237 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Afghanistan, Africa, Ahwazi Arabs, Al-Alam News Network, Al-Andalus, Al-Kawthar TV, Al-Monitor, Algeria, Andalusian Arabic, Anthoupolis, Arab Argentines, Arab Brazilians, Arab diaspora, Arab League, Arab Pakistani, Arab world, Arabic, Arabic numerals, Arabization, Arabs, Arabs in Europe, Arabs in France, Arabs in Germany, Arabs in Italy, Arabs in Khorasan, Arabs in Pakistan, Arabs in Spain, Arabs in Turkey, Aristocracy, Armenian language, Asia, Autonomous administrative division, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Azawagh, Azawagh Arabs, Azerbaijani language, Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction), Bangladesh, Bengali language, Berber languages, Cabinet of Yemen, Cairo, Caliphate, Caliphate of Córdoba, Caucasus, Central Asia, Central Asian Arabic, Civilization, ..., Classical Arabic, Comorian language, Confederation of sultanates in Lanao, Constitution of Pakistan, Constitution of Pakistan of 1956, Crete, Cypriot Arabic, Cyprus, Dari language, De facto, Demographics of Cyprus, Demographics of Mali, Demographics of Niger, Demographics of Senegal, Diffa Arabs, Diffa Region, Diglossia, Early Muslim conquests, Egypt Eyalet, Emirate of Crete, Emirate of Sicily, English language, Ethnic group, Ethnologue, Europe, Fatimid Caliphate, French language, General National Congress, Georgian language, German language, Government of National Accord, Granada War, Greek language, Gulf Cooperation Council, Hassaniya Arabic, Hürriyet Daily News, Hebrew language, Hindi, Hindustani language, History of the Philippines, House of Representatives (Libya), Houthis, Iberian Peninsula, IFilm (TV channel), International Court of Justice, International recognition of Israel, International recognition of the State of Palestine, Iran, Iranian Arabs, Iranian Revolution, Islam, Islam in the Philippines, Islamic studies, Island, ISO 639 macrolanguage, Israel, Israeli-occupied territories, Italian language, Juba Arabic, Kayhan Al Arabi, Khamseh Arabs, Khorasan Province, Khorasani Arabic, Khuzestan Province, Khuzestani Arabic, Kurdish languages, Kyrgyz language, Languages of Afghanistan, Languages of Armenia, Languages of Azerbaijan, Languages of Cyprus, Languages of Greece, Languages of Italy, Languages of Malta, Languages of Pakistan, Languages of Portugal, Languages of South Sudan, Languages of Spain, Languages of the European Union, Languages of Turkey, Larnaca, Latin America, Levant, Limassol, Lingua franca, List of Arab newspapers, List of ISO 639-1 codes, List of languages by total number of speakers, List of Muslim states and dynasties, List of newspapers in Iran, List of Presidents of Pakistan, List of states with limited recognition, Maghrebi Arabic, Malay Archipelago, Malay language, Mali, Malta, Maltese language, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Maronite Cypriots, Marsh Arabs, Medieval Greek, Medieval Hebrew, Mediterranean Sea, Member state of the European Union, Member states of the Arab League, Member states of the United Nations, Mesopotamian Arabic, Mindanao, Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training, Ministry of National Education (Turkey), Minority language, Modern Standard Arabic, Moors, Mozarabic language, Muslim, Muslim Brotherhood, Muslim conquest of Persia, National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, National language, Nicosia, Niger, North Africa, North India, North Mesopotamian Arabic, Official language, Overseas Pakistani, Pakistan, Pakistanis, Pakistanis in Bahrain, Pakistanis in Kuwait, Pakistanis in Oman, Pakistanis in Qatar, Pakistanis in Saudi Arabia, Pakistanis in the United Arab Emirates, Palestinian territories, Pashto, Payame Noor University, Persian language, Philippine Constitutional Commission of 1986, Philippines, Portugal, Portuguese language, Quran, Sacred language, Saffarid dynasty, Senegal, Sicily, Siculo-Arabic, Siege of Chandax, Somali language, South Asia, South Sudan, Spain, Spanish language, Spread of Islam, Structural basin, Sultan, Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultanate of Sulu, Supreme Court of Israel, Supreme Revolutionary Committee, Swahili language, Syria, Syriac language, Syrian opposition, Tajik language, Tajikistan, Territory, Tigrinya language, TRT Al Arabiya, Tuareg languages, Turkey, Turkish language, Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, Turkmen language, Umayyad Caliphate, United Nations, Urdu, Uzbek language, Uzbekistan, Varieties of Arabic, Vulgar Latin, Western Asia, Western world, Xinhua News Agency, Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar. Expand index (187 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Ahwazi Arabs are an Arab community in Iran which resides mostly in the resource rich Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran, bordering Iraq.
Al-Alam is an Arabic news channel broadcasting from Iran and is owned by the state-owned media corporation Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Al-Kawthar TV is a Tehran-based Arabic-language television channel.
Al-Monitor (المونيتور) is a media site launched in February 2012 by the Arab American entrepreneur Jamal Daniel and based in Washington, DC.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Andalusian Arabic, also known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of the Arabic language spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) under Muslim rule (and for some time after) from the 9th century to the 17th century.
Anthoupolis (Greek: Ανθούπολη) is an area in the suburb of Lakatamia, south of Nicosia, Cyprus.
Arab Argentines refers to Argentine citizens or residents whose ancestry traces back to various waves of immigrants, largely of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity originating mainly from what is now Lebanon and Syria, but also some individuals from the twenty-two countries which comprise the Arab world such as Palestine, Egypt, and Morocco.
Arab Brazilians are Brazilian citizens of Arab ethnic, cultural, linguistic heritage and identity.
Arab diaspora refers to descendants of the Arab immigrants who, voluntarily or as refugees, emigrated from their native lands to non-Arab countries, primarily in South America, Europe, North America, and parts of South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and West Africa.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Arab Pakistani or Pakistani Arab may refer to.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arabs in Europe are people of Arab descent living in Europe today and over the centuries.
Arabs in France are those parts of the Arab diaspora who have immigrated to France, as well as their descendants.
Arabs in Germany are German citizens of Arab descent.
Arabs in Italy (Arabi in Italia) are mostly expatriates from a range of Arab countries, particularly Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, Libya, Somalia, the Palestinian Territories, and Iraq; and also small groups from Jordan, Algeria and Sudan.
The Arabs in Khorasan are a group of Arabs who immigrated to Khorasan Province, Iran, during the Abbasid Caliphate (750−1513).
Arabs in Pakistan (پاکستان میں عرب) consist of migrants from different countries of the Arab world, especially Egypt, Oman, Iraq, Kuwait, Syria, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Jordan and Yemen and have a long history.
There have been Arabs in Spain (Los árabes en España) since the early 8th century when the Umayyad conquest of Hispania created the state of Al-Andalus.
Arabs in Turkey (العرب في تركيا, Türkiye'deki Araplar) refers to citizens and residents of Turkey who are ethnically Arab.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
The Azawagh (alias Azaouagh or Azawak) is a dry basin covering what is today northwestern Niger, as well as parts of northeastern Mali and southern Algeria.
The Azawagh Arabs (أزواغ عرب) (also known as nomadic Moors) are nomadic ethnic Arab-ancestry tribes who are settling mainly in the area of Azawagh which is a dry basin covering what is today northwestern Niger, as well as parts of northeastern Mali and southern Algeria.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (meaning "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabī Al-Ishtirākī), also referred to as the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement, is a neo-Ba'athist political party with branches across the Arab world.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Vice President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi replaced former President of Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh on February 25, 2012 as the new President of Yemen.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Asian Arabic is a variety of Arabic spoken in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and currently facing extinction.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
Comorian (Shikomori or Shimasiwa, the "language of islands") is an official language in the Comoros (an independent country of islands in the Indian Ocean, off Mozambique and Madagascar) and widely spoken on the disputed territory of Mayotte, claimed by both France and Comoros.
The Sultanates of Lanao in Mindanao, Philippines were founded in the 16th century through the influence of Shariff Kabungsuan, who was enthroned as first Sultan of Maguindanao in 1520.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu), also known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of Pakistan.
The Constitution of 1956 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from March 1956 until the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Cypriot Arabic, also known as Cypriot Maronite Arabic or Sanna, is a moribund variety of Arabic spoken by the Maronite community of Cyprus.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The people of Cyprus are broadly divided into two main ethnic communities, Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, who share many cultural traits but maintain distinct identities based on ethnicity, religion, language, and close ties with their respective motherlands.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Mali, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Niger, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Senegal, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Diffa Arabs (ديفا عرب) (also known as Mahamid Arabs) is the Nigerien name given to Arab nomadic tribespeople living in eastern Niger, mostly in the Diffa Region.
Diffa is an administrative region in the southeast of Niger.
In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
The Eyalet of Egypt was the result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516.
The Emirate of Crete (called Iqritish or Iqritiya in Arabic) was a Muslim state that existed on the Mediterranean island of Crete from the late 820s to the Byzantine reconquest of the island in 961.
The Emirate of Sicily (إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة) was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The General National Congress (المؤتمر الوطني العام, Berber: Agraw Amuran Amatay) was the legislative authority of Libya for two years following the end of the Libyan Civil War.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Government of National Accord (حكومة الوفاق الوطني) is an interim government for Libya that was formed under the terms of the Libyan Political Agreement, a United Nations-led initiative, signed on 17 December 2015.
The Granada War (Guerra de Granada) was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1492, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos) Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty's Emirate of Granada.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
Hassānīya (حسانية; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic.
The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least 67,000 years ago as the 2007 discovery of Callao Man suggested.
The House of Representatives (HoR) (translation, Camera dei rappresentanti libica) is the legislature of Libya.
The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
IFilm Also Ifilm TV (Persian:, Arabic) is an Iranian entertainment network which consists of three channels in English, Arabic and Persian.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The international recognition of Israel refers to the diplomatic recognition of the State of Israel, which was established by the Israeli Declaration of Independence on 14 May 1948.
The international recognition of the State of Palestine has been the objective of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine on 15 November 1988 in Algiers, Algeria at an extraordinary session in exile of the Palestinian National Council.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian Arabs (عربهای ايران Arabhāye Irān) refers to the citizens or residents of Iran who are ethnically Arab.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the oldest recorded monotheistic religion in the Philippines.
Islamic studies refers to the study of Islam.
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.
ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Juba Arabic is a lingua franca spoken mainly in Equatoria Province in South Sudan, and derives its name from the town of Juba, South Sudan.
Kayhan Al Arabi (کیهان العربی, English: Arab Cosmos or Arab world) is an Arabic language newspaper published in Iran.
The Khamseh Arabs are an Arab Nomadic and pastoral tribe of the Fars Province in Iran.
Khorasan (استان خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire.
Khorasani Arabic is a dialect of Arabic spoken in Iran.
Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Khuzestani Arabic is a dialect of Gelet (Southern) Mesopotamian Arabic spoken by the Iranian Arabs in Khuzestan Province of Iran.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
Afghanistan is a multilingual country in which two languages – Pashto and Dari – are both official and most widely spoken.
Armenia is an ethnically homogeneous country, where Armenian is the official language and is spoken as a first language by the majority of its population.
Although there are several languages native to the territory, Azerbaijani is the official language and the medium of communication of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The official languages of the Republic of Cyprus are Greek and Turkish.
The official language of Greece is Greek, spoken by 99% of the population.
There are approximately thirty-four living spoken languages and related dialects in Italy; most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and are therefore classified as Romance languages.
Malta has two official languages: Maltese and English.
Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages.
The languages of Portugal are the languages spoken or once spoken in the territory of the country of Portugal.
South Sudan is a multilingual country, with over 60 indigenous languages spoken.
The languages of Spain (lenguas de España), or Spanish languages (lenguas españolas), are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain.
The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).
The languages of Turkey, apart from the only official language Turkish, include the widespread Kurmanji, the moderately prevalent minority languages Arabic and Zazaki and a number of less common minority languages, some of which are guaranteed by the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.
Larnaca (Λάρνακα; Larnaka or İskele) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and the capital of the eponymous district.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Limassol (Λεμεσός; Limasol or Leymosun) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and capital of the eponymous district.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The Arab newspapers industry started in the early 19th century with the Iraqi newspaper Journal Iraq published by Ottoman Wali, Dawud Pasha, in Baghdad in 1816.
ISO 639 is a standardized nomenclature used to classify languages.
A number of sources have compiled lists of languages by their number of speakers. However, all such lists should be used with caution.
This article lists some of the states, empires, or dynasties that were ruled by a Muslim elite, or which were in some way central to or a part of a Muslim empire.
The first Iranian newspapers appeared in the mid-19th century during the reign of Nasir al Din Shah.
The President of Pakistan is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
The Malay Archipelago (Malaysian & Indonesian: Kepulauan Melayu/Nusantara, Tagalog: Kapuluang Malay, Visayan: Kapupud-ang Malay) is the archipelago between mainland Indochina and Australia.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
The Maronites in Cyprus are members of the Maronite Catholic Archeparchy of Cyprus whose ancestors migrated from present-day Lebanon during the Middle Ages.
The Marsh Arabs (عرب الأهوار ʻArab al-Ahwār "Arabs of the Marshlands"), also referred to as the Maʻdān (معدان "dweller in the plains") or shroog (شروگ, "those from the east")—the latter two often considered derogatory in the present day—are inhabitants of the Tigris-Euphrates marshlands in the south and east of Iraq and along the Iranian border.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
Medieval Hebrew was a literary and liturgical language that existed between the 4th and 18th century.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
The Arab League has 22 member states.
The United Nations member states are the sovereign states that are members of the United Nations (UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly.
Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into Syria, Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.
Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.
The Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training (وزارت وفاقی تعلیم و پیشہ وارانہ تربیت) is a federal ministry of Government of Pakistan.
The Ministry of National Education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for the supervision of public and private educational system, agreements and authorizations under a national curriculum.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (الائتلاف الوطني السوري), is a coalition of opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War that was founded in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
Nicosia (Λευκωσία; Lefkoşa) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
North Mesopotamian Arabic (also known as Moslawi or Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic) is a variety of Mesopotamian Arabic spoken north of the Hamrin Mountains in Iraq, in western Iran, northern Syria, and in southeastern Turkey (in the eastern Mediterranean Region, Southeastern Anatolia Region, and southern Eastern Anatolia Region).
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Overseas Pakistanis (بیرون ملک مقیم پاکستانی) refers to Pakistani people who live outside of Pakistan.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistanis in Bahrain comprise Pakistani people living as expatriates or immigrants in Bahrain and their locally born descendants.
Pakistanis in Kuwait comprise Pakistani people who have migrated to Kuwait and their locally born descendants.
Pakistanis in Oman are either Pakistani people who live in Oman, Pakistani immigrants to Oman and people born in Oman of Pakistani descent.
Pakistanis in Qatar are citizens of Pakistan and holders of Pakistani passports.
Pakistanis in Saudi Arabia are either Pakistani people who live in Saudi Arabia even though having been born outside Saudi Arabia, or are Saudi Arabian-born, but have Pakistani roots.
Pakistanis in the United Arab Emirates include expatriates from Pakistan who have settled in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as Emirati people who have Pakistani heritage.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Payame Noor University (PNU) (Persian: دانشگاه پیام نور) is a public university system and one of the largest universities in Iran, and a mega university in world, with its headquarters in Tehran, 31 provincial centers, 500 local study centers, other campuses around the country, and an International Study Center located in the headquarters in Tehran.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Philippine Constitutional Commission of 1986 was the Constitutional convention tasked with drafting the present iteration of the Constitution of the Philippines in 1986.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
The Saffarid dynasty (سلسله صفاریان) was a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in southwestern Afghanistan).
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Siculo-Arabic (or Sicilian Arabic) is the term used for the variety (or varieties) of Arabic that were spoken in the Emirate of Sicily (that included Malta) from the 9th century, persisting under the subsequent Norman rule till the 13th century.
The Siege of Chandax was the centerpiece of the Byzantine Empire's campaign to recover the island of Crete, which since the 820s had been ruled by Muslim Arabs.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Early Muslim conquests in the years following Muhammad's death led to the creation of the caliphates, occupying a vast geographical area; conversion to Islam was boosted by missionary activities, particularly those of Imams, who intermingled with local populations to propagate the religious teachings.
A structural basin is a large-scale structural formation of rock strata formed by tectonic warping of previously flat-lying strata.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The Sultanate of Maguindanao (Maguindanaoan: Kasultanan sa Magindanaw; Jawi: كسولتانن ماڬوايندنااو; Filipino: Kasultanan ng Maguindanao; Malay: Kesultanan Maguindanaw; سلطنة ماجوينداناو) was a Sultanate state that ruled parts of the island of Mindanao, in southern Philippines, especially in modern-day Maguindanao province and Davao City.
The Sultanate of Sulu (Tausūg: Kasultanan sin Sūg, Jawi: کسلطانن سولو دار الإسلام, Kesultanan Sulu, سلطنة سولك) was a Muslim state that ruled the islands in the Sulu Archipelago, parts of Mindanao, certain portions of Palawan and north-eastern Borneo (present-day the certain parts of Sabah and North Kalimantan).
The Supreme Court (בית המשפט העליון, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon) is the highest court in Israel.
The Supreme Revolutionary Committee, sometimes referred to as the Revolutionary Council or the Revolutionary Committee, is an interim body in Yemen formed by the Zaidiyyah Shia group Ansar Allah (more commonly known as the Houthis).
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Syrian opposition (المعارضة السورية) is an umbrella term for the political structure represented by the Syrian National Coalition and associated anti-government Syrian groups with certain territorial control in the form of a proto-state as an alternative Syrian government, claiming to be the legitimate Syrian Arab Republic and also sometimes known just as the Republic of Syria.
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state.
Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.
TRT Al Arabiya (العربية TRT) is an Arabic language channel of TRT (Turkish Radio and Television Corporation), broadcasting to Arabic-speaking audiences in Turkey and the Middle East, 24 hours a day, on subjects, events, and news as well as soap operas from and pertaining to Turkey.
Tuareg, also known as Tamasheq, Tamajaq or Tamahaq (Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵌⴰⵆ), is a language or family of very closely related Berber languages and dialects.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, also known as TRT (Turkish: Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), is the national public broadcaster of Turkey and was founded in 1964.
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Ya'qūb ibn al-Layth al-Saffār (يعقوب بن الليث الصفار), or Ya'qūb-i Layth-i Saffārī (یعقوب لیث صفاری), born Rādmān pūr-i Māhak (رادمان پور ماهک) (October 25, 840 – June 5, 879), a Persian coppersmith, was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty of Sistan, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in south-western Afghanistan).