706 relations: Abietic acid, Acacia, Acesulfame potassium, Acetic acid, Acetylated distarch adipate, Acidity regulator, Acorus calamus, Adipic acid, Aframomum melegueta, Agar, Alcohol, Aleurites moluccanus, Alfalfa, Alginic acid, Alitame, Alkali, Alkanna tinctoria, Allspice, Allura Red AC, Allyl isothiocyanate, Almond, Aloysia citrodora, Alpha-Carotene, Aluminium, Aluminium silicate, Aluminium sulfate, Amaranth, Amaranth (dye), Amaranth oil, Amchoor, American ginseng, Ammonia, Ammonia solution, Ammonium acetate, Ammonium adipate, Ammonium aluminium sulfate, Ammonium bicarbonate, Ammonium carbonate, Ammonium chloride, Ammonium ferric citrate, Ammonium fumarate, Ammonium lactate, Ammonium malate, Ammonium phosphate, Ammonium polyphosphate, Ammonium sulfate, Amylase, Angelica, Anise, Annatto, ..., Anthocyanin, Anticaking agent, Antioxidant, Apocarotenal, Apricot oil, Arabinogalactan, Argan oil, Argon, Asafoetida, Ascorbyl palmitate, Ascorbyl stearate, Asia, Aspartame, Astaxanthin, Astringent, Austria, Avocado, Avocado oil, Azodicarbonamide, Azorubine, Babassu oil, Backhousia citriodora, Bacteria, Baking, Baking powder, Balsam of Peru, Barley, Basil, Bay leaf, Beeswax, Beetroot, Behenic acid, Ben oil, Bentonite, Benzoic acid, Benzoyl peroxide, Berbere, Berberis, Bergamot orange, Beta-Carotene, Betanin, Biodiesel, Biofuel, Biphenyl, Bixin, Black 7984, Black cardamom, Black cumin, Black pepper, Blackcurrant seed oil, Borage, Borage seed oil, Borax, Boric acid, Brilliant Black BN, Brilliant Blue FCF, Brominated vegetable oil, Brown FK, Brown HT, Bush tomato, Butane, Butylated hydroxyanisole, Butylated hydroxytoluene, Cadinene, Caffeine, Cajeput oil, Calcium acetate, Calcium alginate, Calcium aluminosilicate, Calcium ascorbate, Calcium benzoate, Calcium bisulfite, Calcium carbonate, Calcium chloride, Calcium citrate, Calcium diglutamate, Calcium formate, Calcium fumarate, Calcium gluconate, Calcium guanylate, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium inosinate, Calcium lactate, Calcium malate, Calcium oxide, Calcium peroxide, Calcium phosphate, Calcium propanoate, Calcium silicate, Calcium sorbate, Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate, Calcium sulfate, Calcium sulfite, Calcium tartrate, Calorie, Camelina sativa, Candelilla wax, Canola, Canthaxanthin, Caper, Caramel, Caraway, Carbon black, Carbon dioxide, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cardamom, Carnauba wax, Carob pod oil, Carotene, Carrageenan, Carrot seed oil, Carvacrol, Cashew, Ceiba pentandra, Celery, Cellulose, Ceratonia siliqua, Cereal germ, Chalk, Chamomile, Chervil, Chicory, Chili pepper, Chili powder, China, Chives, Chlorine, Chlorine dioxide, Chlorophyll, Chlorophyllin, Choline, Chrysoine resorcinol, Cicely, Cinnamomum cassia, Cinnamon, Citranaxanthin, Citric acid, Citrus Red 2, Clove, Cochineal, Coconut oil, Colour retention agent, Cooking, Copper, Copper(II) sulfate, Coriander, Corn oil, Corn syrup, Corrosive substance, Cosmetics, Cottonseed oil, Cress, Crimson, Crocetin, Crocin, Cryptoxanthin, Cultivar, Cumin, Curcumin, Curry powder, Curry tree, Cyanocobalamin, Cyclamic acid, Cyclodextrin, Cymbopogon, Cysteine, Decanal, Decanoic acid, Defoamer, Dehydroacetic acid, Delta-Tocopherol, Diabetes mellitus, Diarrhea, Dicalcium phosphate, Dietary fiber, Dill, Dimethyl dicarbonate, Dimethyl disulfide, Dipotassium guanylate, Disodium guanylate, Disodium inosinate, Disodium ribonucleotides, Distillation, Docusate, Dodecyl gallate, Dried lime, Drug, Dysphania ambrosioides, Echinacea, Egg as food, Egg white, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Emulsion, Eruca sativa, Erythorbic acid, Erythritol, Erythrosine, Ethanol, Ethiopia, Ethyl maltol, Ethyl methyl cellulose, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Ethylparaben, Eucheuma, Europe, Extract, False flax oil, Farnesol, Fast Green FCF, Fat, Fatty acid, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Fennel, Fenugreek, Filé powder, Five-spice powder, Flavor, Flavoxanthin, Flour, Flour treatment agent, Folate, Food additive, Food and Drug Administration, Food Chemicals Codex, Food coloring, Food energy, Food orange 7, Formaldehyde, Formic acid, Fructose, Fruit preserves, Fuel, Fumaric acid, Fungus, Galangal, Galium odoratum, Gallic acid, Gamma-Carotene, Gamma-Tocopherol, Garam masala, Garcinia indica, Garlic, Garlic oil, Gelatin, Gellan gum, Generally recognized as safe, Ginger, Ginseng, Glazing agent, Gluconic acid, Glucono delta-lactone, Glucose oxidase, Glucose syrup, Glutamic acid, Gluten, Glycerol, Glycerol ester of wood rosin, Glycerol monostearate, Glycine, Glyoxylic acid, Gold, Grape seed oil, Green S, Green tea, Guanosine monophosphate, Guar gum, Guizotia abyssinica, Gum arabic, Gum guaicum, Gum karaya, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Harpagophytum, Hazelnut, Helium, Hemp oil, Heptylparaben, Hesperidin, Hexamethylenetetramine, Hexyl acetate, Hibiscus, Hierochloe odorata, High-fructose corn syrup, Horseradish, Humectant, Hydrochloric acid, Hydroxypropyl cellulose, Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate, Hypromellose, Hyssopus officinalis, Ice cream, Illicium verum, Indanthrone blue, India, Indigo dye, Indole, Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, Inosinic acid, Inositol, International Numbering System for Food Additives, Inulin, Invertase, Inverted sugar syrup, Iron, Iron oxide, Iron(II) gluconate, Iron(II) lactate, Isobutane, Isomalt, Isothiocyanate, Jasmine, Jerk (cooking), Juniper, Juniper berry, Kaffir lime, Kaolinite, Kapok tree, Kelp, Kola nut, Konjac, Lactic acid, Lactitol, Lactobionic acid, Lactose, Lard, Lavandula, Lavender oil, Lecithin, Lemon, Lemon balm, Leucine, Limnanthes, Limonene, Lipase, Liquid–liquid extraction, Liquorice, List of additives in cigarettes, List of unrefined sweeteners, Lithol Rubine BK, Locust bean gum, Long pepper, Lovage, Lutein, Lycopene, Lysine, Lysozyme, Macadamia oil, Maceration (food), Magnesium, Magnesium carbonate, Magnesium chloride, Magnesium citrate, Magnesium diglutamate, Magnesium hydroxide, Magnesium lactate, Magnesium oxide, Magnesium phosphate, Magnesium stearate, Magnesium sulfate, Mahleb, Malabathrum, Malic acid, Malt, Maltitol, Maltodextrin, Maltol, Maltose, Manganese, Mannitol, Margarine, Marjoram, Massage, Mastic (plant resin), Mayonnaise, Meadowfoam seed oil, Mega Purple, Melissa (plant), Mentha, Mentha arvensis, Metatartaric acid, Methionine, Methyl butyrate, Methyl cellulose, Methyl isobutyrate, Methylparaben, Microcline, Microorganism, Milk, Mixed ammonium salts of phosphorylated glycerides, Modified starch, Moisturizer, Molybdenum, Monarda didyma, Monoammonium glutamate, Monopotassium glutamate, Monosodium glutamate, Moringa oleifera, Morocco, Mustard (condiment), Mustard oil, Mustard plant, Mustard seed, Natamycin, Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, Niacin, Nicotinamide, Nigella sativa, Nisin, Nitrogen, Nitrous oxide, Nutmeg, Octyl gallate, Oenothera, Oenothera biennis, Oil lamp, Okra, Oleic acid, Olive oil, Omega-3 fatty acid, Omega-6 fatty acid, Orange GGN, Orange oil, Orcein, Oregano, Orris root, Oseltamivir, Oxygen, Palm oil, Panax ginseng, Panch phoron, Pandanus amaryllifolius, Pantothenic acid, Papain, Paprika, Paprika oleoresin, Paraffin wax, Parsley, Patent Blue V, Peanut oil, Pecan oil, Pectin, Perilla oil, Phosphated distarch phosphate, Phosphoric acid, Phytic acid, Pine nut, Pine nut oil, Piperonal, Pistachio, Pistachio oil, Plum, Polydextrose, Polydimethylsiloxane, Polyglycerol polyricinoleate, Polyphosphate, Polysorbate, Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 80, Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Pomegranate, Ponceau 4R, Ponceau 6R, Poppy, Poppyseed oil, Porophyllum ruderale, Potassium acetate, Potassium adipate, Potassium alum, Potassium benzoate, Potassium bicarbonate, Potassium bisulfite, Potassium bromate, Potassium carbonate, Potassium chloride, Potassium citrate, Potassium ferrocyanide, Potassium fumarate, Potassium gluconate, Potassium hydroxide, Potassium lactate, Potassium malate, Potassium metabisulfite, Potassium nitrate, Potassium nitrite, Potassium phosphate, Potassium propanoate, Potassium sodium tartrate, Potassium sorbate, Potassium sulfate, Potassium sulfite, Potassium tartrate, Preservative, Primula, Propionic acid, Propyl gallate, Propylene glycol, Propylene glycol alginate, Propylparaben, Prune kernel oil, Pulegone, Pumpkin seed oil, Purslane, Pyridoxine, Pyrophosphate, Quatre épices, Quillaia, Quinoa, Quinoa oil, Quinoline Yellow WS, Ramtil oil, Rapeseed, Ras el hanout, Raspberry, Red 2G, Renaissance, Retinol, Rhodoxanthin, Riboflavin, Rice bran oil, Rosemary, Rubixanthin, Saccharin, Safflower, Saffron, Saigon cinnamon, Salad, Salt, Salvia officinalis, Sambucus, Sandalwood, Sanguisorba minor, Saturated fat, Satureja, Scarlet GN, Sesame, Sesame oil, Shellac, Sichuan pepper, Silicon dioxide, Silver, Silybum marianum, Siraitia grosvenorii, Slovenia, Soap, Sodium acetate, Sodium adipate, Sodium aluminium phosphate, Sodium aluminium sulfate, Sodium aluminosilicate, Sodium benzoate, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium bisulfite, Sodium carbonate, Sodium citrate, Sodium cyclamate, Sodium dehydroacetate, Sodium diacetate, Sodium erythorbate, Sodium ferrocyanide, Sodium formate, Sodium fumarate, Sodium gluconate, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium lactate, Sodium malate, Sodium metabisulfite, Sodium methylparaben, Sodium nitrate, Sodium nitrite, Sodium orthophenyl phenol, Sodium propionate, Sodium sorbate, Sodium stearoyl lactylate, Sodium sulfite, Sodium tartrate, Sorbic acid, Sorbitan monolaurate, Sorbitan monostearate, Sorbitan tristearate, Sorbitol, Sorrel, Spearmint, Squalene, Stabilizer (chemistry), Starch, Stearic acid, Succinic acid, Sucralose, Sucrose acetate isobutyrate, Sugar, Sugar substitute, Sulfite, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Sumac, Sunflower oil, Sunset Yellow FCF, Talc, Tamarind, Tanacetum balsamita, Tandoori masala, Tannin, Tansy, Tara spinosa, Taraxacum, Tarragon, Tartaric acid, Tartrazine, Tea seed oil, Tert-Butylhydroquinone, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Thaumatin, Thiamine, Thickening agent, Thyme, Thymol, Tiabendazole, Tin(II) chloride, Titanium dioxide, Tocopherol, Tooth decay, Tracer-gas leak testing, Tragacanth, Triacetin, Triethyl citrate, Trisodium phosphate, Tropics, Turmeric, Turnera diffusa, Unsaturated fat, Urea, Vachellia nilotica subsp. nilotica, Vanilla, Verbascum, Verbascum thapsus, Vinegar, Violaxanthin, Viscosity, Vitamin, Vitamin B3, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Walnut oil, Wasabi, Water, Wattleseed, Wheat germ oil, Xanthan gum, Xylitol, Yellow 2G, Yolk, Yucca, Zeaxanthin, Zinc acetate, 2-Phenylphenol. 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Abietic acid (also known as abietinic acid or sylvic acid) is an organic compound that occurs widely in trees.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
Acesulfame potassium, also known as acesulfame K (K is the symbol for potassium) or Ace K, is a calorie-free sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) often marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetylated distarch adipate (E1422), is a starch that is treated with acetic anhydride and adipic acid anhydride to resist high temperatures.
Acidity regulators, or pH control agents, are food additives used to change or maintain pH (acidity or basicity).
Acorus calamus (also called sweet flag or calamus, among many common names) is a species of flowering plant, a tall wetland monocot of the Acoraceae family, in the genus Acorus.
Adipic acid or hexanedioic acid is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)4(COOH)2.
Aframomum melegueta is a species in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.
Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Aleurites moluccanus (or moluccana), the candlenut, is a flowering tree in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, also known as candleberry, Indian walnut, kemiri, varnish tree, nuez de la India, buah keras, or kukui nut tree, and Kekuna tree.
Alfalfa, Medicago sativa also called lucerne, is a perennial flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in many countries around the world.
Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate, is a polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum.
Alitame is an aspartic acid-containing dipeptide sweetener.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Alkanna tinctoria, the dyer's alkanet or alkanet, is a herb in the borage family.
Allspice, also called pimenta, Jamaica pimenta, or myrtle pepper, is the dried unripe fruit (berries, used as a spice) of Pimenta dioica, a midcanopy tree native to the Greater Antilles, southern Mexico, and Central America, now cultivated in many warm parts of the world.
Allura Red AC is a red azo dye that goes by several names.
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the organosulfur compound with the formula CH2CHCH2NCS.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
Aloysia citrodora is a species of flowering plant in the verbena family Verbenaceae, native to western South America.
α-Carotene is a form of carotene with a β-ionone ring at one end and an α-ionone ring at the opposite end.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium silicate (or aluminum silicate) is a name commonly applied to chemical compounds which are derived from aluminium oxide, Al2O3 and silicon dioxide, SiO2 which may be anhydrous or hydrated, naturally occurring as minerals or synthetic.
Aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula Al2(SO4)3.
Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants.
Amaranth, FD&C Red No.
Amaranth oil is extracted from the seeds of two species of the genus Amaranthus — A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus — that are called, collectively, amaranth grain.
Amchoor or aamchur, also referred to as mango powder, is a fruity spice powder made from dried unripe green mangoes and is used as a citrusy seasoning.
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius, Panacis quinquefolis) is a herbaceous perennial plant in the ivy family, commonly used as Chinese or traditional medicine.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonia solution, also known as ammonia water, ammoniacal liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water.
Ammonium acetate, also known as spirit of Mindererus in aqueous solution, is a chemical compound with the formula NH4CH3CO2.
Ammonium adipate is a compound with formula (NH4)2(C4H8(COO)2).
Ammonium aluminium sulfate, also known as ammonium alum or just alum, is a white crystalline double sulfate usually encountered as the dodecahydrate, formula (NH4)Al(SO4)2·12H2O.
Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic compound with formula (NH4)HCO3, simplified to NH5CO3.
Ammonium carbonate is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
Ammonium ferric citrate has the formula (NH4)5.
Ammonium fumarate is a compound with formula (NH4)2(C2H2(COO)2).
Ammonium lactate is a compound with formula NH4(C2H4(OH)COO).
Ammonium malate is a compound with formula NH4(C2H4O(COO)2).
Ammonium phosphate is the salt of ammonium and phosphate.
Ammonium polyphosphate commercially produced by Clariant, (former business area of Hoechst AG), Budenheim and other sources is an inorganic salt of polyphosphoric acid and ammonia containing both chains and possibly branching.
Ammonium sulfate (American English and international scientific usage; ammonium sulphate in British English); (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
Angelica is a genus of about 60 species of tall biennial and perennial herbs in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, reaching as far north as Iceland, Lapland and Greenland.
Anise (Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia.
Annatto is an orange-red condiment and food coloring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree (Bixa orellana).
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
An anticaking agent is an additive placed in powdered or granulated materials, such as table salt or confectionaries to prevent the formation of lumps (caking) and for easing packaging, transport, and consumption.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Apocarotenal, or trans-β-apo-8'-carotenal, is a carotenoid found in spinach and citrus fruits.
Apricot oil or apricot kernel oil is pressed from the kernels of the Prunus armeniaca (apricot).
Arabinogalactan is a biopolymer consisting of arabinose and galactose monosaccharides.
Argan oil is a plant oil produced from the kernels of the argan tree (Argania spinosa L.) that is endemic to Morocco.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Asafoetida is the dried latex (gum oleoresin) exuded from the rhizome or tap root of several species of Ferula, a perennial herb that grows tall.
Ascorbyl palmitate is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and palmitic acid creating a fat-soluble form of vitamin C. In addition to its use as a source of vitamin C, it is also used as an antioxidant food additive (E number E304).
Ascorbyl stearate (C24H42O7) is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and stearic acid.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Aspartame (APM) is an artificial non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.
Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid.
An astringent (sometimes called adstringent) is a chemical that shrinks or constricts body tissues.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
Avocado oil is an edible oil pressed from the fruit of the Persea americana (avocado).
Azodicarbonamide, or azo(bis)formamide, is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C2H4O2N4.
Azorubine is an azo dye produced as a disodium salt.
Babassu oil or cusi oil is a clear light yellow vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the babassu palm (Attalea speciosa), which grows in the Amazon region of South America.
Backhousia citriodora (common names lemon myrtle, lemon scented myrtle, lemon scented ironwood) is a flowering plant in the family Myrtaceae, genus Backhousia.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent, a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid and is used for increasing the volume and lightening the texture of baked goods.
Balsam of Peru, also known and marketed by many other names, is a balsam derived from a tree known as Myroxylon balsamum var.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum), also called great basil or Saint-Joseph's-wort, is a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae (mints).
Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaves of several plants used in cooking.
Beeswax (cera alba) is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis.
The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet.
Behenic acid (also docosanoic acid) is a carboxylic acid, the saturated fatty acid with formula C21H43COOH.
Ben oil is pressed from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera, known variously as the horseradish tree, ben oil tree, or drumstick tree.
Bentonite (/ˈbɛntənʌɪt/) is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite.
Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a medication and industrial chemical.
Berbere (በርበሬ bärbäre, በርበረ bärbärä) is a spice mixture whose constituent elements usually include chili peppers, garlic, ginger, basil, korarima, rue, ajwain or radhuni, nigella, and fenugreek.
Berberis, commonly known as barberry, is a large genus of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from tall, found throughout temperate and subtropical regions of the world (apart from Australia).
Citrus bergamia, the bergamot orange (pronounced), is a fragrant citrus fruit the size of an orange, with a yellow or green color similar to a lime, depending on ripeness.
β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.
Betanin, or Beetroot Red, is a red glycosidic food dye obtained from beets; its aglycone, obtained by hydrolyzing away the glucose molecule, is betanidin.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Biphenyl (or diphenyl or phenylbenzene or 1,1′-biphenyl or lemonene) is an organic compound that forms colorless crystals.
Bixin is an apocarotenoid found in annatto, a natural food coloring obtained from the seeds of the achiote tree (Bixa orellana).
Black 7984, Food Black 2, or C.I. 27755, is a brown-to-black synthetic diazo dye.
Black cardamom, also known as hill cardamom, Bengal cardamom, greater cardamom, Indian cardamom, Nepal cardamom, winged cardamom, or brown cardamom, comes from either of two species in the family Zingiberaceae.
Black cumin can refer to the seeds of either of two quite different plants, both of which are used as spices.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
Blackcurrant seed oil is derived from the seeds of Ribes nigrum (black currant, or European currant).
Borage (Borago officinalis), also known as a starflower, is an annual herb in the flowering plant family Boraginaceae.
Borage seed oil is derived from the seeds of the Borago officinalis (borage).
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
Brilliant Black BN, Brilliant Black PN, Brilliant Black A, Black PN, Food Black 1, Naphthol Black, C.I. Food Black 1, or C.I. 28440, is a synthetic black diazo dye.
Brilliant Blue FCF (Blue 1) is an organic compound classified as a triarylmethane dye and a blue azo dye, reflecting its chemical structure.
Brominated vegetable oil (BVO) is a complex mixture of plant-derived triglycerides that have been reacted to contain atoms of the element bromine bonded to the molecules.
Brown FK, also called Kipper Brown, Chocolate Brown FK, and C.I. Food Brown 1, is a brown mixture of six synthetic azo dyes, with addition of sodium chloride, and/or sodium sulfate.
Brown HT, also called Chocolate Brown HT, Food Brown 3, and C.I. 20285, is a brown synthetic coal tar diazo dye.
The term bush tomato refers to the fruit or entire plants of certain nightshade (Solanum) species native to the more arid parts of Australia.
Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is an antioxidant consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole.
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), also known as dibutylhydroxytoluene, is a lipophilic organic compound, chemically a derivative of phenol, that is useful for its antioxidant properties.
Cadinene is the trivial chemical name of a number of isomeric hydrocarbons that occur in a wide variety of essential oil-producing plants.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Cajuput oil is a volatile oil obtained by distillation from the leaves of the myrtaceous trees Melaleuca leucadendra, Melaleuca cajuputi, and probably other Melaleuca species.
Calcium acetate is a chemical compound which is a calcium salt of acetic acid.
Calcium alginate is a water-insoluble, gelatinous, cream-coloured substance that can be created through the addition of aqueous calcium chloride to aqueous sodium alginate.
Calcium aluminosilicate, an aluminosilicate compound with calcium cations, most typically has formula CaAl2Si2O8.
Calcium ascorbate is a compound with the molecular formula CaC12H14O12.
Calcium benzoate refers to the calcium salt of benzoic acid.
Calcium bisulfite (calcium bisulphite) is an inorganic compound which is the salt of a calcium cation and a bisulfite anion.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.
Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid.
Calcium diglutamate, sometimes abbreviated CDG and also called calcium glutamate, is a compound with formula Ca(C5H8NO4)2.
Calcium formate, Ca(HCO2)2 (or. Ca(HCOO)2), is the calcium salt of formic acid, HCOOH.
Calcium fumarate is a compound with formula Ca(C2H2(COO)2) or (OOC-CH.
Calcium gluconate is a mineral supplement and medication.
Calcium guanylate is a compound with formula Ca(C10H12O4N5PO4).
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Calcium inosinate is a calcium salt of the nucleoside inosine.
Calcium lactate is a white crystalline salt with formula, consisting of two lactate anions (CHOH) for each calcium cation.
Calcium malate is a compound with formula Ca(C2H4O(COO)2).
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Calcium peroxide or calcium dioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula CaO2.
Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions.
Calcium propanoate or calcium propionate has the formula Ca(C2H5COO)2.
Calcium silicate is the chemical compound Ca2SiO4, also known as calcium orthosilicate and is sometimes formulated as 2CaO·SiO2.
Calcium sorbate is the calcium salt of sorbic acid.
Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (calcium stearoyl lactylate or CSL) or E482 is a versatile, FDA approved food additive.
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.
Calcium sulfite, or calcium sulphite, is a chemical compound, the calcium salt of sulfite with the formula CaSO3·x(H2O).
Calcium tartrate, exactly calcium L-tartrate, is a byproduct of the wine industry, prepared from wine fermentation dregs.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
Camelina sativa is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae and is usually known in English as camelina, gold-of-pleasure, or false flax, also occasionally wild flax, linseed dodder, German sesame, and Siberian oilseed.
Candelilla wax is a wax derived from the leaves of the small Candelilla shrub native to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States, Euphorbia cerifera and Euphorbia antisyphilitica, from the family Euphorbiaceae.
Canola oil, or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil.
Canthaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature.
Capparis spinosa, the caper bush, also called Flinders rose, is a perennial plant that bears rounded, fleshy leaves and large white to pinkish-white flowers.
Caramel is a medium- to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars.
Caraway, also known as meridian fennel, and Persian cumin, (Carum carvi) is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae,USDA Plants native to western Asia, Europe, and North Africa.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose gum or tylose powder is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.
Carnauba (carnaúba), also called Brazil wax and palm wax, is a wax of the leaves of the palm Copernicia prunifera (Synonym: Copernicia cerifera), a plant native to and grown only in the northeastern Brazilian states of Piauí, Ceará, Maranhão, Bahia, and Rio Grande do Norte.
Carob pod oil (Algaroba oil) is an edible oil pressed from carob beans, used medicinally.
The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi).
Carrageenans or carrageenins (from Irish, "little rock") are a family of linear sulfated polysaccharides that are extracted from red edible seaweeds.
Carrot seed oil is the essential oil extract of the seed from the carrot plant Daucus carota.
Carvacrol, or cymophenol, C6H3CH3(OH)(C3H7), is a monoterpenoid phenol.
The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple.
Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree of the order Malvales and the family Malvaceae (previously separated in the family Bombacaceae), native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, and (as the variety C. pentandra var. guineensis) to tropical west Africa.
Celery (Apium graveolens) is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Ceratonia siliqua, known as the carob tree or carob bush, St John's-bread, locust bean (not African locust bean), or simply locust-tree, is a flowering evergreen tree or shrub in the pea family, Fabaceae.
The germ of a cereal is the reproductive part that germinates to grow into a plant; it is the embryo of the seed.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Chamomile (American English) or camomile (British English; see spelling differences) is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae.
Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), sometimes called French parsley or garden chervil (to distinguish it from similar plants also called chervil), is a delicate annual herb related to parsley.
Common chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a somewhat woody, perennial herbaceous plant of the dandelion family Asteraceae, usually with bright blue flowers, rarely white or pink.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Chili powder (also powdered chili, chile powder or chilli powder) is the dried, pulverized fruit of one or more varieties of chili pepper, sometimes with the addition of other spices (also sometimes known as chili powder blend).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chives, scientific name Allium schoenoprasum, is an edible species of the genus Allium.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chlorophyllin refers to any one of a group of closely related water-soluble salts that are semi-synthetic derivatives of chlorophyll, differing in the identity of the cations associated with the anion.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
Chrysoine resorcinol is a synthetic azo dye which was formerly used as a food additive.
Myrrhis odorata, with common names cicely, sweet cicely, myrrh, garden myrrh, and sweet chervil, is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the celery family Apiaceae.
Cinnamomum cassia, called Chinese cassia or Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree originating in southern China, and widely cultivated there and elsewhere in southern and eastern Asia (India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan of China, Thailand, and Vietnam).
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
Citranaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment used as a food additive under the E number E161i as a food coloring.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Citrus Red 2, Citrus Red No.
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.
The cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) is a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the natural dye carmine is derived.
Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).
Colour retention agents are food additives that are added to food to prevent the colour from changing.
Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper(II) sulfate, also known as cupric sulfate, or copper sulphate, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro or Chinese parsley, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae.
Corn oil (maize oil) is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize).
Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch of corn (called maize in some countries) and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Cottonseed oil is a cooking oil extracted from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum, that are grown for cotton fiber, animal feed, and oil.
Cress may refer to.
Crimson is a strong, red color, inclining to purple.
Crocetin is a natural apocarotenoid dicarboxylic acid that is found in the crocus flower and Gardenia jasminoides (fruits).
Crocin is a carotenoid chemical compound that is found in the flowers crocus and gardenia.
Cryptoxanthin is a natural carotenoid pigment.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including Middle East and stretching east to India.
Curcumin is a bright yellow chemical produced by some plants.
Curry powder is a spice mix originating from the Indian subcontinent.
The curry tree (Murraya koenigii) is a tropical to sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae (the rue family, which includes rue, citrus, and satinwood), which is native to India and Sri Lanka.
Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of 12.
Cyclamic acid is a compound with formula C6H13NO3S.
Cyclodextrins (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are a family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound together in a ring (cyclic oligosaccharides).
Cymbopogon, better known as lemongrass, is a genus of Asian, African, Australian, and tropical island plants in the grass family.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Decanal is an organic compound with the chemical formula C9H19CHO.
Decanoic acid (capric acid) is a saturated fatty acid.
A defoamer or an anti-foaming agent is a chemical additive that reduces and hinders the formation of foam in industrial process liquids.
Dehydroacetic acid is an organic compound which has several industrial applications.
δ-Tocopherol is one of the chemical compounds that is considered vitamin E. As a food additive, it has E number E309.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dicalcium phosphate is the calcium phosphate with the formula CaHPO4 and its dihydrate. The "di" prefix in the common name arises because the formation of the HPO42– anion involves the removal of two protons from phosphoric acid, H3PO4. It is also known as dibasic calcium phosphate or calcium monohydrogen phosphate. Dicalcium phosphate is used as a food additive, it is found in some toothpastes as a polishing agent and is a biomaterial.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Dill (Anethum graveolens) is an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae.
Dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) is an organic compound which is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor at high concentration at room temperature.
Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula CH3SSCH3 which is the simplest disulfide.
Dipotassium guanylate is a compound with formula K2(C10H12O4N5PO4).
Disodium guanylate, also known as sodium 5'-guanylate and disodium 5'-guanylate, is a natural sodium salt of the flavor enhancing nucleotide guanosine monophosphate (GMP).
Disodium inosinate (E631) is the disodium salt of inosinic acid with the chemical formula C10H11N4Na2O8P.
Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides, E number E635, is a flavor enhancer which is synergistic with glutamates in creating the taste of umami.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Docusate, also known as docusate salts or dioctyl sulfosuccinate, is a laxative of the stool softener type used to treat constipation.
Dodecyl gallate, or lauryl gallate, is the ester of dodecanol and gallic acid.
Dried lime (also known as: black lime; noomi basra (Iraq); limoo omani (Iran); loomi (Oman)) is a lime that has lost its water content, usually after having spent a majority of their drying time in the sun.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Dysphania ambrosioides, formerly Chenopodium ambrosioides, known as wormseed, Jesuit's tea, Mexican-tea, payqu (paico), epazote, mastruz, or herba sanctæ Mariæ, is an annual or short-lived perennial herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico.
Echinacea is a genus, or group of herbaceous flowering plants in the daisy family.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
Egg white is the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg.
Eleutherococcus senticosus is a species of small, woody shrub in the family Araliaceae native to Northeastern Asia.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Arugula or rocket (Eruca sativa; syns. E. vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell., Brassica eruca L.) is an edible annual plant in the Brassicaceae family used as a leaf vegetable for its fresh peppery flavor.
Erythorbic acid (isoascorbic acid, D-araboascorbic acid, (D-)erythroascorbic acid) is a stereoisomer of ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
Erythritol ((2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol) is a sugar alcohol (or polyol) that has been approved for use as a food additive in the United States and throughout much of the world.
Erythrosine, also known as Red No.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Ethyl maltol is an organic compound that is a common flavourant in some confectioneries.
Ethyl methyl cellulose is a thickener, vegetable gum, foaming agent and emulsifier.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.
Ethylparaben (ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate) is the ethyl ester of ''p''-hydroxybenzoic acid.
Eucheuma (or guso) is a seaweed algae that may be brown, red, or green in color.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water.
False flax oil is a pressed seed oil, derived from the Camelina sativa or false flax, also called gold of pleasure.
Farnesol is a natural 15-carbon organic compound which is an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol.
Fast Green FCF, also called Food green 3, FD&C Green No.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics.
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a flowering plant species in the carrot family.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets.
Filé powder, also called gumbo filé, is a spicy herb made from the dried and ground leaves of the North American sassafras tree (Sassafras albidum).
Five-spice powder is a spice mixture of five or more spices used predominantly in Chinese and Taiwanese cuisine and also used less commonly in other Asian and Arabic cookery.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Flavoxanthin is a natural xanthophyll pigment with a golden-yellow color found in small quantities in a variety of plants.
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.
Flour treatment agents (also called improving agents, bread improvers, dough conditioners and dough improvers) are food additives combined with flour to improve baking functionality.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) is a collection of internationally recognized standards for the purity and identity of food ingredients.
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.
Food orange 7, the ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid, is a carotenoid with an orange-red color.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Galangal (pronunciation /ˈɡal(ə)ŋɡal/, U.S. /) is a common name for several tropical rhizomatous spices.
Galium odoratum, the sweetscented bedstraw, is a flowering perennial plant in the family Rubiaceae, native to much of Europe from Spain and Ireland to Russia, as well as Western Siberia, Turkey, Iran, the Caucasus, China and Japan.
Gallic acid (also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants.
γ-Carotene is a carotenoid, and is a biosynthetic intermediate for cyclized carotenoid synthesis in plants.
γ-Tocopherol is one of the chemical compounds that is considered vitamin E. As a food additive, it has E number E308.
Garam masala (गरम मसाला;; گرم مصالحہ; গরম মসলা garam ("hot") and masala (a mixture of spices)) is a blend of ground spices common in cuisines from the Indian subcontinent.
Garcinia indica, a plant in the mangosteen family (Clusiaceae), commonly known as kokum, is a fruit-bearing tree that has culinary, pharmaceutical, and industrial uses.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
Garlic oil is the volatile oil (essential oil) derived from garlic.
Gelatin or gelatine (from gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts.
Gellan gum is a water-soluble anionic polysaccharide produced by the bacterium Sphingomonas elodea (formerly Pseudomonas elodea).
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.
A glazing agent is a natural or synthetic substance that provides a waxy, homogeneous, coating to prevent water loss from a surface and provide other protection.
Gluconic acid is an organic compound with molecular formula C6H12O7 and condensed structural formula HOCH2(CHOH)4COOH.
Glucono delta-lactone (GDL), also known as gluconolactone, is a food additive with the E number E575 used as a sequestrant, an acidifier, or a curing, pickling, or leavening agent.
The glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx) also known as notatin (EC number 220.127.116.11) is an oxido-reductase that catalyses the oxidation of glucose to hydrogen peroxide and D-glucono-δ-lactone.
Glucose syrup, also known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycerol ester of wood rosin, also known as glyceryl abietate or ester gum, is an oil-soluble food additive (E number E445).
Glycerol monostearate, commonly known as GMS, is an monoglyceride commonly used as an emulsifier in foods.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Glyoxylic acid or oxoacetic acid is an organic compound.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is pressed from the seeds of grapes, and is thus an abundant by-product of winemaking.
Green S is a green synthetic coal tar triarylmethane dye with the molecular formula C27H25N2O7S2Na.
Green tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia sinensis leaves that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong teas and black teas.
Guanosine monophosphate (GMP), also known as 5'-guanidylic acid or guanylic acid (conjugate base guanylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA.
Guar gum, also called guaran, is a galactomannan polysaccharide extracted from guar beans that has thickening and stabilizing properties useful in the food and hydraulic fracturing industries.
Guizotia abyssinica is an erect, stout, branched annual herb, grown for its edible oil and seed.
Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum and Indian gum, and by other names, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree.
Gum guaicum, or guaiac resin, is a substance produced from the tree species Guaiacum officinale.
Gum karaya or gum sterculia, also known as Indian gum tragacanth, is a vegetable gum produced as an exudate by trees of the genus Sterculia.
Gynostemma pentaphyllum, also called jiaogulan ((Pinyin: jiǎogǔlán), literally "twisting blue plant", is a dioecious, herbaceous climbing vine of the family Cucurbitaceae (cucumber or gourd family) widely distributed in South and East Asia as well as New Guinea. Jiaogulan is best known as an herbal medicine reputed to have powerful antioxidant and adaptogenic effects purported to increase longevity. Pharmacological research has indicated a number of therapeutic qualities of jiaogulan, such as lowering cholesterol and high blood pressure, and strengthening immunity.
Harpagophytum procumbens, also called grapple plant, wood spider and most commonly devil's claw, is a genus of plants in the sesame family, native to southern Africa.
The hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hemp oil or hempseed oil is obtained by pressing hemp seeds.
Heptylparaben (heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate) is a compound with formula C7H15(C6H4OHCOO).
Hesperidin is a flavan-on glycoside found in citrus fruits.
Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula (CH2)6N4.
Hexyl acetate is an ester with the molecular formula C8H16O2.
Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae.
Hierochloe odorata or Anthoxanthum nitens (commonly known as sweet grass, manna grass, Mary’s grass or vanilla grass, and as holy grass in the UK, bison grass e.g. by Polish vodka producers) is an aromatic herb native to northern Eurasia and North America.
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose.
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, syn. Cochlearia armoracia) is a perennial plant of the family Brassicaceae (which also includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, and cabbage).
A humectant is a hygroscopic substance used to keep things moist; it is the opposite of a desiccant because it is wet.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) is a derivative of cellulose with both water solubility and organic solubility.
Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (HDP) is a modified resistant starch.
Hypromellose (INN), short for hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), is a semisynthetic, inert, viscoelastic polymer used as eye drops, as well as an excipient and controlled-delivery component in oral medicaments, found in a variety of commercial products.
Hyssopus officinalis or hyssop is a herbaceous plant of the genus Hyssopus native to Southern Europe, the Middle East, and the region surrounding the Caspian Sea.
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.
Illicium verum is a medium-sized evergreen tree native to northeast Vietnam and southwest China.
Indanthrone blue, also called indanthrene, is an organic dye made from 2-aminoanthraquinone treated with potassium hydroxide in the presence of a potassium salt.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indigo dye is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo).
Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound with formula C8H7N.
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.
Inosinic acid or inosine monophosphate (IMP) is a nucleoside monophosphate.
Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
The International Numbering System for Food Additives (INS) is a European-based naming system for food additives, aimed at providing a short designation of what may be a lengthy actual name.
Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory.
Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar) into fructose and glucose.
Invert(ed) sugar (syrup) is an edible mixture of two simple sugars—glucose and fructose—that is made by heating sucrose (table sugar) with water.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
Iron(II) gluconate, or ferrous gluconate, is a black compound often used as an iron supplement.
Ferrous lactate, or iron(II) lactate, is a chemical compound consisting of one atom of iron (Fe2+) and two lactate anions.
Isobutane, also known as i-butane or methylpropane, is a chemical compound with molecular formula HC(CH3)3.
Isomalt is a sugar substitute, a type of sugar alcohol used primarily for its sugar-like physical properties.
Isothiocyanate is the chemical group –N.
Jasmine (taxonomic name Jasminum) is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae).
Jerk is a style of cooking native to Jamaica, in which meat is dry-rubbed or wet marinated with a hot spice mixture called Jamaican jerk spice.
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.
A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers.
Citrus hystrix, called the kaffir lime, makrut lime or Mauritius papeda, is a citrus fruit native to tropical Asia, including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
Kapok tree can refer to several plants with seeds that grow long hairs.
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
The kola nut is the fruit of the kola tree, a genus (Cola) of trees that are native to the tropical rainforests of Africa.
Konjac (or konjak) is a common name of the Asian plant Amorphophallus konjac (syn. A. rivieri), which has an edible corm (bulbo-tuber).
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactitol is a sugar alcohol used as a replacement bulk sweetener for low calorie foods with approximately 40% of the sweetness of sugar.
Lactobionic acid (4-O-β-galactopyranosyl-D-gluconic acid) is a sugar acid.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms.
Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.
Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained by distillation from the flower spikes of certain species of lavender.
Lecithin (from the Greek lekithos, "egg yolk") is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, which are amphiphilic – they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic), and are used for smoothing food textures, dissolving powders (emulsifying), homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials.
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), balm, common balm, or balm mint, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the mint family Lamiaceae and native to south-central Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, and Central Asia, but now naturalized in the Americas and elsewhere.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Limnanthes, the type genus of the family Limnanthaceae, consists of annual herbaceous plants commonly known as the meadowfoams.
Limonene is a clear, colorless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic monoterpene, and is the major component in the oil of citrus fruit peels.
A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Liquorice (British English) or licorice (American English) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted.
This is the list of 599 additives in cigarettes submitted to the United States Department of Health and Human Services in April 1994.
This list of unrefined sweeteners includes all natural, unrefined, or low-processed sweeteners.
Lithol Rubine BK is a reddish synthetic azo dye.
Locust bean gum (LBG, also known as carob gum, carob bean gum, carobin, E410) is a thickening agent and a gelling agent used in food technology.
Long pepper (Piper longum), sometimes called Indian long pepper (pipli), is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning.
Lovage, Levisticum officinale, is a tall perennial plant, the sole species in the genus Levisticum in the family Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae.
Lutein (Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. from Latin luteus meaning "yellow") is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids.
Lycopene (from the neo-Latin Lycopersicum, the tomato species) is a bright red carotene and carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, gac, and papayas, but it is not in strawberries or cherries.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.
Macadamia oil (or macadamia nut oil) is the non-volatile oil expressed from the nut meat of the macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) tree, a native Australian nut.
In food preparation, maceration is softening or breaking into pieces using a liquid.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3 (archaic name magnesia alba), is an inorganic salt that is a white solid.
Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compound with the formula MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2O)x.
Magnesium citrate is a magnesium preparation in salt form with citric acid in a 1:1 ratio (1 magnesium atom per citrate molecule).
Magnesium diglutamate is a compound with formula Mg(C5H8NO4)2.
Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2.
Magnesium lactate, the magnesium salt of lactic acid, is a mineral supplement.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Magnesium phosphate is a general term for salts of magnesium and phosphate appearing in several forms.
Magnesium stearate is the chemical compound with the formula.
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
Mahleb or Mahalepi is an aromatic spice made from the seeds of a species of cherry, Prunus mahaleb (the Mahaleb or St Lucie cherry).
Malabathrum, malabathron, or malobathrum is the name used in classical and medieval texts for certain cinnamon-like aromatic plant leaves and an ointment prepared from those leaves.
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.
Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".
Maltitol is a sugar alcohol (a polyol) used as a sugar substitute.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.
Maltol is a naturally occurring organic compound that is used primarily as a flavor enhancer.
Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
Margarine is an imitation butter spread used for flavoring, baking, and cooking.
Marjoram (Origanum majorana) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavors.
Massage is to work and act on the body with pressure.
Mastic (Μαστίχα) is a resin obtained from the mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus).
Mayonnaise (also), informally mayo, is a thick cold sauce or dressing usually used in sandwiches and composed salads.
Meadowfoam seed oil is an edible seed oil, extracted from the seeds of Limnanthes alba (meadowfoam).
Mega Purple is a grape juice concentrate by Canandaigua Concentrates of Madera, California, a division of Constellation Brands.
Melissa is a genus of perennial herbs in the Lamiaceae, native to Europe and Asia but cultivated and naturalized in many other places.
Mentha (also known as mint, from Greek, Linear B mi-ta) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family).
Mentha arvensis, the corn mint, field mint, or wild mint, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae.
Metatartaric acid a polymeric lactone of variable composition obtained by heating tartaric acid.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
Methyl butyrate, also known under the systematic name methyl butanoate, is the methyl ester of butyric acid.
Methyl cellulose (or methylcellulose) is a chemical compound derived from cellulose.
Methyl isobutyrate is an organic compound with the formula CH3O2CCH(CH3)2.
Methylparaben, also methyl paraben, one of the parabens, is a preservative with the chemical formula CH3(C6H4(OH)COO).
Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
The mix of ammonium salts of phosphorylated glycerides can be either made synthetically or from mixture of glycerol and partially hardened plant (most often used: rapeseed oil) oils.
Modified starch, also called starch derivatives, are prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically treating native starch to change its properties.
Moisturizers or emollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents (often occlusives help hold water in the skin after application, humectants attract moisture and emollients help smooth the skin.) specially designed to make the external layers of the skin (epidermis) softer and more pliable.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Monarda didyma (crimson beebalm, scarlet beebalm, scarlet monarda, Oswego tea, or bergamot) is an aromatic herb in the family Lamiaceae, native to eastern North America from Maine west to Ontario and Minnesota, and south to northern Georgia.
Monoammonium glutamate is a compound with formula NH4C5H8NO4.
Monopotassium glutamate (MPG) is a compound with formula KC5H8NO4.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.
Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species in the genus Moringa, the only genus in the plant family Moringaceae.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant (white/ yellow mustard, Sinapis alba; brown/ Indian mustard, Brassica juncea; or black mustard, Brassica nigra).
The term mustard oil is used for two different oils that are made from mustard seeds.
Mustard plants are any of several plant species in the genera Brassica and Sinapis in the family Brassicaceae.
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants.
Natamycin, also known as pimaricin, is an antifungal medication used to treat fungal infections around the eye.
Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sometimes abbreviated to neohesperidin DC or simply NHDC, is an artificial sweetener derived from citrus.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nicotinamide (NAA), also known as niacinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication.
Nigella sativa (black caraway, also known as black cumin, nigella, and kalonji) is an annual flowering plant in the family Ranunculaceae, native to south and southwest Asia.
Nisin is a polycyclic antibacterial peptide produced by the bacterium Lactococcus lactis that is used as a food preservative.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
Octyl gallate is the ester of 1-octanol and gallic acid.
Oenothera is a genus of about 145 species of herbaceous flowering plants native to the Americas.
Oenothera biennis (common evening-primrose, evening star, sun drop, weedy evening primrose, German rampion, hog weed, King's cure-all, or fever-plant.) is a species of Oenothera native to eastern and central North America, from Newfoundland west to Alberta, southeast to Florida, and southwest to Texas, and widely naturalized elsewhere in temperate and subtropical regions.
An oil lamp is an object used to produce light continuously for a period of time using an oil-based fuel source.
Okra or okro, known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers or ochro, is a flowering plant in the mallow family.
Oleic acid is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in various animal and vegetable fats and oils.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the ''n''-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end.
Orange GGN, also known as alpha-naphthol orange, is an azo dye formerly used as a food dye.
Orange oil is an essential oil produced by cells within the rind of an orange fruit (Citrus sinensis fruit).
Orcein, also archil, orchil, lacmus and C.I. Natural Red 28, are names for dyes extracted from several species of lichen, commonly known as "orchella weeds", found in various parts of the world.
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae).
Orris root (rhizoma iridis) is a term used for the roots Iris germanica and Iris pallida.
Oseltamivir, sold under the brand name Tamiflu, is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu).
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.
Panax ginseng, the ginseng, also known as Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, or Korean ginseng, is a species of plant whose root is the original source of ginseng.
Panch phoron is a whole spice blend, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used in Bangladesh, Eastern India and Southern Nepal especially in their cuisine.
Pandanus amaryllifolius is a tropical plant in the Pandanus (screwpine) genus, which is commonly known as Pandan’, and is used widely in South Asian and Southeast Asian cooking as a flavoring.
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin.
Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis).
Paprika (US English more commonly, British English more commonly) is a ground spice made from dried red fruits of the larger and sweeter varieties of the plant Capsicum annuum, called bell pepper or sweet pepper.
Paprika oleoresin (also known as paprika extract and oleoresin paprika) is an oil-soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens, and is primarily used as a colouring and/or flavouring in food products.
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
Parsley or garden parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a species of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the central Mediterranean region (southern Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Malta, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia), naturalized elsewhere in Europe, and widely cultivated as an herb, a spice, and a vegetable.
Patent Blue V, also called Food Blue 5, Sulphan Blue, Acid Blue 3, L-Blau 3, C-Blau 20, Patentblau V, Sky Blue, or C.I. 42051 and is a dark bluish synthetic triphenylmethane dye used as a food coloring.
Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts.
Pecan oil is an edible pressed oil extracted from the pecan nut.
Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.
Perilla oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from perilla seeds.
Phosphated distarch phosphate, is a modified resistant starch.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), inositol polyphosphate, or phytate when in salt form), discovered in 1903, a saturated cyclic acid, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds.
Pine nuts (also called piñon or pignoli /pinˈyōlē/) are the edible seeds of pines (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus).
Pine nut oil, also called pine seed oil or cedar nut oil, is a vegetable oil, extracted from the edible seeds of several species of pine.
Piperonal, also known as heliotropin, is an organic compound which is commonly found in fragrances and flavors.
The pistachio (Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.
Pistachio oil is a pressed oil, extracted from the fruit of Pistacia vera, the pistachio nut.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
Polydextrose is a synthetic polymer of glucose.
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) belongs to a group of polymeric organosilicon compounds that are commonly referred to as silicones.
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), E476, is an emulsifier made from glycerol and fatty acids (usually from castor bean, but also from soybean oil).
Polyphosphates are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms.
Polysorbates are a class of emulsifiers used in some pharmaceuticals and food preparation.
Polysorbate 20 (common commercial brand names include Scattics, Alkest TW 20 and Tween 20) is a polysorbate-type nonionic surfactant formed by the ethoxylation of sorbitan before the addition of lauric acid.
Polysorbate 80 is a nonionic surfactant and emulsifier often used in foods and cosmetics.
Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, PVPP, crospovidone, crospolividone or E1202) is a highly cross-linked modification of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also commonly called polyvidone or povidone, is a water-soluble polymer made from the monomer ''N''-vinylpyrrolidone.
The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.
Ponceau 4R (known by more than 100 synonyms,Abbey J, et at. Colorants. pp 459-465 in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Vol 2: Hazards and Diseases. Eds, Motarjemi Y et al. Academic Press, 2013. including as C.I. 16255,FDA. 9 November 2008. p37 Cochineal Red A, C.I. Acid Red 18, Brilliant Scarlet 3R, Brilliant Scarlet 4R, New Coccine, is a synthetic colourant that may be used as a food colouring. It is denoted by E Number E124. Its chemical name is 1-(4-sulpho-1-napthylazo)- 2-napthol- 6,8-disulphonic acid, trisodium salt. Ponceau (17th century French for "poppy-coloured") is the generic name for a family of azo dyes. Ponceau 4R is a strawberry red azo dye which can be used in a variety of food products, and is usually synthesized from aromatic hydrocarbons; it is stable to light, heat, and acid but fades in the presence of ascorbic acid. It is used in Europe, Asia and Australia, but has not been approved by the US FDA.
Ponceau 6R, or Crystal ponceau 6R, Crystal scarlet, Brilliant crystal scarlet 6R, Acid Red 44, or C.I. 16250, is a red azo dye.
A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae.
Poppyseed oil (also poppy seed oil, poppy oil, and oleum papaveris seminis) is an edible oil from poppy seeds (seeds of Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy).
Porophyllum ruderale is an herbaceous annual plant whose leaves can be used for seasoning food.
Potassium acetate (KCH3COO) is the potassium salt of acetic acid.
Potassium adipate is a compound with formula K2C6H8O4.
Potassium alum, potash alum, or potassium aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound: the double sulfate of potassium and aluminium, with chemical formula KAl(SO4)2.
Potassium benzoate (E212), the potassium salt of benzoic acid, is a food preservative that inhibits the growth of mold, yeast and some bacteria.
Potassium bicarbonate (also known as potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium acid carbonate) is a colorless, odorless, slightly basic, salty substance.
Potassium hydrogen sulfite or potassium bisulfite is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KHSO3.
Potassium bromate (KBrO3), is a bromate of potassium and takes the form of white crystals or powder.
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
Potassium citrate (also known as tripotassium citrate) is a potassium salt of citric acid with the molecular formula K3C6H5O7.
Potassium ferrocyanide is the inorganic compound with formula K4·3H2O.
Potassium fumarate is a compound with formula K2C4H2O4.
Potassium gluconate is the potassium salt of the conjugate base of gluconic acid.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Potassium lactate is a compound with formula KC3H5O3, or H3C-CHOH-COOK.
Potassium malate is a compound with formula K2(C2H4O(COO)2).
Potassium metabisulfite, K2S2O5, also known as potassium pyrosulfite, is a white crystalline powder with a pungent sulfur odour.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
Potassium nitrite (distinct from potassium nitrate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula 2.
Potassium phosphate is a generic term for the salts of potassium and phosphate ions including.
Potassium propanoate or potassium propionate has formula K(C2H5COO).
Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate, also known as Rochelle salt, is a double salt of tartaric acid first prepared (in about 1675) by an apothecary, Pierre Seignette, of La Rochelle, France.
Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, chemical formula CH3CH.
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (in British English potassium sulphate, also called sulphate of potash, arcanite, or archaically known as potash of sulfur) is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water.
Potassium sulfite (K2SO3) is a chemical compound which is the salt of potassium cation and sulfite anion.
Potassium tartrate, dipotassium tartrate or argol has formula K2C4H4O6.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
Primula is a genus of mainly herbaceous flowering plants in the family Primulaceae.
Propionic acid (from the Greek words protos, meaning "first", and pion, meaning "fat"; also known as propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula C2H5COOH.
Propyl gallate, or propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate is an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and propanol.
Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2.
Propylene glycol alginate (PGA) is an emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener used in food products.
Propylparaben, the n-propyl ester of ''p''-hydroxybenzoic acid, occurs as a natural substance found in many plants and some insects, although it is manufactured synthetically for use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and foods.
Virgin prune kernel oil is a recently developed vegetable oil, pressed from the seeds, or stones, of the d'Agen prune plum.
Pulegone is a naturally occurring organic compound obtained from the essential oils of a variety of plants such as Nepeta cataria (catnip), Mentha piperita, and pennyroyal.
Pumpkin seed oil (Kernöl or Kürbiskernöl in German, bučno olje in Slovenian, bučino ulje in Croatian, tikvino ulje or bundevino ulje in Serbian, ulei de dovleac in Romanian, and tökmagolaj in Hungarian), is a culinary specialty from what used to be part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and is now southeastern Austria (Styria), eastern Slovenia (Styria and Prekmurje), Central Transylvania, Orăștie-Cugir region of Romania, north western Croatia (esp. Međimurje), Vojvodina, and adjacent regions of Hungary.
Purslane is a common name for several plants with edible leaves and may refer to.
Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.
In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
Quatre épices is a spice mix used mainly in French cuisine, but can also be found in some Middle Eastern kitchens.
Quillaia is the milled inner bark or small stems and branches of the soapbark (''Quillaja saponaria'', Molina).
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa; (or, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). Quinoa provides protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals in rich amounts above those of wheat, corn, rice or oats. It is gluten-free. After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat. Quinoa originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America, and was domesticated 3,000 to 4,000 years ago for human consumption in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia, though archaeological evidence shows livestock uses 5,200 to 7,000 years ago.
Quinoa oil is a vegetable oil extracted from germ of the Chenopodium quinoa, an Andean cereal and has been cultivated since at least 3000 B.C. Quinoa itself has attracted considerable interest as a source of protein, but the oil derived from quinoa is of interest in its own right.
Quinoline Yellow WS is a mixture of organic compounds derived from the dye Quinoline Yellow SS (Spirit Soluble).
Ramtil oil, also known as Niger Seed Oil is used mainly in cooking but also for lighting.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.
Ras el hanout or rass el hanout (رأس الحانوت) is a spice mix from North Africa.
The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves.
Red 2G is a synthetic red azo dye.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Retinol, also known as Vitamin A1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Rhodoxanthin is a xanthophyll pigment with a purple color that is found in small quantities in a variety of plants including Taxus baccata.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Rice bran oil is the oil extracted from the hard outer brown layer of rice called chaff (rice husk).
Rosmarinus officinalis, commonly known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region.
Rubixanthin, or natural yellow 27, is a natural xanthophyll pigment with a red-orange color found in rose hips.
Sodium saccharin (benzoic sulfimide) is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy that is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations.
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant.
Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi, also known as Vietnamese cinnamon or Vietnamese cassia and quế trà my, quế thanh, or " quế trà bồng" in Vietnam) is an evergreen tree indigenous to mainland Southeast Asia.
A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, usually vegetables.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers.
Sambucus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae.
Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus Santalum.
Sanguisorba minor, the salad burnet, garden burnet, small burnet, burnet, is a plant in the family Rosaceae that is native to western, central and southern Europe; northwest Africa and southwest Western Asia; and which has naturalized in most of North America.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
Satureja is a genus of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, related to rosemary and thyme.
Scarlet GN, or C.I. Food Red 1, Ponceau SX, FD&C Red No.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.
Sesame oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from sesame seeds.
Shellac is a resin secreted by the female lac bug, on trees in the forests of India and Thailand.
Sichuan pepper, Sichuan peppercorn, or Szechuan pepper, is a commonly used spice in Chinese cuisine.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silybum marianum has other common names include cardus marianus, milk thistle, blessed milkthistle, Marian thistle, Mary thistle, Saint Mary's thistle, Mediterranean milk thistle, variegated thistle and Scotch thistle.
Siraitia grosvenorii (luo han guo or monk fruit) is a herbaceous perennial vine of the Cucurbitaceae (gourd) family, native to southern China and northern Thailand.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Sodium acetate, CH3COONa, also abbreviated NaOAc, is the sodium salt of acetic acid.
Sodium adipate is a compound with formula Na2C6H8O4.
Sodium aluminium phosphate (SAlP) describes the inorganic compounds consisting of sodium salts of aluminium phosphates.
Sodium aluminium sulfate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaAl(SO4)2·12H2O (sometimes written Na2SO4·Al2(SO4)3·24H2O).
Sodium aluminosilicate refers to compounds which contain sodium, aluminium, silicon and oxygen, and which may also contain water.
Sodium benzoate is a substance which has the chemical formula NaC7H5O2.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium bisulfite (or sodium bisulphite) (sodium hydrogen sulfite) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NaHSO3.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium citrate may refer to any of the sodium salts of citrate (though most commonly the third).
Sodium cyclamate (sweetener code 952) is an artificial sweetener.
Sodium dehydroacetate is a compound with the formula Na(CH3C5HO(O2)(CH3)CO).
Sodium diacetate is a compound with formula.
Sodium erythorbate (C6H7NaO6) is a food additive used predominantly in meats, poultry, and soft drinks.
Sodium ferrocyanide is the sodium salt of the coordination compound of formula 4−.
Sodium formate, HCOONa, is the sodium salt of formic acid, HCOOH.
Sodium fumarate, also called disodium fumarate, is a compound with the molecular formula Na2C4H2O4.
Sodium gluconate is a compound with formula NaC6H11O7.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid, and has a mild saline taste.
Sodium malate is a compound with formula Na2(C2H4O(COO)2).
Sodium metabisulfite or sodium pyrosulfite (IUPAC spelling; Br. E. sodium metabisulphite or sodium pyrosulphite) is an inorganic compound of chemical formula Na2S2O5.
Sodium methylparaben (sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) is a compound with formula Na(CH3(C6H4COO)O).
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.
Sodium nitrite is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2.
Sodium orthophenyl phenol is a compound used as a disinfectant.
Sodium propanoate or sodium propionate is the sodium salt of propionic acid which has the chemical formula Na(C2H5COO).
Sodium sorbate is the sodium salt of sorbic acid.
Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (sodium stearoyl lactylate or SSL) is a versatile, FDA approved food additive used to improve the mix tolerance and volume of processed foods.
Sodium sulfite (sodium sulphite) is a soluble sodium salt of sulfurous acid (sulfite) with the chemical formula Na2SO3.
Sodium tartrate (Na2C4H4O6) is used as an emulsifier and a binding agent in food products such as jellies, margarine, and sausage casings.
Sorbic acid, or 2,4-hexadienoic acid, is a natural organic compound used as a food preservative.
Sorbitan monolaurate is a mixture of esters formed from the fatty acid lauric acid and polyols derived from sorbitol, including sorbitan and isosorbide.
Sorbitan monostearate is an ester of sorbitan (a sorbitol derivative) and stearic acid and is sometimes referred to as a synthetic wax.
Sorbitan tristearate is a nonionic surfactant.
Sorbitol, less commonly known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly.
Common sorrel or garden sorrel (Rumex acetosa), often simply called sorrel, is a perennial herb in the family Polygonaceae.
Spearmint (binomial Mentha spicata, synonym Mentha viridis), also known as garden mint, common mint, lamb mint and mackerel mint, is a species of mint native to much of Europe and Asia (Middle East, Himalayas, China etc.), and naturalized in parts of northern and western Africa, North America, and South America, as well as various oceanic islands.
Squalene is a natural 30-carbon organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil (hence its name, as Squalus is a genus of sharks), although plant sources (primarily vegetable oils) are now used as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives.
In industrial chemistry, a stabilizer is a chemical that is used to prevent degradation.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid.
Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2.
Sucralose is an artificial sweetener and sugar substitute.
Sucrose acetoisobutyrate (SAIB) is an emulsifier and has E number E444.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
Sulfites or sulphites are compounds that contain the sulfite ion (or the sulfate(IV) ion, from its correct systematic name),.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Sumac (also spelled sumach, sumaq) (translation, translit), (Mishnaic Hebrew אוֹג.
Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil pressed from the seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).
Sunset Yellow FCF (also known as Orange Yellow S, or C.I. 15985) is a petroleum-derived orange azo dye with a pH dependent maximum absorption at about 480 nm at pH 1 and 443 nm at pH 13 with a shoulder at 500 nm.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa.
Tanacetum balsamita is a perennial temperate herb known as costmary, alecost, balsam herb, bible leaf, or mint geranium.
Tandoori masala or Tandoori sauce is a mixture of spices specifically for use with a tandoor, or clay oven, in traditional cooking in the Indian subcontinent.
Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.
Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) is a perennial, herbaceous flowering plant of the aster family, native to temperate Europe and Asia.
Tara spinosa, commonly known as tara (Quechua), is a small leguminous tree or thorny shrub native to Peru.
Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions.
Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), also known as estragon, is a species of perennial herb in the sunflower family.
Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds and citrus.
Tartrazine is a synthetic lemon yellow azo dye primarily used as a food coloring.
Tea seed oil (also known as tea oil camellia or oil-seed camellia) is an edible, pale amber-green fixed (nonvolatile) oil with a sweet, herbal aroma.
tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, tertiary butylhydroquinone) is a synthetic aromatic organic compound which is a type of phenol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
Thaumatin is a low-calorie sweetener and flavour modifier.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties.
Thyme is an aromatic perennial evergreen herb with culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses.
Thymol (also known as 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, IPMP) is a natural monoterpenoid phenol derivative of cymene, C10H14O, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted from ''Thymus vulgaris'' (common thyme) and various other kinds of plants as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties.
Tiabendazole (INN, BAN), thiabendazole (AAN, USAN), TBZ (and the trade names Mintezol, Tresaderm, and Arbotect) is a fungicide and parasiticide.
Tin(II) chloride, also known as stannous chloride, is a white crystalline solid with the formula 2.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
A tracer-gas leak testing method is a nondestructive testing method that detects gas leaks.
Tragacanth is a natural gum obtained from the dried sap of several species of Middle Eastern legumes of the genus Astragalus, including A. adscendens, A. gummifer, A. brachycalyx, and A. tragacantha.
The triglyceride 1,2,3-triacetoxypropane is more generally known as triacetin and glycerin triacetate.
Triethyl citrate is an ester of citric acid.
Trisodium phosphate (TSP) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Na3PO4.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.
Turnera diffusa, known as damiana, is a shrub native to southern Texas in the United States, Central America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean.
An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Vachellia nilotica subsp.
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).
Verbascum, common name mullein (sg.) (also known as velvet plant), is a genus of about 250 species of flowering plants in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae.
Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
Violaxanthin is a natural xanthophyll pigment with an orange color found in a variety of plants including pansies.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin B3, also known as vitamin B3 complex, is vitamin that includes three forms: nicotinamide (niacinamide), niacin (nicotinic acid), and nicotinamide riboside.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
Walnut oil is oil extracted from walnuts, Juglans regia.
is a plant of the Brassicaceae family, which also includes horseradish and mustard.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Wattleseeds are the edible seeds from any of 120 species of Australian Acacia that were traditionally used as food by Aboriginal Australians, and eaten either green (and cooked) or dried (and milled to a flour) to make a type of bush bread.
Wheat germ oil is extracted from the germ of the wheat kernel, which makes up only 2.5% by weight of the kernel Wheat germ oil is particularly high in octacosanol - a 28-carbon long-chain saturated primary alcohol found in a number of different vegetable waxes.
Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide with many industrial uses, including as a common food additive.
Xylitol is a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener.
Yellow 2G is a food coloring denoted by E number E107.
Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.
Yucca is a genus of perennial shrubs and trees in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Agavoideae.
Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature.
Zinc acetate is a salt with the formula Zn(O2CCH3)2, which commonly occurs as the dihydrate Zn(O2CCH3)2(H2O)2.
2-Phenylphenol, or o-phenylphenol, is an organic compound that consists of two linked benzene rings and a phenolic hydroxyl group.