345 relations: Abstract family of languages, Ada Lovelace, Adriaan van Wijngaarden, Affective computing, Akira Nakashima, Alan Kay, Alan Perlis, Alan Turing, Alfred North Whitehead, ALGOL, ALGOL 60, ALGOL 68, Algorism, Algorithm, Alonzo Church, An Wang, Analog computer, Analytical Engine, André Truong Trong Thi, APL (programming language), Arithmetic, Artificial intelligence, Assembly language, Association for Computing Machinery, Astronomical clock, Atanasoff–Berry computer, Automatic Computing Engine, B (programming language), Backus–Naur form, Banū Mūsā, Barbara J. Grosz, Barbara Liskov, Bertrand Russell, Betty Holberton, Big O notation, BINAC, Bit array, Bjarne Stroustrup, Blaise Pascal, Bletchley Park, Bob Kahn, Book of Ingenious Devices, Boolean algebra, Bridging (networking), Busicom, C (programming language), Calculator, Calculus ratiocinator, Central processing unit, Chai Keong Toh, ..., Charles Babbage, Chomsky hierarchy, Claude Shannon, Clock tower, COBOL, Colossus computer, Communicating sequential processes, Communication protocol, Compiler, Computability theory, Computational complexity theory, Computer, Computer network, Computer Pioneer Award, Computer programming, Computer science, Computing Machine Laboratory, Considered harmful, Consistency, Control flow graph, Cooley–Tukey FFT algorithm, Corollary, Corrado Böhm, Cuthbert Hurd, Cybernetics, Data processing, Data type, Database, David Caminer, Deep Blue (chess computer), Deep Thought (chess computer), Dennis Ritchie, Desktop computer, Difference engine, Digital electronics, Digital Equipment Corporation, Discourse, Distributed computing, Domain Name System, Don't-care term, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, E. Allen Emerson, Edgar F. Codd, Edmund M. Clarke, Edsger W. Dijkstra, EDVAC, Edward J. McCluskey, Electronic delay storage automatic calculator, Electronics, Elizabeth J. Feinler, Emil Leon Post, ENIAC, Error correction code, Federico Faggin, Feng-hsiung Hsu, First-order logic, Floppy disk, Flute, FORMAC, Formal language, Fortran, François Gernelle, Frances E. Allen, Fred Brooks, FTC fair information practice, Functional programming, Garry Kasparov, General Problem Solver, George Boole, Gerard Salton, Giuseppe Peano, GNU Project, Go (programming language), Goto, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gottlob Frege, Grace Hopper, Grace Murray Hopper Award, Graphical user interface, Hamming bound, Hamming code, Hamming distance, Harvard Mark I, Harvard University, Herbert A. Simon, Herman Hollerith, Hindu–Arabic numeral system, History (U.S. TV network), History of computing hardware, Hoare logic, Howard H. Aiken, Humanoid robot, Hypertext, IBM, IBM 701, IBM System/360, IEEE John von Neumann Medal, IEEE Xplore, Information retrieval, Information theory, Institute of Physics, Intel, Intel 4004, Intel 8080, Intel 8251, Intel 8253, Intel 8255, Intel 8257, Intel 8259, Internet, Internet Protocol, Internet protocol suite, Inverted index, Ismail al-Jazari, Ivan Sutherland, J. C. R. Licklider, J. Lyons and Co., J. Presper Eckert, Jacek Karpiński, Jacquard loom, James Cooley, Jean E. Sammet, Jim Gray (computer scientist), John Backus, John Mauchly, John McCarthy (computer scientist), John Pinkerton (computer designer), John Tukey, John Vincent Atanasoff, John von Neumann, JOHNNIAC, Joseph Marie Jacquard, K-202, Karen Spärck Jones, Karnaugh map, Kathleen Booth, Ken Thompson, Kenneth E. Iverson, Kernel (operating system), Konrad Zuse, Kristen Nygaard, Kurt Gödel, Lambda calculus, Lamport timestamps, Lamport's bakery algorithm, LaTeX, LEO (computer), Leslie Lamport, LINC, Linguistics, Linus Torvalds, Linux kernel, Liquid-crystal display, Liskov substitution principle, Lisp (programming language), List of computer scientists, List of Russian IT developers, List of Women in Technology International Hall of Fame inductees, Logic gate, Logic Theorist, Lynn Conway, Magnetic core, Magnetic storage, Mainframe sort merge, Manchester Baby, Margaret Hamilton (scientist), Marvin Minsky, Masatoshi Shima, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematical logic, Maurice Karnaugh, Maurice Wilkes, Max Newman, Mechanical calculator, Memex, MESM, Michael Stonebraker, Micral, Microkernel, Microprocessor, MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Model checking, Modula-2, Monitor (synchronization), Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Multi-agent system, Music sequencer, NEC, Nick McKeown, Niklaus Wirth, Nippon Columbia, Noam Chomsky, Oberon (programming language), Object-oriented programming, Ole-Johan Dahl, OS/360 and successors, Pascal (programming language), Pāṇini, Per Brinch Hansen, Personal computer, Peter Naur, Pier Giorgio Perotto, Plan 9 from Bell Labs, Plankalkül, Post correspondence problem, Post's theorem, Post–Turing machine, Principia Mathematica, Privacy Act of 1974, Program (machine), Programma 101, Programming language, Programming language theory, Queen Anne Press, Quicksort, Radia Perlman, Ramon Llull, Rózsa Péter, RC 4000 multiprogramming system, Recursion, Regular number, Relational database, Relational model, Remote procedure call, Richard Hamming, Richard Stallman, Robert Cailliau, Rosalind Picard, Sally Floyd, Sanskrit grammar, Saul Rosen, Semantics (computer science), Semaphore (programming), Sergey Lebedev (scientist), Seymour Ginsburg, Sharp Corporation, Simula, Sketchpad, Smalltalk, Software-defined networking, Spanning Tree Protocol, Speech synthesis, Sphere packing, Stephen Cole Kleene, Stephen Cook, Stored-program computer, Structured programming, Superscalar processor, Susan L. Graham, Switching circuit theory, Syntax, Tadashi Sasaki (engineer), TeX, The Art of Computer Programming, The Mythical Man-Month, Tim Berners-Lee, Timeline of computing, Tommy Flowers, Tony Hoare, Transaction processing, Transformation (function), Transmission Control Protocol, Truth function, Truth table, Turing Award, Turing completeness, Turing machine, Type system, Type theory, Undecidable problem, UNIVAC, UNIVAC I, University of Manchester, University of Tokyo, Unix, UTF-8, Van Wijngaarden grammar, Vannevar Bush, Vector space model, Vint Cerf, Virtual Museum of Computing, Von Neumann architecture, Wesley A. Clark, Whirlwind I, Willis Ware, Women in computing, World Chess Championship, World Wide Web, Yoshiro Nakamatsu, Z1 (computer), Z3 (computer), Z4 (computer), Zilog Z80, Zilog Z8000. Expand index (295 more) » « Shrink index
In computer science, in particular in the field of formal language theory, the term abstract family of languages refers to an abstract mathematical notion generalizing characteristics common to the regular languages, the context-free languages and the recursively enumerable languages, and other families of formal languages studied in the scientific literature.
Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace (née Byron; 10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.
Adriaan "Aad" van Wijngaarden (2 November 1916 – 7 February 1987) was a Dutch mathematician and computer scientist, who is considered by many to have been the founding father of informatica (computer science) in the Netherlands.
Affective computing (sometimes called artificial emotional intelligence, or emotion AI) is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, process, and simulate human affects.
Akira Nakashima was the NEC engineer who introduced switching circuit theory in papers from 1934 to 1936,Radomir S. Stanković (University of Niš), Jaakko T. Astola (Tampere University of Technology), Mark G. Karpovsky (Boston University),, 2007, DOI 10.1.1.66.1248Radomir S. Stanković, Jaakko Astola (2008),, TICSP Series #40, Tampere International Center for Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology laying the foundations for digital circuit design, in digital computers and other areas of modern technology.
Alan Curtis Kay (born May 17, 1940 published by the Association for Computing Machinery 2012) is an American computer scientist.
Alan Jay Perlis (April 1, 1922 – February 7, 1990) was an American computer scientist and professor at Purdue University, Carnegie Mellon University and Yale University.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
ALGOL 60 (short for Algorithmic Language 1960) is a member of the ALGOL family of computer programming languages.
ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
Algorism is the technique of performing basic arithmetic by writing numbers in place value form and applying a set of memorized rules and facts to the digits.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Alonzo Church (June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American mathematician and logician who made major contributions to mathematical logic and the foundations of theoretical computer science.
An Wang (February 7, 1920 – March 24, 1990) was a Chinese–American computer engineer and inventor, and co-founder of computer company Wang Laboratories, which was known primarily for its dedicated word processing machines.
An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.
The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.
André Trương Trọng Thi (1936–2005) was a Vietnamese-French engineer.
APL (named after the book A Programming Language) is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson.
Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display astronomical information, such as the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets.
The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the first automatic electronic digital computer, an early electronic digital computing device that has remained somewhat obscure.
The Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) was an early electronic stored-program computer designed by Alan Turing.
B is a programming language developed at Bell Labs circa 1969.
In computer science, Backus–Naur form or Backus normal form (BNF) is a notation technique for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languages, document formats, instruction sets and communication protocols.
The Banū Mūsā brothers ("Sons of Moses"), namely Abū Jaʿfar, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (before 803 – February 873), Abū al‐Qāsim, Aḥmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th century) and Al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th century), were three 9th-century scholars who lived and worked in Baghdad.
Barbara J. Grosz CorrFRSE is the Higgins Professor of Natural Sciences at Harvard University.
Barbara Liskov (born November 7, 1939 as Barbara Jane Huberman) is an American computer scientist who is an Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Ford Professor of Engineering in its School of Engineering's electrical engineering and computer science department.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Frances Elizabeth "Betty" Holberton (March 7, 1917 – December 8, 2001) was one of the six original programmers of ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer, and was the inventor of breakpoints in computer debugging.
Big O notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behaviour of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity.
BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer) was an early electronic computer designed for Northrop Aircraft Company by the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) in 1949.
A bit array (also known as bit map, bit set, bit string, or bit vector) is an array data structure that compactly stores bits.
Bjarne Stroustrup (born 30 December 1950) is a Danish computer scientist, who is most notable for the creation and development of the widely used C++ programming language.
Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.
Bletchley Park was the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II.
Robert Elliot Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.
The Book of Ingenious Devices (Arabic: كتاب الحيل Kitab al-Hiyal, literally: "The Book of Tricks") was a large illustrated work on mechanical devices, including automata, published in 850 by the three Iraqi brothers of Persian descent, known as the Banu Musa (Ahmad, Muhammad and Hasan bin Musa ibn Shakir) working at the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikma) in Baghdad, Iraq, under the Abbasid Caliphate.
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.
A network bridge is a computer networking device that creates a single aggregate network from multiple communication networks or network segments.
Busicom was a Japanese company that owned the rights to Intel's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, which they created in partnership with Intel in 1970.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.
The Calculus ratiocinator is a theoretical universal logical calculation framework, a concept described in the writings of Gottfried Leibniz, usually paired with his more frequently mentioned characteristica universalis, a universal conceptual language.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Chai Keong "C.K." Toh is a Singapore-born computer scientist, engineer, professor, and chief technology officer.
Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.
In the formal languages of computer science and linguistics, the Chomsky hierarchy (occasionally referred to as Chomsky–Schützenberger hierarchy) is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars.
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".
Clock towers are a specific type of building which houses a turret clock and has one or more clock faces on the upper exterior walls.
COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.
Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943–1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.
In computer science, communicating sequential processes (CSP) is a formal language for describing patterns of interaction in concurrent systems.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, of computer science, and of the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.
Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
The Computer Pioneer Award was established in 1981 by the Board of Governors of the IEEE Computer Society to recognize and honor the vision of those people whose efforts resulted in the creation and continued vitality of the computer industry.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
The Computing Machine Laboratory at the University of Manchester in the north of England was established by Max Newman shortly after the end of World War II, around 1946.
Considered harmful is a part of a phrasal template used in the titles of at least 65 critical essays in computer science and related disciplines.
In classical deductive logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.
A control flow graph (CFG) in computer science is a representation, using graph notation, of all paths that might be traversed through a program during its execution.
The Cooley–Tukey algorithm, named after J. W. Cooley and John Tukey, is the most common fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm.
A corollary is a statement that follows readily from a previous statement.
Corrado Böhm (17 January 1923 – 23 October 2017) was a Professor Emeritus at the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and a computer scientist known especially for his contributions to the theory of structured programming, constructive mathematics, combinatory logic, lambda calculus, and the semantics and implementation of functional programming languages.
Cuthbert Corwin Hurd (April 5, 1911 – May 22, 1996) was an American computer scientist and entrepreneur, who was instrumental in helping the International Business Machines Corporation develop its first general-purpose computers.
Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information." In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing, "the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer." Data processing is distinct from word processing, which is manipulation of text specifically rather than data generally.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
David Caminer, OBE (26 June 1915 – 19 June 2008) has been called "the world's first corporate electronic systems analyst" and "the world's first software engineer".
Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM.
Deep Thought was a computer designed to play chess.
Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist.
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.
A difference engine is an automatic mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions.
Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
In digital logic, a don't-care term for a function is an input-sequence (a series of bits) for which the function output does not matter.
Donald Ervin Knuth (born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University.
Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer.
Ernest Allen Emerson (born June 2, 1954) is a computer scientist and endowed professor at the University of Texas, Austin, United States.
Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd (19 August 1923 – 18 April 2003) was an English computer scientist who, while working for IBM, invented the relational model for database management, the theoretical basis for relational databases and relational database management systems.
Edmund Melson Clarke, Jr. (born July 27, 1945) is an American retired computer scientist and academic noted for developing model checking, a method for formally verifying hardware and software designs.
Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch systems scientist, programmer, software engineer, science essayist, and early pioneer in computing science.
EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was one of the earliest electronic computers.
Edward J. McCluskey (October 16, 1929 – February 13, 2016) was a Professor at Stanford University.
The electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Elizabeth Jocelyn "Jake" Feinler is an American information scientist.
Emil Leon Post (February 11, 1897 – April 21, 1954) was an American mathematician and logician.
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.
In computing, telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, an error correction code, sometimes error correcting code, (ECC) is used for controlling errors in data over unreliable or noisy communication channels.
Federico Faggin (born 1 December 1941), is an Italian physicist, inventor and entrepreneur, widely known for designing the first commercial microprocessor.
Feng-hsiung Hsu (nicknamed Crazy Bird) is a computer scientist and the author of the book Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion.
First-order logic—also known as first-order predicate calculus and predicate logic—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.
A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.
FORMAC, acronym of FORmula MAnipulation Compiler, was an early computer algebra system based on FORTRAN.
In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
François Gernelle (born December 20, 1944) is a French engineer, computer scientist and entrepreneur famous for inventing the first micro-computer using a micro-processor, the Micral N.
Frances Elizabeth "Fran" Allen (born August 4, 1932) is an American computer scientist and pioneer in the field of optimizing compilers.
Frederick Phillips "Fred" Brooks Jr. (born April 19, 1931) is an American computer architect, software engineer, and computer scientist, best known for managing the development of IBM's System/360 family of computers and the OS/360 software support package, then later writing candidly about the process in his seminal book The Mythical Man-Month.
The United States Federal Trade Commission's fair information practice principles (FIPPs) are guidelines that represent widely accepted concepts concerning fair information practice in an electronic marketplace.
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.
Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров,; Armenian: Գարրի Կիմովիչ Կասպարով; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former world chess champion, writer, and political activist, who many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time.
General Problem Solver or G.P.S. is a computer program created in 1959 by Herbert A. Simon, J. C. Shaw, and Allen Newell intended to work as a universal problem solver machine.
George Boole (2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland.
Gerard A. "Gerry" Salton (8 March 1927 in Nuremberg – 28 August 1995), was a Professor of Computer Science at Cornell University.
Giuseppe Peano (27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician and glottologist.
The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.
Go (often referred to as Golang) is a programming language created at Google in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.
GoTo (goto, GOTO, GO TO or other case combinations, depending on the programming language) is a statement found in many computer programming languages.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.
Grace Brewster Murray Hopper (December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral.
The Grace Murray Hopper Awards (named for computer pioneer RADM Grace Hopper) has been awarded by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) since 1971.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
In mathematics and computer science, in the field of coding theory, the Hamming bound is a limit on the parameters of an arbitrary block code: it is also known as the sphere-packing bound or the volume bound from an interpretation in terms of packing balls in the Hamming metric into the space of all possible words.
In telecommunication, Hamming codes are a family of linear error-correcting codes.
In information theory, the Hamming distance between two strings of equal length is the number of positions at which the corresponding symbols are different.
The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called Mark I by Harvard University’s staff, was a general purpose electromechanical computer that was used in the war effort during the last part of World War II.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".
Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an American inventor who developed an electromechanical punched card tabulator to assist in summarizing information and, later, accounting.
The Hindu–Arabic numeral systemDavid Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski,, 1911 (also called the Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system) is a positional decimal numeral system that is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers.
Hoare logic (also known as Floyd–Hoare logic or Hoare rules) is a formal system with a set of logical rules for reasoning rigorously about the correctness of computer programs.
Howard Hathaway Aiken (March 8, 1900 – March 14, 1973) was an American physicist and a pioneer in computing, being the original conceptual designer behind IBM's Harvard Mark I computer.
A humanoid robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body.
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access, or where text can be revealed progressively at multiple levels of detail (also called StretchText).
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer, which was announced to the public on April 29, 1952.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
The IEEE John von Neumann Medal was established by the IEEE Board of Directors in 1990 and may be presented annually "for outstanding achievements in computer-related science and technology." The achievements may be theoretical, technological, or entrepreneurial, and need not have been made immediately prior to the date of the award.
IEEE Xplore is a research database for discovery and access to journal articles, conference proceedings, technical standards, and related materials on computer science, electrical engineering and electronics, and allied fields.
Information retrieval (IR) is the activity of obtaining information system resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a scientific charity that works to advance physics education, research and application.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971.
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.
The 8251 is a Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter packaged in a 28-pin DIP made by Intel.
The Intel 8253 and 8254 are Programmable Interval Timers (PITs), which perform timing and counting functions using three 16-bit counters.
The Intel 8255 (or i8255) Programmable Peripheral Interface (PPI) chip was developed and manufactured by Intel in the first half of the 1970s for the Intel 8080 microprocessor.
The Intel 8257 is a direct memory access (DMA) controller, a part of the MCS 85 microprocessor family.
The Intel 8259 is a Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC) designed for the Intel 8085 and Intel 8086 microprocessors.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
In computer science, an inverted index (also referred to as postings file or inverted file) is an index data structure storing a mapping from content, such as words or numbers, to its locations in a database file, or in a document or a set of documents (named in contrast to a forward index, which maps from documents to content).
Badīʿ az-Zaman Abū l-ʿIzz ibn Ismāʿīl ibn ar-Razāz al-Jazarī (1136–1206, بديع الزمان أَبُو اَلْعِزِ بْنُ إسْماعِيلِ بْنُ الرِّزاز الجزري) was a Muslim polymath: a scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, artisan, artist and mathematician.
Ivan Edward Sutherland (born May 16, 1938) is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer, widely regarded as the "father of computer graphics." His early work in computer graphics as well as his teaching with David C. Evans in that subject at the University of Utah in the 1970s was pioneering in the field.
Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (March 11, 1915 – June 26, 1990), known simply as J. C. R. or "Lick", was an American psychologistMiller, G. A.
John Adam Presper "Pres" Eckert Jr. (April 9, 1919 – June 3, 1995) was an American electrical engineer and computer pioneer.
Jacek Karpiński (9 April 1927 – 21 February 2010) was a Polish pioneer in computer engineering and computer science.
The Jacquard machine is a device fitted to a power loom that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with such complex patterns as brocade, damask and matelassé.
James William Cooley (born 1926, died June 29, 2016) was an American mathematician.
Jean E. Sammet (March 23, 1928 – May 20, 2017) was an American computer scientist who developed the FORMAC programming language in 1962.
James Nicholas Gray (19442007) was an American computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1998 "for seminal contributions to database and transaction processing research and technical leadership in system implementation".
John Warner Backus (December 3, 1924 – March 17, 2007) was an American computer scientist.
John William Mauchly (August 30, 1907 – January 8, 1980) was an American physicist who, along with J. Presper Eckert, designed ENIAC, the first general purpose electronic digital computer, as well as EDVAC, BINAC and UNIVAC I, the first commercial computer made in the United States.
John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist.
John Maurice McClean Pinkerton (2 August 1919 – 22 December 1997) was a pioneering British computer designer.
John Wilder Tukey (June 16, 1915 – July 26, 2000) was an American mathematician best known for development of the FFT algorithm and box plot.
John Vincent Atanasoff (October 4, 1903 – June 15, 1995) was an American-Bulgarian physicist and inventor, best known for being credited with inventing the first electronic digital computer.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
The JOHNNIAC was an early computer built by the RAND Corporation (not to be confused with Remington Rand, maker of the contemporaneous UNIVAC I computer) that was based on the von Neumann architecture that had been pioneered on the IAS machine.
Joseph Marie Charles dit (called or nicknamed) Jacquard (7 July 1752 – 7 August 1834), was a French weaver and merchant.
K-202 was a 16-bit minicomputer, created by a team led by Polish scientist Jacek Karpiński between 1970–1973 in cooperation with British companies Data-Loop and M.B. Metals.
Karen Spärck Jones FBA (26 August 1935 – 4 April 2007) was a British computer scientist who was responsible for the concept of inverse document frequency, a technology that underlies most modern search engines.
The Karnaugh map (KM or K-map) is a method of simplifying Boolean algebra expressions.
Kathleen Booth née BrittenJohnson, Roger.
Kenneth Lane "Ken" Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science.
Kenneth Eugene Iverson (17 December 1920 – 19 October 2004) was a Canadian computer scientist noted for the development of the programming language APL.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.
Kristen Nygaard (27 August 1926 – 10 August 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist, programming language pioneer and politician.
Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.
Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.
The algorithm of Lamport timestamps is a simple algorithm used to determine the order of events in a distributed computer system.
Lamport's bakery algorithm is a computer algorithm devised by computer scientist Leslie Lamport, which is intended to improve the safety in the usage of shared resources among multiple threads by means of mutual exclusion.
LaTeX (or; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.
The LEO I (Lyons Electronic Office I) was the first computer used for commercial business applications.
Leslie B. Lamport (born February 7, 1941) is an American computer scientist.
The LINC (Laboratory INstrument Computer) is a 12-bit, 2048-word transistorized computer.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
Substitutability is a principle in object-oriented programming stating that, in a computer program, if S is a subtype of T, then objects of type T may be replaced with objects of type S (i.e. an object of type T may be substituted with any object of a subtype S) without altering any of the desirable properties of the program (correctness, task performed, etc.). More formally, the Liskov substitution principle (LSP) is a particular definition of a subtyping relation, called (strong) behavioral subtyping, that was initially introduced by Barbara Liskov in a 1987 conference keynote address titled Data abstraction and hierarchy.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
This is a list of computer scientists, people who do work in computer science, in particular researchers and authors.
This list of Russian IT developers includes the hardware engineers, computer scientists and programmers from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.
The Women in Technology International Hall of Fame was established in 1996 by Women in Technology International (WITI) to honor women who contribute to the fields of science and technology.
In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.
Logic Theorist is a computer program written in 1955 and 1956 by Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon and Cliff Shaw.
Lynn Ann Conway (born January 2, 1938) is an American computer scientist, electrical engineer, inventor, and transgender activist.
A magnetic core is a piece of magnetic material with a high magnetic permeability used to confine and guide magnetic fields in electrical, electromechanical and magnetic devices such as electromagnets, transformers, electric motors, generators, inductors, magnetic recording heads, and magnetic assemblies.
Magnetic storage or magnetic recording is the storage of data on a magnetized medium.
The Sort/Merge utility is a mainframe program to sort records in a file into a specified order, merge pre-sorted files into a sorted file, or copy selected records.
The Manchester Baby, also known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the world's first stored-program computer.
Margaret Heafield Hamilton (born Heafield on August 17, 1936) is an American computer scientist, systems engineer, and business owner.
Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive scientist concerned largely with research of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, and author of several texts concerning AI and philosophy.
is a Japanese electronics engineer, who was one of the designers of the world's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, along with Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff, and Stanley Mazor.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
Maurice Karnaugh (born October 4, 1924) is an American physicist and mathematician known for the Karnaugh map used in Boolean algebra.
Sir Maurice Vincent Wilkes (26 June 1913 – 29 November 2010) was a British computer scientist who designed and helped build the electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC), one of the earliest stored program computers and invented microprogramming, a method for using stored-program logic to operate the control unit of a central processing unit's circuits.
Maxwell Herman Alexander Newman, FRS, (7 February 1897 – 22 February 1984), generally known as Max Newman, was a British mathematician and codebreaker.
A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform automatically the basic operations of arithmetic.
The memex (originally coined "at random", though sometimes said to be a portmanteau of "memory" and "index") is the name of the hypothetical proto-hypertext system that Vannevar Bush described in his 1945 The Atlantic Monthly article "As We May Think".
MESM (МЭСМ, Малая Электронно-Счетная Машина, Small Electronic Calculating Machine) was the first universally programmable electronic computer in the Soviet Union.
Michael Ralph Stonebraker (born October 11, 1943) is a computer scientist specializing in database research.
Micral is a series of microcomputers produced by the French company Réalisation d'Études Électroniques (R2E), beginning with the Micral N in early 1973.
In computer science, a microkernel (also known as μ-kernel) is the near-minimum amount of software that can provide the mechanisms needed to implement an operating system (OS).
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
In computer science, model checking or property checking refers to the following problem: Given a model of a system, exhaustively and automatically check whether this model meets a given specification.
Modula-2 is a computer programming language designed and developed between 1977 and 1985 by Niklaus Wirth at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) as a revision of Pascal to serve as the sole programming language for the operating system and application software for the personal workstation Lilith.
In concurrent programming, a monitor is a synchronization construct that allows threads to have both mutual exclusion and the ability to wait (block) for a certain condition to become true.
There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is ابو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي or ابو جعفر محمد بن موسی الخوارزمی.
A multi-agent system (MAS or "self-organized system") is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents.
A music sequencer (or simply sequencer) is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms, typically CV/Gate, MIDI, or Open Sound Control (OSC), and possibly audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins.
is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
Nicholas (Nick) William McKeown FREng, is a professor in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science departments at Stanford University.
Niklaus Emil Wirth (born 15 February 1934) is a Swiss computer scientist, best known for designing several programming languages, including Pascal, and for pioneering several classic topics in software engineering.
, often pronounced Korombia,, is a Japanese record label founded in 1910 as.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Oberon is a general-purpose programming language created in 1986 by Niklaus Wirth and the latest member of the Wirthian family of ALGOL-like languages (Euler, Algol-W, Pascal, Modula, and Modula-2).
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Ole-Johan Dahl (12 October 1931 – 29 June 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist.
OS/360, officially known as IBM System/360 Operating System, is a discontinued batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964; it was heavily influenced by the earlier IBSYS/IBJOB and Input/Output Control System (IOCS) packages.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.
Per Brinch Hansen (November 13, 1938 – July 31, 2007) was a Danish-American computer scientist known for his work in operating systems, concurrent programming and parallel and distributed computing.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
Peter Naur (25 October 1928 – 3 January 2016) was a Danish computer science pioneer and Turing award winner.
Pier Giorgio Perotto (Turin, December 24, 1930 – Genoa, January 23, 2002) was an Italian electrical engineer and inventor.
Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, originating in the Computing Sciences Research Center (CSRC) at Bell Labs in the mid-1980s, and building on UNIX concepts first developed there in the late 1960s; until the Labs' final release at the start of 2015.
Plankalkül ("Plan Calculus") is a programming language designed for engineering purposes by Konrad Zuse between 1942 and 1945.
The Post correspondence problem is an undecidable decision problem that was introduced by Emil Post in 1946.
In computability theory Post's theorem, named after Emil Post, describes the connection between the arithmetical hierarchy and the Turing degrees.
A Post–Turing machine is a "program formulation" of an especially simple type of Turing machine, comprising a variant of Emil Post's Turing-equivalent model of computation described below.
The Principia Mathematica (often abbreviated PM) is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913.
The Privacy Act of 1974, a United States federal law, establishes a Code of Fair Information Practice that governs the collection, maintenance, use, and dissemination of personally identifiable information about individuals that is maintained in systems of records by federal agencies.
A program is a set of instructions used to control the behavior of a machine, often a computer (in this case it is known as a computer program).
The Olivetti Programma 101, also known as Perottina or P101, is the first commercial programmable "desktop computer" Produced by Italian manufacturer Olivetti, based in Ivrea, Piedmont, and invented by the Italian engineer Pier Giorgio Perotto, the P101 had the main features of large computers of that period.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming language theory (PLT) is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features.
The Queen Anne Press (logo stylized QAP) is a small publisher (originally a private press).
Quicksort (sometimes called partition-exchange sort) is an efficient sorting algorithm, serving as a systematic method for placing the elements of an array in order.
Radia Joy Perlman (born 1951) is an American computer programmer and network engineer.
Ramon Llull, T.O.S.F. (c. 1232 – c. 1315; Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a philosopher, logician, Franciscan tertiary and Spanish writer.
Rózsa Péter, born Politzer, (17 February 1905 – 16 February 1977) was a Hungarian mathematician and logician.
The RC 4000 Multiprogramming System is a discontinued operating system developed for the RC 4000 minicomputer in 1969.
Recursion occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type.
Regular numbers are numbers that evenly divide powers of 60 (or, equivalently powers of 30).
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.
The relational model (RM) for database management is an approach to managing data using a structure and language consistent with first-order predicate logic, first described in 1969 by Edgar F. Codd, where all data is represented in terms of tuples, grouped into relations.
In distributed computing, a remote procedure call (RPC) is when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in a different address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call, without the programmer explicitly coding the details for the remote interaction.
Richard Wesley Hamming (February 11, 1915 – January 7, 1998) was an American mathematician whose work had many implications for computer engineering and telecommunications.
Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.
Robert Cailliau (born 26 January 1947) is a Belgian informatics engineer and computer scientist who created the first web browser for the Mac.
Rosalind Wright Picard (born May 17, 1962) is an American scholar who is Professor of Media Arts and Sciences at MIT, founder and director of the Affective Computing Research Group at the MIT Media Lab, and co-founder of the startups Affectiva and Empatica.
Sally Floyd is an American computer scientist.
The grammar of the Sanskrit language has a complex verbal system, rich nominal declension, and extensive use of compound nouns.
Saul Rosen (February 8, 1922 – June 9, 1991) was an American computer science pioneer.
In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.
In computer science, a semaphore is a variable or abstract data type used to control access to a common resource by multiple processes in a concurrent system such as a multitasking operating system.
Sergey Alexeyevich Lebedev (Серге́й Алексе́евич Ле́бедев; 2 November 1902, n.s. – 3 July 1974) was a Russian-born Ukrainian Soviet scientist in the fields of electrical engineering and computer science, and designer of the first Soviet computers.
Seymour Ginsburg (December 12, 1927 – December 5, 2004) was an American pioneer of automata theory, formal language theory, and database theory, in particular; and computer science, in general.
is a Japanese multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products, headquartered in Sakai-ku, Sakai.
Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.
Sketchpad (a.k.a. Robot Draftsman) was a revolutionary computer program written by Ivan Sutherland in 1963 in the course of his PhD thesis, for which he received the Turing Award in 1988, and the Kyoto Prize in 2012.
Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
Software-defined networking (SDN) technology is an approach to cloud computing that facilitates network management and enables programmatically efficient network configuration in order to improve network performance and monitoring.
The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a network protocol that builds a loop-free logical topology for Ethernet networks.
Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech.
In geometry, a sphere packing is an arrangement of non-overlapping spheres within a containing space.
Stephen Cole Kleene (January 5, 1909 – January 25, 1994) was an American mathematician.
Stephen Arthur Cook, (born December 14, 1939) is an American-Canadian computer scientist and mathematician who has made major contributions to the fields of complexity theory and proof complexity.
A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.
A superscalar processor is a CPU that implements a form of parallelism called instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.
Susan Lois Graham is an American computer scientist.
Switching circuit theory is the mathematical study of the properties of networks of idealized switches.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
was a Japanese engineer who was influential in founding Busicom, driving the deployment of the Intel 4004 microprocessor, and later driving Sharp into the LCD calculator market.
TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
The Art of Computer Programming (sometimes known by its initials TAOCP) is a comprehensive monograph written by Donald Knuth that covers many kinds of programming algorithms and their analysis.
The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering is a book on software engineering and project management by Fred Brooks first published in 1975, with subsequent editions in 1982 and 1995.
Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.
Timeline of computing presents events in the history of computing organized by year and grouped into six topic areas: predictions and concepts, first use and inventions, hardware systems and processors, operating systems, programming languages, and new application areas.
Thomas Harold Flowers, MBE (22 December 1905 – 28 October 1998) was an English engineer with the British Post Office.
Sir Charles Antony Richard Hoare (born 11 January 1934), is a British computer scientist.
Transaction processing is information processing in computer science that is divided into individual, indivisible operations called transactions.
In mathematics, particularly in semigroup theory, a transformation is a function f that maps a set X to itself, i.e..
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.
In logic, a truth function is a function that accepts truth values as input and produces a truth value as output, i.e., the input and output are all truth values.
A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic—specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus—which sets out the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments, that is, for each combination of values taken by their logical variables (Enderton, 2001).
The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".
In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer's instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.
A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine, which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules.
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is any of a class of formal systems, some of which can serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation for all mathematics.
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, an undecidable problem is a decision problem for which it is known to be impossible to construct a single algorithm that always leads to a correct yes-or-no answer.
UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) is a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation.
The UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
, abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
In computer science, a Van Wijngaarden grammar (also vW-grammar or W-grammar) is a two-level grammar which provides a technique to define potentially infinite context-free grammars in a finite number of rules.
Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.
Vector space model or term vector model is an algebraic model for representing text documents (and any objects, in general) as vectors of identifiers, such as, for example, index terms.
Vinton Gray Cerf ForMemRS, (born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn.
The Virtual Museum of Computing (VMoC) is an eclectic collection of links and online resources concerning the history of computers and computer science.
The von Neumann architecture, which is also known as the von Neumann model and Princeton architecture, is a computer architecture based on the 1945 description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.
Wesley Allison Clark (April 10, 1927 – February 22, 2016) was an American physicist who is credited for designing the first modern personal computer.
Whirlwind I was a Cold War-era vacuum tube computer developed by the MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory for the U.S. Navy.
Willis Howard Ware (August 31, 1920 – November 22, 2013) was an American computer pioneer, privacy pioneer, social critic of technology policy, and a founder in the field of computer security.
Women in computing have shaped the evolution of the industry, with women among the first programmers during the early 20th century.
The World Chess Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
, also known as, is a Japanese inventor.
The Z1 was a mechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse from 1935 to 1936 and built by him from 1936 to 1938.
The Z3 was a German electromechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse.
The Z4 was the world's first commercial digital computer, designed by German engineer Konrad Zuse and built by his company Zuse Apparatebau in 1945.
The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.
The Z8000 ("zee-eight-thousand") is a 16-bit microprocessor introduced by Zilog in early 1979, between the launch of the Intel 8086 (April 1978) and the Motorola 68000 (September 1979).
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