133 relations: Acceleration, Alan Stern, Angular eccentricity, Argon, Ariel (moon), Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Astronomical symbols, Astronomical unit, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Atmosphere, Axial tilt, Callisto (moon), Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Ceres (dwarf planet), Chad Trujillo, Charon (moon), Clearing the neighbourhood, Corona, David L. Rabinowitz, Deep Ecliptic Survey, Degree (angle), Density, Dione (moon), Dwarf planet, Dysnomia (moon), Earth, Ellipsoid, Elliptic integral, Elsevier, Enceladus, Equator, Escape velocity, Europa (moon), G-type main-sequence star, Galactic Center, Galactic year, Ganymede (moon), Gas giant, Giant planet, Gram, Gravitational constant, Gravity, Helium, Hydrogen, Hydrostatic equilibrium, Iapetus (moon), Ice giant, ..., International Astronomical Union, Io (moon), Iron, Julian year (astronomy), Jupiter, Kelvin, Kilogram, Light-year, List of former planets, Makemake, Marc William Buie, Mars, Mass, Mercury (planet), Methane, Michael E. Brown, Mimas (moon), Minor planet designation, Miranda (moon), Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Moons of Haumea, Moons of Jupiter, Moons of Mars, Moons of Neptune, Moons of Pluto, Moons of Saturn, Moons of Uranus, Natural satellite, Nature (journal), Neptune, Nitrogen, Oberon (moon), Orbit, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Orbital period, Oxygen, Phoebe (moon), Phosphorus, Photosphere, Planet, Plutoid, Potassium, Radius, Retrograde and prograde motion, Rhea (moon), Ring system, Rings of Jupiter, Rings of Neptune, Rings of Rhea, Rings of Saturn, Rings of Uranus, Saturn, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Small Solar System body, Sodium, Solar System, Speed, Standard gravitational parameter, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sun, Surface area, Temperature, Terrestrial planet, Tethys (moon), The New York Times, Titan (moon), Titania (moon), Trans-Neptunian object, Triton (moon), Umbriel (moon), Uranus, Venus, Volume, Water, 120347 Salacia, 20000 Varuna, 28978 Ixion, 50000 Quaoar, 90377 Sedna, 90482 Orcus. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
Sol Alan Stern (born November 22, 1957) is an American engineer and planetary scientist.
Angular eccentricity is one of many parameters which arise in the study of the ellipse or ellipsoid.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Ariel is the fourth-largest of the 27 known moons of Uranus.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.
Chadwick A. "Chad" Trujillo (born November 22, 1973) is an American astronomer, discoverer of minor planets and the co-discoverer of Eris, the most massive dwarf planet known in the Solar System.
Charon, also known as (134340) Pluto I, is the largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto.
"Clearing the neighbourhood around its orbit" is a criterion for a celestial body to be considered a planet in the Solar System.
A corona (Latin, 'crown') is an aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars.
David Lincoln Rabinowitz (born 1960) is an American astronomer, discoverer of minor planets and researcher at Yale University.
The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) is a project to find Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), using the facilities of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO).
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dione (Διώνη) is a moon of Saturn.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Dysnomia (Greek: Δυσνομία)—officially (136199) Eris I Dysnomia—is the only known moon of the dwarf planet Eris (the most massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System).
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.
In integral calculus, elliptic integrals originally arose in connection with the problem of giving the arc length of an ellipse.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
A G-type main-sequence star (Spectral type: G-V), often (and imprecisely) called a yellow dwarf, or G dwarf star, is a main-sequence star (luminosity class V) of spectral type G. Such a star has about 0.84 to 1.15 solar masses and surface temperature of between 5,300 and 6,000 K., G. M. H. J. Habets and J. R. W. Heintze, Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement 46 (November 1981), pp.
The Galactic Center is the rotational center of the Milky Way.
The galactic year, also known as a cosmic year, is the duration of time required for the Sun to orbit once around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.
Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
A giant planet is any massive planet.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
In fluid mechanics, a fluid is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance when it is at rest, or when the flow velocity at each point is constant over time.
Iapetus (Ιαπετός), or occasionally Japetus, is the third-largest natural satellite of Saturn, eleventh-largest in the Solar System, and the largest body in the Solar System known not to be in hydrostatic equilibrium.
An ice giant is a giant planet composed mainly of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of SI seconds each.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
This is a list of astronomical objects formerly widely considered planets.
Makemake (minor-planet designation 136472 Makemake) is a dwarf planet and perhaps the largest Kuiper belt object in the classical population, with a diameter approximately two thirds that of Pluto.
Marc William Buie (born 1958) is an American astronomer and prolific discoverer of minor planets, who used to be at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, and also the Sentinel Space Telescope Mission Scientist for the B612 Foundation, which is dedicated to protecting Earth from asteroid impact events.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Michael E. Brown (born June 5, 1965) is an American astronomer, who has been professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) since 2003.
Mimas, also designated Saturn I, is a moon of Saturn which was discovered in 1789 by William Herschel.
A formal minor planet designation is, in its final form, a number–name combination given to a minor planet (asteroid, centaur, trans-Neptunian object and dwarf planet but not comet).
Miranda, also designated Uranus V, is the smallest and innermost of Uranus's five round satellites.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The outer Solar System dwarf planet Haumea has two known moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka, named after Hawaiian goddesses.
There are 69 known moons of Jupiter.
The two moons of Mars are Phobos and Deimos.
Neptune has 14 known moons, which are named for minor water deities in Greek mythology.
The dwarf planet Pluto has five moons down to a detection limit of about 1 km in diameter.
The moons of Saturn are numerous and diverse, ranging from tiny moonlets less than 1 kilometer across to the enormous Titan, which is larger than the planet Mercury.
Uranus is the seventh planet of the Solar System; it has 27 known moons, all of which are named after characters from the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Oberon, also designated, is the outermost major moon of the planet Uranus.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Phoebe (Greek: Φοίβη Phoíbē) is an irregular satellite of Saturn with a mean diameter of 213 km.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
A plutoid or ice dwarf is a trans-Neptunian dwarf planet, i.e. a body orbiting beyond Neptune that is massive enough to be rounded in shape.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.
Retrograde motion in astronomy is, in general, orbital or rotational motion of an object in the direction opposite the rotation of its primary, that is the central object (right figure).
Rhea (Ῥέᾱ) is the second-largest moon of Saturn and the ninth-largest moon in the Solar System.
A ring system is a disc or ring orbiting an astronomical object that is composed of solid material such as dust and moonlets, and is a common component of satellite systems around giant planets.
The planet Jupiter has a system of rings known as the rings of Jupiter or the Jovian ring system.
The rings of Neptune consist primarily of five principal rings and were first discovered (as "arcs") in 1984 in Chile by Patrice Bouchet, Reinhold Häfner and Jean Manfroid at La Silla Observatory (ESO) during an observing program proposed by André Brahic and Bruno Sicardy from Paris Observatory, and at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory by F. Vilas and L.-R. Elicer for a program led by William Hubbard.
The Saturnian moon Rhea may have a tenuous ring system consisting of three narrow, relatively dense bands within a particulate disk.
The rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System.
The rings of Uranus are a system of rings around the planet Uranus, intermediate in complexity between the more extensive set around Saturn and the simpler systems around Jupiter and Neptune.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.
In celestial mechanics, the standard gravitational parameter μ of a celestial body is the product of the gravitational constant G and the mass M of the body.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
Tethys (or Saturn III) is a mid-sized moon of Saturn about across.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
A trans-Neptunian object (TNO, also written transneptunian object) is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance (semi-major axis) than Neptune, 30 astronomical units (AU).
Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered.
Umbriel is a moon of Uranus discovered on October 24, 1851, by William Lassell.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
120347 Salacia, provisional designation, is a trans-Neptunian object in the Kuiper belt, approximately 850 kilometers in diameter and almost certainly a dwarf planet.
20000 Varuna, provisional designation, is a large classical Kuiper belt object.
28978 Ixion, provisional designation, is a plutino (an object that has a 2:3 orbital resonance with Neptune).
50000 Quaoar, provisional designation, is a non-resonant trans-Neptunian object (cubewano) and possibly a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System.
90377 Sedna is a large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was,, at a distance of about 86 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, about three times as far as Neptune.
90482 Orcus, provisional designation, is a trans-Neptunian object from the Kuiper belt with a large moon, Vanth.
Attributes of the largest solar system bodies, Distance of planets to the Sun, List of Solar System bodies in hydrostatic equilibrium, List of Solar System bodies in hydrostatic equilibrium by region, List of Solar System objects in hydrostatic equilibrium, List of Solar System planets, List of gravitationally rounded Solar system objects, List of gravitationally rounded objects, List of gravitationally rounded objects in the Solar System, List of planemos, List of planemos of the Solar System, List of planetary objects in the Solar System, List of planetary-mass objects in the Solar System, List of planets in the solar system, List of round Solar System objects, List of round solar system objects, List of satellite planemos, List of spherical astronomical bodies in the Solar System, List of spherical objects in the Solar System, Planets in the Solar System, Planets of the solar system, Satellite planemo, Solar Planets, Solar System planets, Sun's planets, Table of dwarf planets in the solar system, Table of planets and dwarf planets in the Solar System, Table of planets and dwarf planets in the solar system, Table of planets in the Solar System, Table of planets in the solar system, Table of the largest objects in the Solar System.