235 relations: ABC (medicine), ABCD rating, Abdomen, Abdominal x-ray, Abdominoperineal resection, Abortion, Absolute risk, Accommodation (eye), ACE inhibitor, Acetone, Acetylcholine, Acid-fastness, Acinic cell carcinoma, Acquired brain injury, Acromioclavicular joint, Activities of daily living, Acute chest syndrome, Acute coronary syndrome, Acute kidney injury, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Acute myeloid leukemia, Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Acute tubular necrosis, Ad libitum, Adenocarcinoma, Adenosine deaminase, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Advance care planning, Advanced cardiac life support, Advanced life support, Advanced maternal age, Advanced trauma life support, Adverse drug reaction, Against medical advice, Alanine, Alanine transaminase, Alcohol-related dementia, Alkaline phosphatase, Allergy, Alpha-fetoprotein, Altered level of consciousness, Altitude sickness, Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, Alzheimer's disease, Ambulatory care, ..., American Dental Association, American Medical Association, Amino acid, Amniotic fluid, Amniotic fluid index, AMPA, Ampere, Ampoule, Amputation, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Anatomy, Anemia of chronic disease, Angiotensin, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Anistreplase, Ankle–brachial pressure index, Ankylosing spondylitis, Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, Antepartum bleeding, Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, Anterior cruciate ligament, Anterior interval release, Anterior superior iliac spine, Anti-gliadin antibodies, Anti-lymphocyte globulin, Anti-mitochondrial antibody, Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, Anti-nuclear antibody, Anti-streptolysin O, Anti-thymocyte globulin, Anti-transglutaminase antibodies, Anti–Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody, Antibiotic, Antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Antibody, Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Antigen, Antigen-presenting cell, Antiphospholipid syndrome, Antithrombin, Aortic insufficiency, Aortic stenosis, Aortic valve replacement, APACHE II, Apgar score, Appendectomy, Arginine, Argon plasma coagulation, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, Arterial blood gas test, Arteriosclerosis, Arteriosclerotic heart disease, Arteriovenous fistula, Arteriovenous malformation, Artery, Arthrogryposis, Artificial insemination, Artificial rupture of membranes, ASA physical status classification system, Asparagine, Aspartate transaminase, Aspartic acid, Aspergillosis, Aspirin, Assisted living, Assisted reproductive technology, Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex, Asymptomatic, Ataxia-telangiectasia, ATCC (company), Atherosclerosis, Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, Atrial natriuretic peptide, Atrial septal defect, Atrioventricular node, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive, Attributable risk, Auditory hallucination, Auscultation, Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, Automated external defibrillator, Autonomic nervous system, Avascular necrosis, Axilla, Bacteriuria, Bethesda system, Birth weight, Bleomycin, Blood type, Blood vessel, Boiling, Breast, Colitis, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary artery disease, Coronary care unit, Cysteine, Dacarbazine, Dermatitis, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Dialysis, Distilled water, Dominance (genetics), Doxorubicin, Ear, Ear drop, Endocarditis, Factor VIII, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Field dressing (bandage), Fine-needle aspiration, Glomerulonephritis, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycated hemoglobin, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Haemophilia, Heart failure, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Heme, Histidine, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, HIV/AIDS, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Holter monitor, Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, Integral, Interstitial nephritis, Isoleucine, Latin, Leucine, Lysine, Macular degeneration, Management of HIV/AIDS, Meal, Measles, Melanoma, Methionine, Myocardial infarction, Nursing assessment, Orientation (mental), Orthotics, Otitis media, Outpatient surgery, Paracetamol, Partial thromboplastin time, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Percussion (medicine), Peripheral artery disease, Pharmacology, Phenylalanine, Physical medicine and rehabilitation, Physiology, Polycystic kidney disease, Positive airway pressure, Premature atrial contraction, Proline, Prostate cancer, Protein C, Protocol (science), Pyrrolysine, Range of motion, Rickets, Selenocysteine, Serine, Steatohepatitis, Tetanus, Threonine, Thrombocytopenic purpura, Tretinoin, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Unspecific monooxygenase, Uterus, Valine, Vasopressin, Vinblastine, Walking, Water, Weber test, Zidovudine. Expand index (185 more) » « Shrink index
ABC and its variations are initialism mnemonics for essential steps used by both medical professionals and lay persons (such as first aiders) when dealing with a patient.
ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
An abdominal x-ray is an x-ray of the abdomen.
An abdominoperineal resection, formally known as abdominoperineal resection of the rectum and abdominoperineal excision of the rectum or simply abdominoperineal excision, or the Miles operation is a surgery for rectal cancer or anal cancer.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Absolute risk (or AR) is the probability or chance of an event.
Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies.
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures, specifically their resistance to decolorization by acids during laboratory staining procedures.
Acinic cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor representing 2% of all salivary tumors.
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part of a genetic or congenital disorder such as fetal alcohol syndrome, perinatal illness or perinatal hypoxia.
The acromioclavicular joint, or AC joint, is a joint at the top of the shoulder.
Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.
The acute chest syndrome is a vaso-occlusive crisis of the pulmonary vasculature commonly seen in people with sickle cell anemia.
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome (set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG; colloquially known as trench mouth) is a common, non-contagious infection of the gums with sudden onset.
Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an acquired inflammatory uveitis that belongs to the heterogenous group of white dot syndromes in which light-coloured (yellowish-white) lesions begin to form in the macular area of the retina.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill or critically wounded patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs.
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a medical condition involving the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules of the kidneys.
Ad libitum is Latin for "at one's pleasure" or "as you desire"; it is often shortened to "ad lib" (as an adjective or adverb) or "ad-lib" (as a verb or noun).
Adenocarcinoma (plural adenocarcinomas or adenocarcinomata) is a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body.
Adenosine deaminase (also known as adenosine aminohydrolase, or ADA) is an enzyme involved in purine metabolism.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Advance care planning is a process that enables individuals to make plans about their future health care.
Advanced cardiac life support or advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) refers to a set of clinical interventions for the urgent treatment of cardiac arrest, stroke and other life-threatening medical emergencies, as well as the knowledge and skills to deploy those interventions.
Advanced Life Support (ALS) is a set of life-saving protocols and skills that extend Basic Life Support to further support the circulation and provide an open airway and adequate ventilation (breathing).
Advanced maternal age, in a broad sense, is the instance of a woman being of an older age at a stage of reproduction, although there are various definitions of specific age and stage of reproduction.
Advanced trauma life support (ATLS) is a training program for medical providers in the management of acute trauma cases, developed by the American College of Surgeons.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
Against medical advice (AMA), sometimes known as discharge against medical advice (DAMA), is a term used in health care institutions when a patient leaves a hospital against the advice of their doctor.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme.
Alcohol-related dementia (ARD) is a form of dementia caused by long-term, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, resulting in neurological damage and impaired cognitive function.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AFP gene.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), is a negative health effect of high altitude, caused by acute exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high altitude.
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is a sub-type of the rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue cancer family whose lineage is from mesenchymal cells and are related to skeletal muscle cells.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Ambulatory care or outpatient care is medical care provided on an outpatient basis, including diagnosis, observation, consultation, treatment, intervention, and rehabilitation services.
The American Dental Association (ADA) is an American professional association established in 1859 which has more than 155,000 members.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The amniotic fluid is the protective liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a gravid Amniote.
Amniotic fluid index (AFI) is a quantitative estimate of amniotic fluid and an indicator of fetal well-being.
AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) is a compound that is a specific agonist for the AMPA receptor, where it mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter glutamate.
The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
An ampoule (also ampul, ampule, or ampulla) is a small sealed vial which is used to contain and preserve a sample, usually a solid or liquid.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Anemia of chronic disease, or anemia of chronic inflammation, is a form of anemia seen in chronic infection, chronic immune activation, and malignancy.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body.
Anistreplase is a thrombolytic drug.
The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) or ankle-brachial index (ABI) is the ratio of the blood pressure at the ankle to the blood pressure in the upper arm (brachium).
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.
Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA or Bland-White-Garland syndrome or White-Garland syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly in which the left coronary artery (LCA) branches off the pulmonary artery instead of the aortic sinus.
Antepartum bleeding, also known as antepartum haemorrhage or prepartum hemorrhage, is genital bleeding during pregnancy after the 20th to 24th week of pregnancy up to delivery.
Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a surgical procedure to treat nerve root or spinal cord compression by decompressing the spinal cord and nerve roots of the cervical spine with a discectomy in order to stabilize the corresponding vertebrae.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments (the other being the posterior cruciate ligament) in the human knee.
Anterior interval release (AIR) is a type of arthroscopic knee surgery performed to alleviate pain and associated symptoms caused by scar tissue (or fibrosis) accumulation in the anterior region of the knee, behind and under the knee cap (or patella), in a condition called arthrofibrosis.
The anterior superior iliac spine (abbreviated: ASIS) is a bony projection of the iliac bone and an important landmark of surface anatomy.
Anti-gliadin antibodies are produced in response to gliadin, a prolamin found in wheat.
Anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) is an infusion of animal- antibodies against human T cells which is used in the treatment of acute rejection in organ transplantation.
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are autoantibodies, consisting of immunoglobulins formed against mitochondria, primarily the mitochondria in cells of the liver.
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of autoantibodies, mainly of the IgG type, against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes.
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus.
Anti-streptolysin O (ASO or ASLO) is the antibody made against streptolysin O, an immunogenic, oxygen-labile streptococcal hemolytic exotoxin produced by most strains of group A and many strains of groups C and G Streptococcus bacteria.
Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is an infusion of horse or rabbit-derived antibodies against human T cells, which is used in the prevention and treatment of acute rejection in organ transplantation and therapy of aplastic anemia.
Anti-transglutaminase antibodies (ATA) are autoantibodies against the transglutaminase protein.
Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCAs) are antibodies against antigens presented by the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation.
Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies.
Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system.
Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle.
Aortic stenosis (AS or AoS) is the narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart (where the aorta begins), such that problems result.
Aortic valve replacement is a procedure in which a patient's failing aortic valve is replaced with an artificial heart valve.
APACHE II ("Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II") is a severity-of-disease classification system (Knaus et al., 1985), one of several ICU scoring systems.
Apgar score is a method to quickly summarize the health of newborn children against infant mortality.
An appendectomy (known outside the United States as appendisectomy or appendicectomy) is a surgical operation in which the vermiform appendix (a portion of the intestine) is removed.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Argon plasma coagulation or APC is a medical endoscopic procedure used primarily to control bleeding from certain lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, and also sometimes to debulk tumours in the case of patients for whom surgery is not recommended.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), is an inherited heart disease.
An arterial-blood gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Arteriosclerosis is the thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries.
Arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD), is a thickening and hardening of the walls of the coronary arteries.
An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein.
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenital (AMC), or simply arthrogryposis, describes congenital joint contracture in two or more areas of the body.
Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse.
Artificial rupture of membranes (AROM), also known as an amniotomy, may be performed by a midwife or obstetrician to induce or accelerate labor.
The ASA physical status classification system is a system for assessing the fitness of patients before surgery.
Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspartate transaminase (AST) or aspartate aminotransferase, also known as AspAT/ASAT/AAT or serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaminase enzyme that was first described by Arthur Karmen and colleagues in 1954.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspergillosis is the name given to a wide variety of diseases caused by infection by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
An assisted living residence or assisted living facility (ALF) is a housing facility for people with disabilities or for adults who cannot or choose not to live independently.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.
The asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) is a primitive reflex found in newborn humans that normally vanishes around three months of age.
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT or A-T), also referred to as ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome or Louis–Bar syndrome, is a rare, neurodegenerative, autosomal recessive disease causing severe disability.
ATCC or the American Type Culture Collection is a nonprofit organization which collects, stores, and distributes standard reference microorganisms, cell lines and other materials for research and development.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
Atrial flutter (AFL) is a common abnormal heart rhythm that starts in the atrial chambers of the heart.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a peptide hormone which reduces an expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion.
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a heart defect in which blood flows between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart.
The atrioventricular node, or AV node is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI or ADHD-I), is one of the three presentations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
In epidemiology, attributable risk or excess risk is the difference in rate of a condition between an exposed population and an unexposed population.
A paracusia, or auditory hallucination, is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus.
Auscultation (based on the Latin verb auscultare "to listen") is listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope.
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), also known as Canale-Smith syndrome,Straus SE, Jaffe ES, Puck JM et al.
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APSs), also called autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APSs), polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PGASs), or polyendocrine autoimmune syndromes, are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by autoimmune activity against more than one endocrine organ, although non-endocrine organs can be affected.There are three types of APS or (in terms that mean the same thing) three APSs, and there are a number of other diseases which have endocrine autoimmunity.
An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of electricity which stops the arrhythmia, allowing the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Avascular necrosis (AVN), also called osteonecrosis or bone infarction, is death of bone tissue due to interruption of the blood supply.
The axilla (also, armpit, underarm or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder.
Bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in urine.
The Bethesda system (TBS) is a system for reporting cervical or vaginal cytologic diagnoses, used for reporting Pap smear results.
Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.
Bleomycin is a medication used to treat cancer. This includes Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer among others. Typically used with other cancer medications, it can be given intravenously, by injection into a muscle or under the skin. It may also be administered inside the chest to help prevent the recurrence of a fluid around the lung due to cancer; however talc is better for this. Common side effects include fever, weight loss, vomiting, and rash. A severe type of anaphylaxis may occur. It may also cause inflammation of the lungs that can result in lung scarring. Chest X-rays every couple of weeks are recommended to check for this. Bleomycin may cause harm to the baby if used during pregnancy. It is believed to primarily work by preventing the making of DNA. Bleomycin was discovered in 1962. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 14 USD and 78 USD a dose. It is made by the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.
Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
A coronary care unit (CCU) or cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) is a hospital ward specialized in the care of patients with heart attacks, unstable angina, cardiac dysrhythmia and (in practice) various other cardiac conditions that require continuous monitoring and treatment.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Dacarbazine (DTIC), also known as imidazole carboxamide, is a chemotherapy medication used in the treatment of melanoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
Distilled water is water that has been boiled into steam and condensed back into liquid in a separate container.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Doxorubicin, sold under the trade names Adriamycin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
Ear drops are a form of medicine used to treat or prevent ear infections, especially infections of the outer ear and ear canal (otitis externa).
Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium.
Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor (AHF).
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.
A field dressing or battle dressing is a kind of bandage intended to be carried by soldiers for immediate use in case of (typically gunshot) wounds.
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate lumps or masses.
Glomerulonephritis (GN), also known as glomerular nephritis, is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases (usually affecting both kidneys).
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are neurological disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.
In medicine, a Holter monitor (often simply Holter) is a type of ambulatory electrocardiography device, a portable device for cardiac monitoring (the monitoring of the electrical activity of the cardiovascular system) for at least 24 to 48 hours (often for two weeks at a time).
An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) is a device implantable inside the body, able to perform cardioversion, defibrillation, and (in modern versions) pacing of the heart.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
Interstitial nephritis (or tubulo-interstitial nephritis) is a form of nephritis affecting the interstitium of the kidneys surrounding the tubules, i.e., is inflammation of the spaces between renal tubules.
Isoleucine (symbol Ile or I) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
A meal is an eating occasion that takes place at a certain time and includes prepared food.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Nursing assessment is the gathering of information about a patient's physiological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual status by a licensed Registered Nurse.
Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.
Orthotics (Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses.
Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.
Outpatient surgery, also known as ambulatory surgery, day surgery, day case surgery, or same-day surgery, is surgery that does not require an overnight hospital stay.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
The partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT or APTT) is a medical test that characterizes blood coagulation, also known as clotting.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often shortened to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or nicknamed Obamacare, is a United States federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010.
Percussion is a method of tapping on a surface to determine the underlying structure, and is used in clinical examinations to assess the condition of the thorax or abdomen.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation, also known as physiatry, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which the renal tubules become structurally abnormal, resulting in the development and growth of multiple cysts within the kidney.
Positive airway pressure (PAP) is a mode of respiratory ventilation used in the treatment of sleep apnea.
Premature atrial contractions (PACs), also known as atrial premature complexes (APC) or atrial premature beats (APB), are a common cardiac dysrhythmia characterized by premature heartbeats originating in the atria.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Protein C, also known as autoprothrombin IIA and blood coagulation factor XIV, is a zymogen, the activated form of which plays an important role in regulating anticoagulation, inflammation, cell death, and maintaining the permeability of blood vessel walls in humans and other animals.
In the natural sciences a protocol is a predefined written procedural method in the design and implementation of experiments.
Pyrrolysine (symbol Pyl or O; encoded by the 'amber' stop codon UAG) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins in some methanogenic archaea and bacteria; it is not present in humans.
Range of motion (or ROM), is the linear or angular distance that a moving object may normally travel while properly attached to another.
Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children.
Selenocysteine (symbol Sec or U, in older publications also as Se-Cys) is the 21st proteinogenic amino acid.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Steatohepatitis is a type of fatty liver disease, characterized by inflammation of the liver with concurrent fat accumulation in liver.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Thrombocytopenic purpura are purpura associated with a reduction in circulating blood platelets which can result from a variety of causes, such as kaposi sarcoma.
Tretinoin, also known as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), is medication used for the treatment of acne and acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
In enzymology, an unspecific monooxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are RH (reduced substrate), reduced flavoprotein, and O2, whereas its 3 products are ROH (oxidized substrate), oxidized flavoprotein, and H2O.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Vinblastine is a chemotherapy medication, typically used with other medications, to treat a number of types of cancer.
Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The Weber test is a quick screening test for hearing.
Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.