100 relations: Abd al-Malik Abd al-Wahid, Abu Inan Faris, Abu Said Uthman III, Acts of Union 1707, Al-Andalus, Alfonso XI of Castile, Alfonso, Prince of Asturias (1453–1468), Algeciras, Alonso de Arcos, Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, American Revolutionary War, Andalusia, Arabs, Battle of Cádiz (1702), Bay of Gibraltar, Berbers, Black Death, Boulder, Colorado, British North America, Bubonic plague, Capture of Gibraltar, Castilians, Cranbury, New Jersey, Cristóbal de Moscoso y Montemayor, Crown of Castile, Diego de Salinas, Disputed status of the isthmus between Gibraltar and Spain, Duke of Arcos, Dutch Republic, East Florida, Eighth Siege of Gibraltar, Emirate of Granada, Enrique Pérez de Guzmán, 2nd Count of Niebla, Europa Point, Ferdinand I of León, Ferdinand IV of Castile, Fez, Morocco, Fifth Siege of Gibraltar, First Siege of Gibraltar, Floating battery, Fortifications of Gibraltar, Fourth Siege of Gibraltar, Francisco Castillo Fajardo, Marquis of Villadarias, George Rooke, Gibraltar, Gibraltar–Spain border, Good Friday, Great Siege of Gibraltar, Guadalete, Henry IV of Castile, ..., History of Gibraltar, House of Bourbon, Iberian Peninsula, Isabella I of Castile, Isthmus, John Leake, Juan Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán, 3rd Duke of Medina Sidonia, Juan Alonso de Guzmán, 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain, La Línea de la Concepción, Louis XIV of France, Marinid dynasty, Mediterranean Sea, Menorca, Military history of Gibraltar during World War II, Mohammed ben Abdallah, Moorish Castle, Moorish Gibraltar, Morocco, Muhammed IV, Sultan of Granada, Napoleonic Wars, Ninth Siege of Gibraltar, Operation Felix, Philip V of Spain, Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt, Reconquista, René de Froulay de Tessé, Rock of Gibraltar, Second Siege of Gibraltar, Seventh Siege of Gibraltar, Seville, Siege, Siege engine, Siege of Algeciras (1309–10), Siege of Algeciras (1342–44), Sixth Siege of Gibraltar, Spain and the American Revolutionary War, Strait of Gibraltar, Tarifa, Tenth Siege of Gibraltar, Third Siege of Gibraltar, Thirteenth Siege of Gibraltar, Timeline of the history of Gibraltar, Treaty of Utrecht, Twelfth Siege of Gibraltar, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, War of the Spanish Succession, West Florida, Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada. Expand index (50 more) » « Shrink index
Abd al-Malik Abd al-Wahid (died 1339) (also known as Abomelique or Abu Malik) was a son of the Marinid sultan of Morocco, Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Othman.
Abu Inan Faris (1329 – 10 January 1358) (أبو عنان فارس بن علي) was a Marinid ruler of Morocco.
Abu Said Uthman III (Abu Said Uthman ibn Abi l-Abbas ibn Abi Salim) (died 1420) was Marinid ruler of Morocco from 19 March 1398 to 1420, the last effective ruler of that dynasty.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Alfonso XI of Castile (13 August 131126/27 March 1350), called the Avenger (el Justiciero), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia.
Alfonso the Innocent (17 November 1453 – 5 July 1468) was the figurehead of rebelling Castilian magnates against his half-brother Henry IV, who had recognized him as heir presumptive with the title of Prince of Asturias.
Algeciras (translit) is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar (in Spanish, the Bahía de Algeciras).
Alonso de Arcos was the alcaide (Military Governor) of Tarifa.
Alonso Pérez de Guzmán (1256–1309), known as Guzmán el Bueno ("Guzmán the Good"), was a Spanish nobleman and hero of Spain during the medieval period, the founder of the line from which the dukes of Medina Sidonia descend.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Battle of Cádiz, fought in August/September 1702, was an Anglo-Dutch attempt to seize the southern Spanish port of Cádiz during the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Bay of Gibraltar (also known as Gibraltar Bay or Bay of Algeciras) is a bay at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Boulder is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, and the 11th most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
The Capture of Gibraltar by Anglo-Dutch forces of the Grand Alliance occurred between 1–3 August 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession.
Castilians (Spanish: castellanos) are certain inhabitants in regions of central Spain including at least the eastern part of Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha excluding Albacete, and the Community of Madrid, who are the source of the Spanish language (Castilian) among other aspects of cultural identity.
Cranbury is a township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States.
Cristóbal de Moscoso y Montemayor (died 27 January 1749 in Madrid), also known as the Count de las Torres, was a Spanish noble and military.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Don Diego Esteban Gómez de Salinas y Rodríguez de Villarroel (Madrid, August 3, 1649 – November 27, 1720) was the last Spanish Governor of Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar territory currently contains an long section of the isthmus that links the Rock with mainland Spain.
The dukedom of Arcos was created by Queen Isabella I of Castile, on 20 January 1493, for Rodrigo Ponce de León, then Count of Arcos.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
East Florida (Florida Oriental) was a colony of Great Britain from 1763 to 1783 and a province of Spanish Florida from 1783 to 1821.
The Eighth Siege of Gibraltar (1462) was a successful effort by soldiers of the Kingdom of Castile to take the fortified town of Gibraltar from the Moors of the Emirate of Granada.
The Emirate of Granada (إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, trans. Imarat Gharnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar.
Don Enrique Pérez de Guzmán y de Castilla, 2nd Count of Niebla (in full, Don Enrique Pérez de Guzmán y de Castilla, segundo Conde de Niebla, Señor de Sanlúcar de Barrameda) (20 February 1371 – 31 October 1436) was a Spanish nobleman and military figure of the Reconquista.
Europa Point (Spanish and Llanito: Punta de Europa or Punta Europa), is the southernmost point of Gibraltar (the Southeast most point of the Iberian Peninsula being Punta de Tarifa 25 km southwest of Gibraltar).
Ferdinand I (c. 1015 – 24 December 1065), called the Great (el Magno), was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the King of León after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037.
Ferdinand IV of Castile (6 December 1285 – 7 September 1312) called the Summoned (el Emplazado), was a King of Castile and León from 1295 until his death.
Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.
The Fifth Siege of Gibraltar, mounted between August 1349 and March 1350, was a second attempt by King Alfonso XI of Castile to retake the fortified town of Gibraltar.
The First Siege of Gibraltar was a battle of the Spanish Reconquista that took place in 1309.
A floating battery is a kind of armed watercraft, often improvised or experimental, which carries a heavy armament but has few other qualities as a warship.
The fortifications of Gibraltar have made the Rock of Gibraltar and its environs "probably the most fought over and most densely fortified place in Europe, and probably, therefore, in the world", as Field Marshal Sir John Chapple has put it.
The Fourth Siege of Gibraltar, fought from June until August 1333, pitted a Christian army under King Alfonso XI of Castile against a large Moorish army led by Muhammed IV of Granada and Abd al-Malik Abd al-Wahid of Fes.
Francisco Castillo Fajardo, 2nd Marquis of Villadarias (es: Francisco Castillo Fajardo, segundo marqués de Villadarias) (Málaga, 17 December 1642 – 1716), was a Spanish general.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Rooke (1650 – 24 January 1709) was an English naval officer.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gibraltar–Spain border is the international boundary between the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar and the Kingdom of Spain.
Good Friday is a Christian holiday celebrating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary.
The Great Siege of Gibraltar was an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the American War of Independence.
The Guadalete River is located almost entirely in the Spanish province of Cádiz, rising in the Sierra de Grazalema Natural Park at an elevation of about, and running for into the Bay of Cádiz at El Puerto de Santa Maria, south of the city of Cádiz.
Henry IV of Castile (Castilian: Enrique IV) (5 January 1425 – 11 December 1474), King of the Crown of Castile, nicknamed the Impotent (ruled 1454–1474), was the last of the weak late medieval kings of Castile.
The history of Gibraltar, a small peninsula on the southern Iberian coast near the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, spans over 2,900 years.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
An isthmus (or; plural: isthmuses; from neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Leake (4 July 1656 – 21 August 1720) was a Royal Navy officer and politician.
Don Juan Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán y Afán de Ribera, 3rd Duke of Medina Sidonia (February 1464 – 1507) inherited the title in 1492, aged 28.
Juan Alonso de Guzmán y Suárez de Figueroa Orozco, 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia and 3rd Count de Niebla (in full, Don Juan Alonso de Guzmán y Suárez de Figueroa Orozco, primer Duque de Medina Sidonia, tercer Conde de Niebla, Señor de Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Señor de Lepe, Ayamonte y Gibraltar, Adelantado Mayor de la Frontera de Andalucía) (c. 1405 – December 1468) was a Spanish nobleman and military figure of the Reconquista.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
La Línea de la Concepción (more often referred to as La Línea) is a town in Spain, in the province of Cádiz in Andalucia.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Menorca or Minorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
The military history of Gibraltar during World War II exemplifies Gibraltar's position as a British fortress since the early 18th century and as a vital factor in British military strategy, both as a foothold on the continent of Europe, and as a bastion of British sea power.
Mohammed Ben Abdellah al-Khatib (c. 1710 – 9 April 1790) (محمد الثالث بن عبد الله الخطيب) was Sultan of Morocco from 1757 to 1790 under the Alaouite dynasty.
The Moorish Castle is the name given to a medieval fortification in Gibraltar comprising various buildings, gates, and fortified walls, with the dominant features being the Tower of Homage and the Gate House.
The history of Moorish Gibraltar began with the landing of the Muslims in Hispania and the fall of the Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo in 711 and ended with the fall of Gibraltar to Christian hands 751 years later, in 1462, with an interregnum during the early 14th century.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Muhammed IV (1315 – August 25, 1333) was the Nasrid ruler of the Moorish Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula from 1325 to 1333.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The Ninth Siege of Gibraltar was a fifteen-month-long siege of the town of Gibraltar that lasted from 1466 until 1467.
Operation Felix was the codename for a proposed German seizure of Gibraltar during World War II, subject to the co-operation of Spanish caudillo Francisco Franco.
Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 15 January 1724, and from his reascendancy of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.
Prince George Louis of Hessen-Darmstadt (1669 – 13 September 1705) was a Field Marshal in the Austrian army. He is known for his career in Habsburg Spain, as Viceroy of Catalonia (1698–1701), head of the Austrian army in the War of Spanish Succession (1701–1705) and governor of Gibraltar in 1704. He was killed during the Siege of Barcelona the following year. He was known in Spanish as Jorge de Darmstadt and in Catalan as Jordi Darmstadt.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
René de Froulay, Comte de Tessé (14 May 1648 – 30 March 1725) was a French soldier and diplomat during the reign of Louis XIV and the 1715-1723 Regency.
The Rock of Gibraltar, also known as the Pillars of Hercules, is a monolithic limestone promontory located in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, near the southwestern tip of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
The Second Siege of Gibraltar was an abortive attempt in 1315 by the Nasrid Moors of the Emirate of Granada to recapture Gibraltar, which had fallen to the forces of Ferdinand IV of Castille four years previously in 1309.
The Seventh Siege of Gibraltar (1436) was an unsuccessful attempt by the Castillian nobleman Enrique Pérez de Guzmán, 2nd Count de Niebla to capture the stronghold of Gibraltar from the Moors.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
The Siege of Algeciras was a battle of the Spanish Reconquista that occurred between July 1309 and January 1310.
The Siege of Algeciras (1342–44) was undertaken during the Reconquest of Spain by the Castillian forces of Alfonso XI assisted by the fleets of the Kingdom of Aragon and the Republic of Genoa.
The Sixth Siege of Gibraltar in 1411 was the only occasion on which control of Gibraltar was contested between two Islamic powers.
Spain's role in the independence of the United States was part of its dispute over colonial supremacy with the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
Tarifa is a small town in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia, on the southernmost coast of mainland Spain.
The Tenth Siege of Gibraltar in 1506 was a minor military action in which the Duke of Medina Sidonia, Juan Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán tried but failed to recover the fortress of Gibraltar from the troops who were holding it in the name of the newly united crowns of Castile and Aragon.
The Third Siege of Gibraltar was mounted between February–June 1333 by a Moorish army under the prince Abd al-Malik Abd al-Wahid of Morocco.
The Siege of Gibraltar of 1727 (thirteenth siege of Gibraltar, second by Spain) saw Spanish forces besiege the British garrison of Gibraltar as part of the Anglo-Spanish War.
The history of Gibraltar portrays how The Rock gained an importance and a reputation far exceeding its size, influencing and shaping the people who came to reside here over the centuries.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
The Twelfth Siege of Gibraltar was fought between September 1704 and May 1705 during the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
West Florida (Florida Occidental) was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico that underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history.
Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada (June 29, 1318 – October 19, 1354) was the seventh Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula.