261 relations: Abrasive blasting, Abrasive jet machining, Acetylene, Adhesive bonding, Annealing (metallurgy), Arc lamp, Arc welding, Assembly line, Bake-out, Ball mill, Bending, Biomachining, Biscuit joiner, Blanking and piercing, Blast furnace, Blow molding, Boring (manufacturing), Brazing, Broaching (metalworking), Burnishing (metal), Butt welding, Carbon dioxide, Centrifugal casting (industrial), Chemical industry, Chemical substance, Chemical vapor deposition, Clinching, Coating, Coining (metalworking), Cold sizing, Cold welding, Composite material, Compression molding, Continuous casting, Cotter (pin), Countersink, Crusher, Cryogenic treatment, Curling (metalworking), Cutting, Decambering, Deep drawing, Die (manufacturing), Die casting, Die cutting (web), Dielectric, Diffusion, Dip moulding, Dip soldering, Disc mill, ..., Drawing (manufacturing), Drilling, Drilling and blasting, Electric discharge, Electric resistance welding, Electrical discharge machining, Electrochemical grinding, Electrochemical machining, Electroforming, Electromagnetism, Electron beam machining, Electron-beam welding, Electroplating, Electropolishing, Embossing (manufacturing), Epoxy, Etching, Evaporative-pattern casting, Explosion welding, Explosive forming, Extrusion, Facing (machining), Fastener, Filament winding, File (tool), Flanging, Flash welding, Flattening, Foam, Forge, Forging, Friction drilling, Friction welding, Full-mold casting, Furnace, Fused filament fabrication, Gas metal arc welding, Gas tungsten arc welding, Gashing, Grinding (abrasive cutting), Gristmill, Groove (engineering), Hammer mill, Heat treating, Hemming and seaming, High frequency, High stock removal, Hobbing, Honing (metalworking), Horizontal and vertical, Horizontal plane, Hot isostatic pressing, Hot metal gas forming, Hot plate, Hubbing, Hydroforming, Hydrogen atom, Image, Impact (mechanics), Impact extrusion, Incremental sheet forming, Induction brazing, Induction heating, Induction welding, Industrial finishing, Inertia, Infrared, Injection moulding, Inkjet printing, Interference fit, Investment casting, Iron, Ironing (metalworking), John Wiley & Sons, Knurling, Laminated object manufacturing, Lamination, Lapping, Laser beam welding, Laser cutting, Laser drilling, Laser engineered net shaping, Laser engraving, Lathe, Leather crafting, Linishing, Logistics, Lost-foam casting, Lost-wax casting, Low frequency, Machine press, Magnetic field-assisted finishing, Magnetic pulse welding, Manufacturing, MAPP gas, Mass finishing, Metal injection molding, Metal spinning, Metalsmith, Milling (machining), Mining, Mortise and tenon, Nail (fastener), Necking (engineering), Notching, Nut (hardware), Oven, Oxy-fuel welding and cutting, Oxygen, Oxyhydrogen, Packaging and labeling, Passivation (chemistry), Peening, Perforation, Permanent mold casting, Petroleum refining processes, Phenol formaldehyde resin, Photochemical machining, Photochemistry, Pickling (metal), Pin, Planing (shaping), Plasma torch, Plastic, Plastic welding, Plastics extrusion, Plating, Polishing, Polishing (metalworking), Polyurethane, Powder, Powder metallurgy, Progressive stamping, Quarry, Quick release skewer, Radio frequency welding, Rapid prototyping, Reamer, Refining, Resin casting, Retaining ring, Rivet, Roll slitting, Rolling (metalworking), Rotational molding, Router (woodworking), Rubber pad forming, Sand casting, Saw, Sawmill, Screw, Screw thread, Selective laser melting, Selective laser sintering, Semiconductor device fabrication, Shape, Sharpening, Shearing (manufacturing), Sheet metal, Shell molding, Shielded metal arc welding, Short circuit, Shot welding, Shrink wrap, Single-pass bore finishing, Sintering, Smelting, Soldering, Spot welding, Spray forming, Spring pin, Sputter deposition, Staking (manufacturing), Stamping (metalworking), Staple (fastener), Steel mill, Stereolithography, Stitch (textile arts), Stud welding, Submerged arc welding, Superfinishing, Surface finishing, Swaging, Tap and die, Taper pin, Thermal spraying, Thermite, Thermoforming, Thermoplastic, Thermosetting polymer, Threading (manufacturing), Torch, Transfer molding, Tube beading, Tumble finishing, Turning, Ultrasonic machining, Ultrasonic welding, Upset welding, Vacuum, Vacuum furnace, Vibratory finishing, Vulcanization, Water jet cutter, Wave, Welding, Wire, Wire brush, Woodworking, Woodworking joints, 3D printing. Expand index (211 more) » « Shrink index
Abrasive blasting, more commonly known as sandblasting, is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface or remove surface contaminants.
Abrasive jet machining (AJM), also known as abrasive micro-blasting, pencil blasting and micro-abrasive blasting, is an abrasive blasting machining process that uses abrasives propelled by a high velocity gas to erode material from the workpiece.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
Adhesive bonding (also referred to as gluing or glue bonding) describes a wafer bonding technique with applying an intermediate layer to connect substrates of different materials.
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.
An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).
Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.
An assembly line is a manufacturing process (often called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.
Bake-out, in several areas of technology and fabrication, and in building construction, refers to the process of using high heat temperature (heat), and possibly vacuum, to remove volatile compounds from materials and objects before placing them into situations where the slow release of the same volatile compounds would contaminate the contents of a container or vessel, spoil a vacuum, or cause discomfort (odor or irritation) or illness.
A ball mill is a type of grinder used to grind and blend materials for use in mineral dressing processes, paints, pyrotechnics, ceramics and selective laser sintering.
In applied mechanics, bending (also known as flexure) characterizes the behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element.
Biomachining is the machining process of using lithotropic bacteria to remove material from metal parts, contrasted with chemical machining methods such as chemical milling and physical machining methods such as milling.
A biscuit joiner (or sometimes plate joiner) is a woodworking tool used to join two pieces of wood together.
Blanking and piercing are shearing processes in which a punch and die are used to modify webs.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
Blow molding (BrE moulding) is a specific manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed and can be joined together: It is also used for forming glass bottles or other hollow shapes.
In machining, boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled (or cast) by means of a single-point cutting tool (or of a boring head containing several such tools), such as in boring a gun barrel or an engine cylinder.
Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
Broaching is a machining process that uses a toothed tool, called a broach, to remove material.
Burnishing is the plastic deformation of a surface due to sliding contact with another object.
Butt welding is a commonly used technique in welding that can either be automated or done by hand on steel pieces.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Centrifugal casting or rotocasting is a casting technique that is typically used to cast thin-walled cylinders.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.
Clinching or press-joining is a bulk-sheet metal-forming process aimed at joining thin metal sheet without additional components, using special tools to plastically form an interlock between two or more sheets.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
Coining is a form of precision stamping in which a workpiece is subjected to a sufficiently high stress to induce plastic flow on the surface of the material.
Cold sizing is a squeezing operation performed at temperatures significantly below the melting point to finish the surface of a workpiece to ensure better dimensional accuracy and surface finish.
Cold welding or contact welding is a solid-state welding process in which joining takes place without fusion/heating at the interface of the two parts to be welded.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
Compression Molding is a method of molding in which the moulding material, generally preheated, is first placed in an open, heated mould cavity.
Continuous casting, also called strand casting, is the process whereby molten metal is solidified into a "semifinished" billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in the finishing mills.
A cotter is a pin or wedge passing through a hole to fix parts tightly together.
A Countersink (symbol: '''⌵''') is a conical hole cut into a manufactured object, or the cutter used to cut such a hole.
A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or rock dust.
A cryogenic treatment is the process of treating workpieces to cryogenic temperatures (i.e. below) in order to remove residual stresses and improve wear resistance on steels.
Curling is a sheet metal forming process used to form the edges into a hollow ring.
Cutting is the separation or opening of a physical object, into two or more portions, through the application of an acutely directed force.
Decambering is the metalworking process of removing camber, or horizontal bend, from strip shaped materials.
Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process in which a sheet metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch.
A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material mostly using a press.
Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity.
Die cutting is the general process of using a die to shear webs of low-strength materials, such as rubber, fiber, foil, cloth, paper, corrugated fiberboard, paperboard, plastics, pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, foam and sheet metal.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
In plastics processing, dip molding is a process of shaping of plastics by moulding. The coating of components with PVC has many applications.
Dip soldering is a small-scale soldering process by which electronic components are soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB) to form an electronic assembly.
A disc mill is a type of crusher that can be used to grind, cut, shear, shred, fiberize, pulverize, granulate, crack, rub, curl, fluff, twist, hull, blend, or refine.
Drawing is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal or glass.
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials.
Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation.
An electric discharge is the release and transmission of electricity in an applied electric field through a medium such as a gas.
Electric resistance welding (ERW) refers to a group of welding processes such as spot and seam welding that produce coalescence of faying surfaces where heat to form the weld is generated by the electrical resistance of material combined with the time and the force used to hold the materials together during welding.
Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, burning, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks).
Electrochemical grinding is a process that removes electrically conductive material by grinding with a negatively charged abrasive grinding wheel, an electrolyte fluid, and a positively charged workpiece.
Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a method of removing metal by an electrochemical process.
Electroforming is a metal forming process that forms parts through electrodeposition on a model, known in the industry as a mandrel.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
Electron-beam machining (EBM) is a process where high-velocity electrons concentrated into a narrow beam are directed toward the work piece, creating heat and vaporizing the material.
Electron-beam welding (EBW) is a fusion welding process in which a beam of high-velocity electrons is applied to two materials to be joined.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Electropolishing, also known as electrochemical polishing, anodic polishing or electrolytic polishing (especially in the metallography field), is an electrochemical process that removes material from a metallic workpiece.
Sheet metal embossing is a stamping process for producing raised or sunken designs or relief in sheet metal.
Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.
Evaporative-pattern casting is a type of casting process that uses a pattern made from a material that will evaporate when the molten metal is poured into the molding cavity.
Explosion welding (EXW) is a solid state (solid-phase) process where welding is accomplished by accelerating one of the components at extremely high velocity through the use of chemical explosives.
Explosive forming is a metalworking technique in which an explosive charge is used instead of a punch or press.
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.
In machining, facing is the act of cutting a face, which is a planar surface, onto the workpiece.
A fastener (US English) or fastening (UK English) is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together.
Filament winding is a fabrication technique mainly used for manufacturing open (cylinders) or closed end structures (pressure vessels or tanks).
A file is a tool used to remove fine amounts of material from a workpiece.
Flanging is an audio effect produced by mixing two identical signals together, one signal delayed by a small and gradually changing period, usually smaller than 20 milliseconds.
Flash welding is a type of resistance welding that does not use any filler metals.
Flattening is a measure of the compression of a circle or sphere along a diameter to form an ellipse or an ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid) respectively.
Foam is a substance formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid.
A forge is a type of hearth used for heating metals, or the workplace (smithy) where such a hearth is located.
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces.
Friction drilling is a method of making holes in metal in which the material is pushed out of the way with the aid of heat from friction.
Friction welding (FRW) is a solid-state welding process that generates heat through mechanical friction between workpieces in relative motion to one another, with the addition of a lateral force called "upset" to plastically displace and fuse the materials.
Full-mold casting is an evaporative-pattern casting process which is a combination of sand casting and lost-foam casting.
A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is a 3D printing process that uses a continuous filament of a thermoplastic material.
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a welding process in which an electric arc forms between a consumable wire electrode and the workpiece metal(s), which heats the workpiece metal(s), causing them to melt and join.
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld.
Gashing is a machining process used to rough out coarse pitched gears and sprockets.
Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel as the cutting tool.
A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill or flour mill) grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings.
In manufacturing or mechanical engineering a groove is a long and narrow indentation built into a material, generally for the purpose of allowing another material or part to move within the groove and be guided by it.
A hammer mill, hammer forge or hammer works was a workshop in the pre-industrial era that was typically used to manufacture semi-finished, wrought iron products or, sometimes, finished agricultural or mining tools, or military weapons.
Heat treating (or heat treatment) is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.
Hemming and seaming are two similar metalworking processes in which a sheet metal edge is rolled over onto itself.
High frequency (HF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz).
High stock removal is a technological process with the goal of removing large amounts of material.
Hobbing is a machining process for gear cutting, cutting splines, and cutting sprockets on a hobbing machine, which is a special type of milling machine.
Honing is an abrasive machining process that produces a precision surface on a metal workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path.
The usage of the inter-related terms horizontal and vertical as well as their symmetries and asymmetries vary with context (e.g. two vs. three dimensions or calculations using a flat earth approximation vs. spherical earth).
In geometry, physics, astronomy, geography, and related sciences, a plane is said to be horizontal at a given point if it is perpendicular to the gradient of the gravity field at that point – in other words, if apparent gravity makes a plumb bob hang perpendicular to the plane at that point.
Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a manufacturing process, used to reduce the porosity of metals and increase the density of many ceramic materials.
Hot metal gas forming (HMGF) is a method of die forming in which a metal tube is heated to a pliable state, near to but below its melting point, then pressurized internally by a gas in order to form the tube outward into the shape defined by an enclosing die cavity.
A hot plate is a portable self-contained tabletop small appliance that features one, two or more electric heating elements or gas burners.
Hubbing is a metalworking process that is used to make dies.
Hydroforming is a cost-effective way of shaping ductile metals such as aluminium, brass, low alloy steel, and stainless steel into lightweight, structurally stiff and strong pieces.
A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.
An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.
In mechanics, an impact is a high force or shock applied over a short time period when two or more bodies collide.
Impact extrusion is a manufacturing process similar to extrusion and drawing by which products are made with a metal slug.
Incremental sheet forming (or ISF, also known as Single Point Forming) is a sheet metal forming technique where a sheet is formed into the final workpiece by a series of small incremental deformations.
Induction brazing is a process in which two or more materials are joined together by a filler metal that has a lower melting point than the base materials using induction heating.
Induction heating is the process of heating an electrically conducting object (usually a metal) by electromagnetic induction, through heat generated in the object by eddy currents.
Induction welding is a form of welding that uses electromagnetic induction to heat the workpiece.
Industrial finishing is any kind of secondary process done to any metal, plastic, or wood product used in a common market such as automotive, OEM, telecommunications or point-of-purchase.
Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Injection moulding (British English) or injection molding (American English) is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould.
Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates.
An interference fit, also known as a press fit or friction fit is a fastening between two parts which is achieved by friction after the parts are pushed together, rather than by any other means of fastening.
Investment casting is an industrial process based on lost-wax casting, one of the oldest known metal-forming techniques.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Ironing is a sheet metal forming process that uniformly thins the workpiece in a specific area.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Knurling is a manufacturing process, typically conducted on a lathe, whereby a pattern of straight, angled or crossed lines is rolled into the material.
Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) is a rapid prototyping system developed by Helisys Inc.
Lamination is the technique of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite material achieves improved strength, stability, sound insulation, appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials.
Lapping is a machining process in which two surfaces are rubbed together with an abrasive between them, by hand movement or using a machine.
Laser beam welding (LBW) is a welding technique used to join pieces of metal or thermoplastics through the use of a laser.
Laser cutting is a technology that uses a laser to cut materials, and is typically used for industrial manufacturing applications, but is also starting to be used by schools, small businesses, and hobbyists.
Laser drilling is the process of creating thru-holes, referred to as “popped” holes or “percussion drilled” holes, by repeatedly pulsing focused laser energy on a material.
Laser powder forming, also known by the proprietary name (laser engineered net shaping) is an additive manufacturing technology developed for fabricating metal parts directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) solid model by using a metal powder injected into a molten pool created by a focused, high-powered laser beam.
Laser engraving, which is a subset of laser marking, is the practice of using lasers to engrave an object.
A lathe is a tool that rotates the workpiece about an axis of rotation to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, deformation, facing, and turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with symmetry about that axis.
Leather crafting or simply leathercraft is the practice of making leather into craft objects or works of art, using shaping techniques, coloring techniques or both.
Linish is an engineering term that refers to the process of using grinding or belt sanding techniques to improve the flatness of a surface.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
Lost-foam casting (LFC) is a type of evaporative-pattern casting process that is similar to investment casting except foam is used for the pattern instead of wax.
Lost-wax casting (also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or cire perdue in French) is the process by which a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold, brass or bronze) is cast from an original sculpture.
Low frequency (low freq) or LF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 30 kilohertz (kHz)–300 kHz.
A forming press, commonly shortened to press, is a machine tool that changes the shape of a workpiece by the application of pressure.
Magnetic field-assisted finishing, sometimes called magnetic abrasive finishing, is a surface finishing technique in which a magnetic field is used to force abrasive particles against the target surface.
Magnetic pulse welding (MPW) is a solid state welding process that uses magnetic forces to weld two workpieces together.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
"MAPP gas" is a trademarked name, belonging to The Linde Group, and previously belonging to the Dow Chemical Company, for a fuel gas based on a stabilized mixture of methylacetylene (propyne) and propadiene.
Mass finishing is a group of manufacturing processes that allow large quantities of parts to be simultaneously finished.
Metal injection molding (MIM) is a metalworking process in which finely-powdered metal is mixed with binder material to create a "feedstock" that is then shaped and solidified using injection molding.
Metal spinning, also known as spin forming or spinning or metal turning most commonly, is a metalworking process by which a disc or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and formed into an axially symmetric part.
A metalsmith or simply smith is a craftsman fashioning useful items (for example, tools, kitchenware, tableware, jewellery, and weapons) out of various metals.
Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece by advancing (or feeding) the cutter into the workpiece at a certain direction.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
A mortise (or mortice) and tenon joint is a type of joint that connects two pieces of wood or other material.
In woodworking and construction, a nail is a pin-shaped object of metal (or wood, called a tree nail or "trunnel") which is used as a fastener, as a peg to hang something, or sometimes as a decoration.
Necking, in engineering or materials science, is a mode of tensile deformation where relatively large amounts of strain localize disproportionately in a small region of the material.
Notching is a metal-cutting process used on sheetmetal or thin barstock, sometimes on angle sections or tube.
A nut is a type of fastener with a threaded hole.
An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking.
Principle of the burn cutting Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases.
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Peening is the process of working a metal's surface to improve its material properties, usually by mechanical means, such as hammer blows, by blasting with shot (shot peening) or blasts of light beams with laser peening.
A perforation is a small hole in a thin material or web.
Permanent mold casting is a metal casting process that employs reusable molds ("permanent molds"), usually made from metal.
Petroleum refining processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries (also referred to as oil refineries) to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils.
Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.
Photochemical machining (PCM), also known as photochemical milling or photo etching, is a chemical milling process used to fabricate sheet metal components using a photoresist and etchants to corrosively machine away selected areas.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
Pickling is a metal surface treatment used to remove impurities, such as stains, inorganic contaminants, rust or scale from ferrous metals, copper, precious metals and aluminum alloys.
A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together.
Planing is a manufacturing process of material removal in which the cutting tool reciprocates against a stationary workpiece producing a plane or sculpted surface.
A plasma torch (also known as a plasma arc, plasma gun, or plasma cutter, plasmatron) is a device for generating a directed flow of plasma.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Plastic welding is welding for semi-finished plastic materials, and is described in ISO 472 as a process of uniting softened surfaces of materials, generally with the aid of heat (except solvent welding).
Plastics extrusion is a high-volume manufacturing process in which raw plastic is melted and formed into a continuous profile.
Plating is a surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive surface.
Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection (still limited by the index of refraction of the material according to the Fresnel equations.) In some materials (such as metals, glasses, black or transparent stones), polishing is also able to reduce diffuse reflection to minimal values.
Polishing and buffing are finishing processes for smoothing a workpiece's surface using an abrasive and a work wheel or a leather strop.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
A powder is a dry, bulk solid composed of a large number of very fine particles that may flow freely when shaken or tilted.
Powder metallurgy (PM) is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders.
Progressive stamping is a metalworking method that can encompass punching, coining, bending and several other ways of modifying metal raw material, combined with an automatic feeding system.
A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground.
A quick release skewer is a mechanism for attaching a wheel to a bicycle.
Radio frequency welding, also known as dielectric welding and high frequency welding, is a plastics joining process that utilizes high-frequency radio waves to heat plastic parts to the point they form a melt layer.
Rapid prototyping is a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data.
A reamer is a type of rotary cutting tool used in metalworking.
Refining (also perhaps called by the mathematical term affining) is the process of purification of a (1) substance or a (2) form.
Resin casting is a method of plastic casting where a mould is filled with a liquid synthetic resin, which then hardens.
A retaining ring is a fastener that holds components or assemblies onto a shaft or in a housing/bore when installed in a groove.
A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener.
Roll slitting is a shearing operation that cuts a large roll of material into narrower rolls.
In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform.
Rotational Molding (BrE moulding) involves a heated hollow mold which is filled with a charge or shot weight of material.
A router (also) is a hand tool or power tool that a worker uses to rout (hollow out) an area in relatively hard material like wood or plastic.
Rubber pad forming (RPF) is a metalworking process where sheet metal is pressed between a die and a rubber block, made of polyurethane.
Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material.
A saw is a tool consisting of a tough blade, wire, or chain with a hard toothed edge.
A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber.
A screw is a type of fastener, in some ways similar to a bolt (see Differentiation between bolt and screw below), typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread).
A screw thread, often shortened to thread, is a helical structure used to convert between rotational and linear movement or force.
Selective laser melting (SLM) or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a particularly rapid prototyping, 3D printing, or additive manufacturing (AM) technique designed to use a high power-density laser to melt and fuse metallic powders together.
Selective laser sintering (SLS) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technique that uses a laser as the power source to sinter powdered material (typically nylon/polyamide), aiming the laser automatically at points in space defined by a 3D model, binding the material together to create a solid structure.
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.
A shape is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, texture or material composition.
Sharpening is the process of creating or refining a sharp edge of appropriate shape on a tool or implement designed for cutting.
Shearing, also known as die cutting, is a process which cuts stock without the formation of chips or the use of burning or melting.
Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces.
Shell moulding, also known as shell-mould casting, is an expendable mold casting process that uses a resin covered sand to form the mold.
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), also known as manual metal arc welding (MMA or MMAW), flux shielded arc welding or informally as stick welding, is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode covered with a flux to lay the weld.
A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance.
Shot welding is a type of spot welding used to join two pieces of metal together.
Shrink wrap, also shrink film, is a material made up of polymer plastic film.
Single-pass bore finishing is a machining process similar to honing to finish a bore, except the tool only takes a single pass.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Soldering (AmE:, BrE), is a process in which two or more items (usually metal) are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
Resistance spot welding (RSW) is a process in which contacting metal surface points are joined by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current.
Spray forming, also known as spray casting, spray deposition and in-situ compaction, is a method of casting near net shape metal components with homogeneous microstructures via the deposition of semi-solid sprayed droplets onto a shaped substrate.
A spring pin (also called tension pin or roll pin) is a mechanical fastener that secures the position of two or more parts of a machine relative to each other.
Sputter deposition is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method of thin film deposition by sputtering.
Staking is the process of connecting two components by creating an interference fit between the two pieces.
Stamping (also known as pressing) is the process of placing flat sheet metal in either blank or coil form into a stamping press where a tool and die surface forms the metal into a net shape.
A staple is a type of two-pronged fastener, usually metal, used for joining or binding materials together.
A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel.
Stereolithography (SLA or SL; also known as stereolithography apparatus, optical fabrication, photo-solidification, or resin printing) is a form of 3D printing technology used for creating models, prototypes, patterns, and production of parts in a layer by layer fashion using photopolymerization, a process by which light causes chains of molecules to link, forming polymers.
In the textile arts, a stitch is a single turn or loop of thread, or yarn.
Stud welding is a technique similar to flash welding where a fastener or specially formed nut is welded onto another metal part, typically a base metal or substrate.
Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a common arc welding process.
Superfinishing, also known as micromachining, microfinishing, and short-stroke honing, is a metalworking process that improves surface finish and workpiece geometry.
Surface finishing is a broad range of industrial processes that alter the surface of a manufactured item to achieve a certain property.
Swaging is a forging process in which the dimensions of an item are altered using dies into which the item is forced.
Taps and dies are tools used to create screw threads, which is called threading.
A taper pin is a fastener used in mechanical engineering.
Thermal spraying techniques are coating processes in which melted (or heated) materials are sprayed onto a surface.
Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder, which serves as fuel, and metal oxide.
Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mold, and trimmed to create a usable product.
A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
A thermoset, also called a thermosetting plastic, is a plastic that is irreversibly cured from a soft solid or viscous liquid, prepolymer or resin.
Threading is the process of creating a screw thread.
A torch is a stick with combustible material at one end, which is ignited and used as a light source.
Transfer molding (BrE moulding) is a manufacturing process where casting material is forced into a mold.
Tube beading is a metal forming process that forms a bead on the end of a tube.
Tumble finishing, also known as tumbling or rumbling, is a technique for smoothing and polishing a rough surface on relatively small parts.
Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non-rotary tool bit, describes a helix toolpath by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates.
Ultrasonic machining, or strictly speaking the "Ultrasonic vibration machining", is a subtraction manufacturing process that removes material from the surface of a part through high frequency, low amplitude vibrations of a tool against the material surface in the presence of fine abrasive particles.
Ultrasonic welding is an industrial technique whereby high-frequency ultrasonic acoustic vibrations are locally applied to workpieces being held together under pressure to create a solid-state weld.
Upset welding (UW)/resistance butt welding is a welding technique that produces coalescence simultaneously over the entire area of abutting surfaces or progressively along a joint, by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current through the area where those surfaces are in contact.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
A vacuum furnace is a type of furnace in which the product in the furnace is surrounded by a vacuum during processing.
Vibratory finishing is a type of mass finishing manufacturing process used to deburr, radius, descale, burnish, clean, and brighten a large number of relatively small workpieces.
Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators.
A water jet cutter, also known as a water jet or waterjet, is an industrial tool capable of cutting a wide variety of materials using a very high-pressure jet of water, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal.
A wire brush is a tool consisting of a brush whose bristles are made of wire, most often steel wire.
Woodworking is the activity or skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making (cabinetry and furniture), wood carving, joinery, carpentry, and woodturning.
Joinery is a part of woodworking that involves joining together pieces of timber or lumber, to produce more complex items.
3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together).