raise and allocate monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to fish: Fish – any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to forensic science: Forensic science – application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to futures studies: Futures studies (also called futurology) – study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to genetics: Genetics – science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography: Geography – study of earth and its people.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geology: Geology – one of the Earth sciences – is the study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere.
Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geophysics: Geophysics – the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to guitars: A guitar is a plucked string instrument, usually played with fingers or a pick.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Hinduism: Hinduism – predominant and indigenous religious traditionHinduism is variously defined as a "religion", "set of religious beliefs and practices", "religious tradition" etc.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy: Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human sexuality: Human sexuality is the capacity to have erotic experiences and responses.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to humanism: Humanism – group of philosophies and ethical perspectives which emphasize the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers individual thought and evidence (rationalism, empiricism), over established doctrine or faith (fideism).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to hydrology: Hydrology – study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to immunology: Immunology is the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to information science: Information science – interdisciplinary field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to information technology: Information technology (IT) – microelectronics based combination of computing and telecommunications technology to treat information, including in the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information.
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is a messenger of God.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to jazz: Jazz – musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States, mixing African music and European classical music traditions.
This outline of Jewish religious law consists of the book and section headings of the Maimonides' redaction of Jewish law, the Mishneh Torah, which details all of Jewish observance.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to journalism: Journalism – investigation and reporting of events, issues and trends to a broad audience.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Judaism.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to libertarianism: Libertarianism – collection of political philosophies and movements that upholds liberty as its principal objective.
Logic is the formal science of using reason and is considered a branch of both philosophy and mathematics.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to marketing: Marketing – social and managerial processes by which products, services, and value are exchanged in order to fulfill individuals' or groups' needs and wants.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to metaphysics: Metaphysics – traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it,Geisler, Norman L. "Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics" page 446.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to meteorology: Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to military science: Military science – study of the technique, psychology, practice and other phenomena which constitute war and armed conflict.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to music: Music – human expression in the medium of time using the structures of sounds or tones and silence.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to neuroscience: Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to nutrition.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to obstetrics: Obstetrics – medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to organic chemistry: Organic chemistry – scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to painting: Painting – artwork in which paint or other medium has been applied to a surface, and in which area and composition are two primary considerations.
Parapsychology is a field of research that studies a number of ostensible paranormal phenomena, including telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, and apparitional experiences.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to photography: Photography – process of making pictures by the action of recording light patterns, reflected or emitted from objects, on a photosensitive medium or an image sensor through a timed exposure.
Probability is a measure of the likeliness that an event will occur.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to psychiatry: Psychiatry – medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to psychology: Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to public relations: Public relations practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to radio: Radio – transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to regression analysis: Regression analysis – use of statistical techniques for learning about the relationship between one or more dependent variables (Y) and one or more independent variables (X).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to robotics: Robotics is a branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and computer science that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sculpture: A sculpture – human-made three-dimensional art object.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to semiotics: Semiotics – study of meaning-making, signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Sikhism: Sikhism – monotheistic religion founded in the fifteenth century upon the teachings of Guru Nanak and ten succeeding Gurus (the last one being the sacred text Guru Granth Sahib), emphasizing universal, selfless love and brotherhood.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sinology: Sinology is the study of China and things related to China.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science: Space science encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as space medicine and astrobiology.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Taoism: Taoism – philosophical, ethical, and religious tradition of Chinese origin that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to television broadcasting: Television broadcasting: form of broadcasting in which a television signal is transmitted by radio waves from a terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to TV receivers having an antenna.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Internet.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to theatre: Theatre (also theater) – branch of the performing arts and a collaborative form of fine art involving live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event (such as a story) through acting before a live audience in a specific place.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to theology: Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to tort law: Tort law – defines what a legal injury is and, therefore, whether a person may be held liable for an injury they have caused.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to zoology: Zoology – study of animals.
In mathematics, p-adic analysis is a branch of number theory that deals with the mathematical analysis of functions of ''p''-adic numbers.
Philosophy of pain may be about suffering in general or more specifically about physical pain.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
Pakistan studies curriculum (Urdu: مطالعہ پاکستان) is the name of a curriculum of academic research and study that encompasses the culture, demographics, geography, history, and politics of Pakistan.
Palaeogeography (or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.
Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of archaeology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae, working from biological evidence (such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints) and cultural evidence (such as stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities).
Paleobiology (UK & Canadian English: palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Paleoecology (also spelled palaeoecology) is the study of interactions between organisms and/or interactions between organisms and their environments across geologic timescales.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
A paralegal is an individual, qualified by education, training or work experience, who is employed or retained by a lawyer, law office, corporation, governmental agency, or other entity and who performs specifically delegated substantive legal work for which a lawyer is responsible.
In computer science, a parallel algorithm, as opposed to a traditional serial algorithm, is an algorithm which can be executed a piece at a time on many different processing devices, and then combined together again at the end to get the correct result.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims.
Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is an economic system based on participatory decision making as the primary economic mechanism for allocation in society.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Pastoral counseling is a branch of counseling in which psychologically trained ministers, rabbis, priests, imams, and other persons provide therapy services.
Pastoral theology is the branch of practical theology concerned with the application of the study of religion in the context of regular church ministry.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyzes violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending conflicts (including social conflicts), with a view towards understanding those processes which lead to a more desirable human condition.
Peace education is the process of acquiring the values, the knowledge and developing the attitudes, skills, and behaviors to live in harmony with oneself, with others, and with the natural environment.
Pediatric psychology is a multidisciplinary field of both scientific research and clinical practice which attempts to address the psychological aspects of illness, injury, and the promotion of health behaviors in children, adolescents, and families in a pediatric health setting.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Pedology (from Greek: πέδον, pedon, "soil"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the study of soils in their natural environment.
Pedology (paidology, paedology) is the study of children's behavior and development (as distinct from pedagogy, the art or science of teaching and pediatrics, the field of medicine relating to children).
Perceptual control theory (PCT) is a model of behavior based on the principles of negative feedback, but differing in important respects from engineering control theory.
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.
Performance poetry is poetry that is specifically composed for or during a performance before an audience.
Periodontology or periodontics (from Greek περί peri "around"; and ὀδούς odous "tooth", genitive ὀδόντος odontos) is the specialty of dentistry that studies supporting structures of teeth, as well as diseases and conditions that affect them.
A personal trainer is an individual certified to have a varying degree of knowledge of general fitness involved in exercise prescription and instruction.
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals.
Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into useful products or raw materials.
Petroleum engineering is a field of engineering concerned with the activities related to the production of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gas.
Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.
Pharmaceutical policy is a branch of health policy that deals with the development, provision and use of medications within a health care system.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
Phenomenological sociology is the study of the formal structures of concrete social existence as made available in and through the analytical description of acts of intentional consciousness.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Phenomenology within psychology (phenomenological psychology) is the psychological study of subjective experience.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Philosophical logic refers to those areas of philosophy in which recognized methods of logic have traditionally been used to solve or advance the discussion of philosophical problems.
A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy and economics, also philosophy of economics, studies topics such as rational choice, the appraisal of economic outcomes, institutions and processes, and the ontology of economic phenomena and the possibilities of acquiring knowledge of them.
The philosophy of artificial intelligence attempts to answer such questions as follows.
The philosophy of biology is a subfield of philosophy of science, which deals with epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical issues in the biological and biomedical sciences.
The philosophy of chemistry considers the methodology and underlying assumptions of the science of chemistry.
Philosophy of education can refer either to the application of philosophy to the problem of education, examining definitions, goals and chains of meaning used in education by teachers, administrators or policymakers.
The philosophy of engineering is an emerging discipline that considers what engineering is, what engineers do, and how their work affects society, and thus includes aspects of ethics and aesthetics, as well as the ontology, epistemology, etc.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.
Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.
Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence that seeks to answer basic questions about law and legal systems, such as "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal validity?", "What is the relationship between law and morality?", and many other similar questions.
The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Philosophy of music is the study of "...fundamental questions about the nature of music and our experience of it".
The philosophy of perception is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data, in particular how they relate to beliefs about, or knowledge of, the world.
In philosophy, philosophy of physics deals with conceptual and interpretational issues in modern physics, and often overlaps with research done by certain kinds of theoretical physicists.
Philosophy of psychology refers to the many issues at the theoretical foundations of modern psychology.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
The philosophy of social science is the study of the logic, methods, and foundations of social sciences such as psychology, economics, and political science.
Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time.
The philosophy of war is the area of philosophy devoted to examining issues such as the causes of war, the relationship between war and human nature, and the ethics of war.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
Photonics is the physical science of light (photon) generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and detection/sensing.
Phycology (from Greek φῦκος, phykos, "seaweed"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of algae.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
Physical education, also known as Phys Ed., PE, gym, or gym class, and known in many Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is an educational course related of maintaining the human body through physical exercises (i.e. calisthenics).
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation, also known as physiatry, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities.
Physical organic chemistry, a term coined by Louis Hammett in 1940, refers to a discipline of organic chemistry that focuses on the relationship between chemical structures and reactivity, in particular, applying experimental tools of physical chemistry to the study of organic molecules.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.
Physics education or physics education research (PER) refers both to the methods currently used to teach physics and to an area of pedagogical research that seeks to improve those methods.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants.
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
Planktology is the study of plankton, various small drifting plants, animals and microorganisms that inhabit bodies of water.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
A playwright or dramatist (rarely dramaturge) is a person who writes plays.
Podiatry or podiatric medicine is a branch of medicine devoted to the study, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle and lower extremity.
Poetics is the theory of literary forms and literary discourse.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Police science is the study and research which deals with police work.
Policy Analysis is a technique used in public administration to enable civil servants, activists, and others to examine and evaluate the available options to implement the goals of laws and elected officials.
This is a term coined by Michael Burawoy as a way of providing solutions to social problems.
Policy studies emerged in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s as a subdisicipline of political science.
Political anthropology concerns the structure of political systems, looked at from the basis of the structure of societies.
Political culture is defined by the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences as the "set of attitudes, beliefs and sentiments that give order and meaning to a political process and which provide the underlying assumptions and rules that govern behavior in the political system".
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Political geography is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures.
Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Political psychology is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to understanding politics, politicians and political behavior from a psychological perspective.
Political sociology is concerned with the sociological analysis of political phenomena ranging from the State, to civil society, to the family, investigating topics such as citizenship, social movements, and the sources of social power.
The politics of Canada function within a framework of parliamentary democracy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions.
The complex politics of global warming results from numerous cofactors arising from the global economy's interdependence on carbon dioxide emitting hydrocarbon energy sources and because is directly implicated in global warming—making global warming a non-traditional environmental challenge.
The United States is a federal republic in which the President, Congress and federal courts share powers reserved to the national government, according to its Constitution.
Polymer chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline that deals with the structures, chemical synthesis and properties of polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers.
Polymer engineering is generally an engineering field that designs, analyses, or modifies polymer materials.
Polymer science or macromolecular science is a subfield of materials science concerned with polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers.
Pomology (from latin pomum (fruit) + -logy) is a branch of botany that studies and cultivates fruit.
Popular culture studies is the academic discipline studying popular culture from a critical theory perspective.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Population geography is a division of human geography.
Port management is the management of ports.
Positive psychology is "the scientific study of what makes life most worth living",Christopher Peterson (2008), or "the scientific study of positive human functioning and flourishing on multiple levels that include the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural, and global dimensions of life".
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Postcolonial literature is the literature of countries that were colonised, mainly by European countries.
Postmodern literature is literature characterized by reliance on narrative techniques such as fragmentation, paradox, and the unreliable narrator; and is often (though not exclusively) defined as a style or a trend which emerged in the post–World War II era.
Power engineering, also called power systems engineering, is a subfield of electrical engineering that deals with the generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric power, and the electrical apparatus connected to such systems.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
History is the study of the past using written records.
Prehistoric warfare refers to war that occurred between societies without recorded history.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Primary care is the day-to-day healthcare given by a health care provider.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
Primatology is the scientific study of primates.
The earliest known principles of war were documented by Sun Tzu, circa 500 BCE.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.
Procedural law, adjective law, or rules of court comprises the rules by which a court hears and determines what happens in civil, lawsuit, criminal or administrative proceedings.
In chemical engineering, process design is the choice and sequencing of units for desired physical and/or chemical transformation of materials.
Process engineering focuses on the design, operation, control, optimization and intensification of chemical, physical, and biological processes.
Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers.
A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.
Projective geometry is a topic in mathematics.
Proof theory is a major branchAccording to Wang (1981), pp.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system.
Prosthodontics, also known as dental prosthetics or prosthetic dentistry, is the area of dentistry that focuses on dental prostheses.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Psephology (from Greek psephos ψῆφος, 'pebble', as the Greeks used pebbles as ballots) is a branch of political science which deals with the study and scientific analysis of elections.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Psychoanalytic sociology is the research field that analyzes society using the same methods that psychoanalysis applied to analyze an individual.
Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.
Psychological anthropology is an interdisciplinary subfield of anthropology that studies the interaction of cultural and mental processes.
Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Strictly speaking, psychology of religion consists of the application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to the diverse contents of the religious traditions as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals.
Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.
Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes (nosology); course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment.
Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Public economics (or economics of the public sector) is the study of government policy through the lens of economic efficiency and equity.
Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local.
Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
In private international law, the public policy doctrine or ordre public (lit. Fr. "public order") concerns the body of principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state.
Public policy schools are typically university programs which teach students policy analysis, policy studies, public policy, political economy, urban planning, public administration, public affairs, and public management.
Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.
Public sociology is a subfield of the wider sociological discipline that emphasizes expanding the disciplinary boundaries of sociology in order to engage with non-academic audiences.
Public speaking (also called oratory or oration) is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Puppetry is a form of theatre or performance that involves the manipulation of puppets – inanimate objects, often resembling some type of human or animal figure, that are animated or manipulated by a human called a puppeteer.
Purchasing refers to a business or organization attempting to acquire goods or services to accomplish its goals.
Like rational choice theory, conflict theory, or functionalism, pure sociology is a sociological paradigm — a strategy for explaining human behavior.
Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production.
Quantitative psychology is a field of scientific study that focuses on the mathematical modeling, research design and methodology, and statistical analysis of human or animal psychological processes.
Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Queer studies, sexual diversity studies, or LGBT studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity usually focusing on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and intersex people and cultures.
Queer theory is a field of critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of queer studies and women's studies.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.
Radiochemistry is the chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes (often within radiochemistry the absence of radioactivity leads to a substance being described as being inactive as the isotopes are stable).
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
A randomized algorithm is an algorithm that employs a degree of randomness as part of its logic.
Reading education is the process by which individuals are taught to derive meaning from text.
In mathematics, real analysis is the branch of mathematical analysis that studies the behavior of real numbers, sequences and series of real numbers, and real-valued functions.
Real estate economics is the application of economic techniques to real estate markets.
Real options valuation, also often termed real options analysis,Adam Borison (Stanford University).
Recreation ecology is the scientific study of environmental impacts resulting from recreational activity in protected natural areas.
According to the American Therapeutic Recreation Association (ATRA), recreational therapy or therapeutic recreation (TR) is a systematic process that utilizes recreation (leisure) and other interest activities as interventions to address the assessed needs of individuals with illnesses and/or disabling conditions, as a means to psychological and physical health, recovery and well-being.
Regional accreditation is the educational accreditation of schools, colleges, and universities in the United States by one of seven regional accrediting agencies.
Regional geography is a major branch of geography.
In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Rehabilitation Psychology is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal and the official journal of Division 22 of the American Psychological Association.
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.
Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product.
Religion in Africa is multifaceted and has been a major influence on art, culture and philosophy.
In secular usage, religious education is the teaching of a particular religion (although in England the term religious instruction would refer to the teaching of a particular religion, with religious education referring to teaching about religions in general) and its varied aspects: its beliefs, doctrines, rituals, customs, rites, and personal roles.
Religious humanism is an integration of humanist ethical philosophy with congregational but non-theistic rituals and community activity which center on human needs, interests, and abilities.
Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years.
Representation theory is a branch of mathematics that studies abstract algebraic structures by representing their elements as linear transformations of vector spaces, and studies modules over these abstract algebraic structures.
A respiratory therapist is a specialized healthcare practitioner trained in pulmonary medicine in order to work therapeutically with people suffering from pulmonary disease.
In statistics, response surface methodology (RSM) explores the relationships between several explanatory variables and one or more response variables.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.
In algebra, ring theory is the study of rings—algebraic structures in which addition and multiplication are defined and have similar properties to those operations defined for the integers.
Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.
Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinator and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.
Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured.
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.
Rural sociology is a field of sociology traditionally associated with the study of social structure and conflict in rural areas although topical areas such as food and agriculture or natural resource access transcend traditional rural spatial boundaries (Sociology Guide 2011).
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.
Scandinavian studies is an interdisciplinary academic field of area studies, mainly in the United States and Germany, that covers topics related to Scandinavia and the Nordic countries, including languages, literatures, histories, cultures and societies.
Scenic design (also known as scenography, stage design, set design, or production design) is the creation of theatrical, as well as film or television scenery.
Scenography relates to the study and practice of performance design.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
School psychology is a field that applies principles of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescents' behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents.
A school social worker provides counseling and psycho-social services to children and adolescents in schools at both micro and macro levels.
Science and technology studies, or science, technology and society studies (both abbreviated STS) is the study of how society, politics, and culture affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in turn, affect society, politics and culture.
Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community.
Science policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for the conduct of science towards the goal of best serving the public interest.
Science studies is an interdisciplinary research area that seeks to situate scientific expertise in broad social, historical, and philosophical contexts.
Scientific visualization (also spelled scientific visualisation) is an interdisciplinary branch of science.
Screenwriting, also called scriptwriting, is the art and craft of writing scripts for mass media such as feature films, television productions or video games.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
Second-order cybernetics, also known as the cybernetics of cybernetics, is the recursive application of cybernetics to itself.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, and clay, and the processes that result in their formation (erosion and weathering), transport, deposition and diagenesis.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
Sex education is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence.
Sexology is the scientific study of human sexuality, including human sexual interests, behaviors and functions.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
Sindhology (سنڌولوجي) is a field of study and academic research that covers the history, society, culture, and literature of Sindh, a province of Pakistan.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Slavic studies (North America), Slavonic studies (Britain and Ireland) or Slavistics (borrowed from Russian славистика or Polish slawistyka) is the academic field of area studies concerned with Slavic areas, Slavic languages, literature, history, and culture.
Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders.
Social anthropology or anthroposociology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe (France in particular), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology.
The sociology of jealousy deals with cultural and social factors that influence what causes jealousy, how jealousy is expressed, and how attitudes toward jealousy change over time.
Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.
Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.
Social choice theory or social choice is a theoretical framework for analysis of combining individual opinions, preferences, interests, or welfares to reach a collective decision or social welfare in some sense.
Social conflict is the struggle for agency or power in society.
Social conflict theory is a Marxist-based social theory which argues that individuals and groups (social classes) within society interact on the basis of conflict rather than consensus.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.
Social dynamics can refer to the behavior of groups that results from the interactions of individual group members as well to the study of the relationship between individual interactions and group level behaviors.
The social economy is formed by a rich diversity of enterprises and organisations, such as cooperatives, mutuals, associations, foundations, social enterprises and paritarian institutions, sharing common values and features.
Social engineering is a discipline in social science that refers to efforts to influence particular attitudes and social behaviors on a large scale, whether by governments, media or private groups in order to produce desired characteristics in a target population.
Social geography is the branch of human geography that is most closely related to social theory in general and sociology in particular, dealing with the relation of social phenomena and its spatial components.
A social movement is a type of group action.
Social network analysis (SNA) is the process of investigating social structures through the use of networks and graph theory.
Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations.
Social policy is a term which is applied to various areas of policy, usually within a governmental or political setting (such as the welfare state and study of social services).
Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
Social research is a research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
Social studies of finance is an interdisciplinary research area that combines perspectives from anthropology, economic sociology, science and technology studies, international political economy, behavioral finance, cultural studies and/or economics in the study of financial markets.
Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms, that are used to study and interpret social phenomena.
One definition of Social transformation is the process by which an individual alters the socially ascribed social status of their parents into a socially achieved status for themselves.
Socialist economics refers to the economic theories, practices, and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems.
Societal and cultural aspects of autism come into play with recognition of autism, approaches to its support services and therapies, and how autism affects the definition of personhood.
Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and societies change over time.
Sociocybernetics is an independent chapter of science in sociology based upon the general systems theory and cybernetics.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
Sociological theories are statements of how and why particular facts about the social world are related.
In the People's Republic of China, the study of sociology has been developing steadily since its reestablishment in 1979 (it had been previously banned by communist authorities as a bourgeois pseudoscience).
Sociology in Poland has been developing, as has sociology throughout Europe, since the mid-19th century.
Sociology of architecture is the sociological study of the built environment and the role and occupation of architects in modern societies.
The sociology of art is a subfield of sociology concerned with the social worlds of art and aesthetics.
The sociology of culture and, the related, cultural sociology concerns the systematic analysis of culture, usually understood as the ensemble of symbolic codes used by a members of a society, as it is manifested in the society.
Sociology of disaster is a special branch of sociology.
The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes.
The sociology of emotion applies sociological theorems and techniques to the study of human emotions.
The sociology of film deals with the sociological analysis of film.
Sociology of food is the study of food as it relates to the history, progression, and future development of society.
Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology.
The sociology of health and illness, alternatively the sociology of health and wellness (or simply health sociology), examines the interaction between society and health.
The sociology of human consciousness uses the theories and methodology of sociology to explain human consciousness.
The sociology of immigration involves the sociological analysis of immigration, particularly with respect to race and ethnicity, social structure, and political policy.
The sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies.
Sociology of language is the study of the relations between language and society.
The sociology of law (or legal sociology) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies.
Sociology of leisure or leisure sociology is the study of how humans organize their free time.
The sociology of literature is a subfield of the sociology of culture.
The sociological study of peace, war, and social conflict entails the use of sociological theory and methods to analyze group conflicts, especially collective violence and alternative constructive nonviolent forms of conflict transformation.
The sociology of punishment seeks to understand why and how we punish; the general justifying aim of punishment and the principle of distribution.
The sociology of race and ethnic relations is the study of social, political, and economic relations between races and ethnicities at all levels of society.
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology.
The sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) is the study of science as a social activity, especially dealing with "the social conditions and effects of science, and with the social structures and processes of scientific activity." The sociology of scientific ignorance (SSI) is complementary to the sociology of scientific knowledge.
The sociology of space is a sub-discipline of sociology that mostly borrows from theories developed within the discipline of geography, including the sub fields of human geography, economic geography, and feminist geography.
Sociology of sport, alternately referred to as sports sociology, is a sub-discipline of sociology which focuses on sports as social phenomena.
Sociology of terrorism is an emerging field in sociology seeking to understand terrorism as a social phenomenon and how individuals as well as nation states respond to such events.
Sociology of the body is a branch of sociology studying the representations and social uses of the human body in modern societies.
Sociological studies of the family look at.
The sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been occupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science "works" both in a philosophical and practical sense.
The sociology of the Internet involves the application of sociological theory and method to the Internet as a source of information and communication.
Sociomusicology (from Latin: socius, "companion"; from Old French musique; and the suffix -ology, "the study of", from Old Greek λόγος, lógos: "discourse"), also called music sociology or the sociology of music, refers to both an academic subfield of sociology that is concerned with music (often in combination with other arts), as well as a subfield of musicology that focuses on social aspects of musical behavior and the role of music in society.
Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces.
Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
Solid mechanics is the branch of continuum mechanics that studies the behavior of solid materials, especially their motion and deformation under the action of forces, temperature changes, phase changes, and other external or internal agents.
Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids.
Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
In chemistry, the study of sonochemistry is concerned with understanding the effect of ultrasound in forming acoustic cavitation in liquids, resulting in the initiation or enhancement of the chemical activity in the solution.
Sound and music computing (SMC) is a research field that studies the whole sound and music communication chain from a multidisciplinary point of view.
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.
Southeast Asian studies (SEAS) refers to research and education on the language, culture, and history of the different states and ethnic groups of Southeast Asia.
Space policy is the political decision-making process for, and application of, public policy of a state (or association of states) regarding spaceflight and uses of outer space, both for civilian (scientific and commercial) and military purposes.
Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space.
Special education (also known as special needs education, aided education, exceptional education or Special Ed) is the practice of educating students with an IEP or Section 504 in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.
Speleology is the scientific study of caves and other karst features, their make-up, structure, physical properties, history, life forms, and the processes by which they form (speleogenesis) and change over time (speleomorphology).
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
Spoken word is a performance art that is word based.
Sport management is the field of business dealing with sports and recreation.
Sport psychology is an interdisciplinary science that draws on knowledge from many related fields including biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology and psychology.
Sports biomechanics is a quantitative based study and analysis of professional athletes and sports activities in general.
Sports journalism is a form of writing that reports on sporting topics and competitions.
Sports medicine, also known as sport and exercise medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
A statistical model is a mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of some sample data and similar data from a larger population.
The theory of statistics provides a basis for the whole range of techniques, in both study design and data analysis, that are used within applications of statistics.
Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Stem cell research policy varies significantly throughout the world.
--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.
Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment.
Strategic defence is a type of military planning doctrine and a set defense and/or combat activities used for the purpose of deterring, resisting and repelling a strategic offensive, conducted as either a territorial or airspace, invasion or attack; or as part of a cyberspace attack in cyberwarfare; or a naval offensive to interrupt shipping lane traffic as a form of economic warfare.
Strategic geography is concerned with the control of, or access to, spatial areas that affect the security and prosperity of nations.
A strategic military goal is used in strategic military operation plans to define the desired end-state of a war or a campaign.
Strategic studies is an interdisciplinary academic field centered on the study of conflict and peace strategies, often devoting special attention to the relationship between international politics, geostrategy, international diplomacy, international economics, and military power.
Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία stratēgia, "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a high-level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.
Structural engineering is that part of civil engineering in which structural engineers are educated to create the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures.
Structural equation modeling (SEM) includes a diverse set of mathematical models, computer algorithms, and statistical methods that fit networks of constructs to data.
Structural mechanics or Mechanics of structures is the computation of deformations, deflections, and internal forces or stresses (stress equivalents) within structures, either for design or for performance evaluation of existing structures.
Substantive law is the set of laws that governs how members of a society are to behave.
Sumerian religion was the religion practiced and adhered to by the people of Sumer, the first literate civilization of ancient Mesopotamia.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
In machine learning, support vector machines (SVMs, also support vector networks) are supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data used for classification and regression analysis.
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Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another.
Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Surgical pathology is the most significant and time-consuming area of practice for most anatomical pathologists.
A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys.
In statistics, survey sampling describes the process of selecting a sample of elements from a target population to conduct a survey.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
Sustainability studies focus on the interdisciplinary perspective of the sustainability concept.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that develops from practical considerations and alludes to people's particular utilization of dialect to make images, normal implications, for deduction and correspondence with others.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.
System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear behaviour of complex systems over time using stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, table functions and time delays.
Systematic musicology is an umbrella term, used mainly in Central Europe, for several subdisciplines and paradigms of musicology.
Systematic theology is a discipline of Christian theology that formulates an orderly, rational, and coherent account of the doctrines of the Christian faith.
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.
In psychotherapy, systemic therapy seeks to address people not only on the individual level, as had been the focus of earlier forms of therapy, but also as people in relationships, dealing with the interactions of groups and their interactional patterns and dynamics.
The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines system analysis as "the process of studying a procedure or business in order to identify its goals and purposes and create systems and procedures that will achieve them in an efficient way".
Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.
Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field of ecology, a subset of Earth system science, that takes a holistic approach to the study of ecological systems, especially ecosystems.
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles.
Systems immunology is a recent research field that, under the larger umbrella of systems biology, aims to study the immune system in the more integrated perspective on how entities and players participate at different system levels to the immune function.
Systems neuroscience is a subdiscipline of neuroscience and systems biology that studies the function of neural circuits and systems.
Systems philosophy is a discipline aimed at constructing a new philosophy (in the sense of worldview) by using systems concepts.
Systems psychology is a branch of both theoretical psychology and applied psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems.
Systems science is an interdisciplinary field that studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, cognition, and science itself.
Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.
Systems theory in anthropology is an interdisciplinary, non-representative, non-referential, and non-Cartesian approach that brings together natural and social sciences to understand society in its complexity.
A tactical objective is the immediate short-term desired result of a given activity, task, or mission.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Tax law is an area of legal study dealing with the constitutional, common-law, statutory, tax treaty, and regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation.
Tax policy is the choice by a government as to what taxes to levy, in what amounts, and on whom.
Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification.
Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed.
Technical writing is any written form of writing or drafting technical communication used in a variety of technical and occupational fields, such as computer hardware and software, engineering, chemistry, aeronautics, robotics, finance, medical, consumer electronics, and biotechnology.
Technology education is the study of technology, in which students "learn about the processes and knowledge related to technology".
There are several approaches to defining the substance and scope of technology policy.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Telecommunications engineering is an engineering discipline centered on electrical and computer engineering which seeks to support and enhance telecommunication systems.
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Television studies is an academic discipline that deals with critical approaches to television.
, sometimes rendered as Tenriism, is a Japanese new religion which is neither strictly monotheistic nor pantheistic, originating from the teachings of a 19th-century woman named Nakayama Miki, known to her followers as Oyasama.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Textile design is essentially the process of creating designs for woven, knitted or printed fabrics or surface ornamented fabrics.
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
A theatre director or stage director is an instructor in the theatre field who oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a theatre production (a play, an opera, a musical, or a devised piece of work) by unifying various endeavours and aspects of production.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Theoretical chemistry is a branch of chemistry, which develops theoretical generalizations that are part of the theoretical arsenal of modern chemistry, for example, the concept of chemical bonding, chemical reaction, valence, the surface of potential energy, molecular orbitals, orbital interactions, molecule activation etc.
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
Theories of political behavior, as an aspect of political science, attempt to quantify and explain the influences that define a person's political views, ideology, and levels of political participation.
In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm.
Theory of generations (or sociology of generations) is a theory posed by Karl Mannheim in his 1923 essay, "The Problem of Generations." This essay has been described as "the most systematic and fully developed" and even "the seminal theoretical treatment of generations as a sociological phenomenon".
Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Thermoeconomics, also referred to as biophysical economics, is a school of heterodox economics that applies the laws of statistical mechanics to economic theory.
Time geography or time-space geography is an evolving transdisciplinary perspective on spatial and temporal processes and events such as social interaction, ecological interaction, social and environmental change, and biographies of individuals.
A time series is a series of data points indexed (or listed or graphed) in time order.
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.
In mathematics, a topos (plural topoi or, or toposes) is a category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets on a topological space (or more generally: on a site).
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
Tourism geography is the study of travel and tourism, as an industry and as a social and cultural activity.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
A toy is an item that is used in play, especially one designed for such use.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Traffic psychology is a discipline of psychology that studies the relationship between psychological processes and the behavior of road users.
Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic approach.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Transpersonal psychology is a sub-field or "school" of psychology that integrates the spiritual and transcendent aspects of the human experience with the framework of modern psychology.
Transport economics is a branch of economics founded in 1959 by American economist John R. Meyer that deals with the allocation of resources within the transport sector.
In engineering, physics and chemistry, the study of transport phenomena concerns the exchange of mass, energy, charge, momentum and angular momentum between observed and studied systems.
Transportation engineering or transport engineering is the application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, efficient, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods (transport).
Trauma surgery is a surgical specialty that utilizes both operative and non-operative management to treat traumatic injuries, typically in an acute setting.
In medicine, traumatology (from Greek trauma, meaning injury or wound) is the study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents or violence to a person, and the surgical therapy and repair of the damage.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
Type design is the art and process of designing typefaces.
In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is any of a class of formal systems, some of which can serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation for all mathematics.
Ubiquitous computing (or "ubicomp") is a concept in software engineering and computer science where computing is made to appear anytime and everywhere.
Ultraviolet astronomy is the observation of electromagnetic radiation at ultraviolet wavelengths between approximately 10 and 320 nanometres; shorter wavelengths—higher energy photons—are studied by X-ray astronomy and gamma ray astronomy.
Unconventional warfare (abbreviated UW) is the support of a foreign insurgency or resistance movement against its government or an occupying power.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Department of Education (ED or DoED), also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government.
Universal algebra (sometimes called general algebra) is the field of mathematics that studies algebraic structures themselves, not examples ("models") of algebraic structures.
Urban design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities, towns and villages.
Urban geography is the subdiscipline of geography that derives from a study of cities and urban processes.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Urban sociology is the sociological study of life and human interaction in metropolitan areas.
Urban studies is based on the study of the urban development of cities.
Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs.
Usage is the manner in which written and spoken language is used, the "points of grammar, syntax, style, and the choice of words", and "the way in which a word or phrase is normally and correctly used".
User experience design (UX, UXD, UED or XD) is the process of enhancing user satisfaction with a product by improving the usability, accessibility, and pleasure provided in the interaction with the product.
User experience (UX) evaluation or user experience assessment (UXA) refers to a collection of methods, skills and tools utilized to uncover how a person perceives a system (product, service, non-commercial item, or a combination of them) before, during and after interacting with it.
User interface design (UI) or user interface engineering is the design of user interfaces for machines and software, such as computers, home appliances, mobile devices, and other electronic devices, with the focus on maximizing usability and the user experience.
Vaccination policy refers to the health policy a government adopts in relation to vaccination.
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.
A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.
For vehicles such as cars, vehicle dynamics is the study of how the vehicle will react to driver inputs on a given road.
Vehicle engineering is a sub discipline of mechanical engineering that encompasses the fields of automotive engineering, aerospace engineering, rolling stock and marine engineering.
Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
Victimology is the study of victimization, including the psychological effects on victims, relationships between victims and offenders, the interactions between victims and the criminal justice system—that is, the police and courts, and corrections officials—and the connections between victims and other social groups and institutions, such as the media, businesses, and social movements.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics, from Greek ἀρετή (arete)) are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind and character.
Visible-light astronomy encompasses a wide variety of observations via telescopes that are sensitive in the range of visible light (optical telescopes).
Visual arts education is the area of learning that is based upon only the kind of art that one can see, visual arts—drawing, painting, sculpture, and design in jewelry, pottery, weaving, fabrics, etc.
Visual communication is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be seen.
Visual sociology is an area of sociology concerned with the visual dimensions of social life.
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes.
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.
Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to evaluate well-being (welfare) at the aggregate (economy-wide) level.
Whiteness studies is an interdisciplinary arena of inquiry that has developed beginning in the United States, particularly since the late 20th century, and is focused on what proponents describe as the cultural, historical and sociological aspects of people identified as white, and the social construction of "whiteness" as an ideology tied to social status.
Wildlife management attempts to balance the needs of wildlife with the needs of people using the best available science.
A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes.
Women's studies is an academic field that draws on feminist and interdisciplinary methods in order to place women’s lives and experiences at the center of study, while examining social and cultural constructs of gender; systems of privilege and oppression; and the relationships between power and gender as they intersect with other identities and social locations such as race, sexual orientation, socio-economic class, and disability.
Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments.
Word usage is how a word, phrase, or concept is used in a language.
World Englishes is a term for emerging localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in territories influenced by the United Kingdom or the United States.
World history or global history (not to be confused with diplomatic, transnational or international history) is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s.
World literature is sometimes used to refer to the sum total of the world's national literatures, but usually it refers to the circulation of works into the wider world beyond their country of origin.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
World-systems theory (also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective)Immanuel Wallerstein, (2004), "World-systems Analysis." In World System History, ed.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.
Xenobiology (XB) is a subfield of synthetic biology, the study of synthesizing and manipulating biological devices and systems.
Yiguandao, meaning the Consistent Way or Persistent Way, is a Chinese folk religious sect that emerged from the Xiantiandao ("Way of Former Heaven") tradition in the late 19th century, in Shandong, to become China's most important redemptive society in the 1930s and 1940s, especially during the Japanese invasion.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
Zoosemiotics is the semiotic study of the use of signs among animals, more precisely the study of semiosis among animals, i.e. the study of how something comes to function as a sign to some animal.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.