229 relations: ABRIXAS, Active galactic nucleus, Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics, Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope, Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics, AGILE (satellite), Akari (satellite), Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, Altitude, Apsis, Ariel 5, Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors, Aryabhata (satellite), Astro Space Center (Russia), Astro-G, Astron (spacecraft), Astronomical Netherlands Satellite, Astronomical seeing, Astronomical unit, Astronomy, Astrophysical maser, Astrosat, Balloon, BeppoSAX, Big Bang Observer, Binary star, Black hole, Bremsstrahlung, BRITE, Broad Band X-ray Telescope, Brown dwarf, California Institute of Technology, Canadian Space Agency, Cataclysmic variable star, Center of mass, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Chandra X-ray Observatory, CHEOPS, China National Space Administration, CHIPSat, CNES, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, Constellation-X Observatory, CoRoT, Cos-B, Cosmic Background Explorer, Cosmic microwave background, Cosmic Radiation Satellite, Cosmic ray, Dark Matter Particle Explorer, ..., Dark Universe Observatory, Darwin (spacecraft), Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory, Defence Research and Development Canada, Earth, EChO, Einstein Observatory, Electron, Euclid (spacecraft), European Space Agency, Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer, EXOSAT, Extragalactic cosmic ray, Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph, Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, Fast Infrared Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey Explorer, Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, FOCAL (spacecraft), Frequency band, Gaia (spacecraft), Galaxy, Galaxy cluster, GALEX, Gamma (satellite), Gamma ray, Gamma-ray burst, Geocentric orbit, German Aerospace Center, Ginga (satellite), Granat, Gravitational lens, Gravitational wave, Gravity and Extreme Magnetism, Hakucho, HALCA, Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope, Heliocentric orbit, Herschel Space Observatory, High Energy Astronomy Observatory 1, High Energy Astronomy Observatory 3, High Energy Transient Explorer, Hipparcos, Hisaki (satellite), Hitomi (satellite), Hubble Space Telescope, IKAROS, Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer, Indian Space Research Organisation, Infrared, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Infrared Space Observatory, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, INTEGRAL, Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, International Lunar Observatory, International Ultraviolet Explorer, International X-ray Observatory, Interstellar Boundary Explorer, IRAS, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italian Space Agency, James Webb Space Telescope, JAXA, Joint Dark Energy Mission, Kanazawa University, Kepler (spacecraft), Kilometre, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Satellite 4, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Lagrangian point, LEGRI, Light, LISA Pathfinder, List of Earth observation satellites, List of Solar System probes, List of solar telescopes, LOFT, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Microwave, Midcourse Space Experiment, Milky Way, Moon, MOST (satellite), Nanometre, NASA, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, National Space Development Agency of Japan, Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite, Nebula, Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Neutron star, Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer, NuSTAR, Odin (satellite), Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2, Orion (space telescope), PAMELA detector, Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility, Particle shower, PEGASE, Photon, Planck (spacecraft), Planet, Planetary nebula, PLATO (spacecraft), Proton satellite, Protoplanetary disk, Pulsar, Radio, Redshift, ROSAT, Roscosmos, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, Russian Space Research Institute, SAFIR, Science and Engineering Research Council, Small Astronomy Satellite 2, Small Astronomy Satellite 3, Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer, Solar energetic particles, Solar System, Sonoma State University, Source counts, Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Space Flyer Unit, Space Interferometry Mission, Space telescope, Space Telescope Science Institute, Space.com, Spacetime, Spektr-R, Spektr-RG, Spektr-UV, Spinning dust, Spitzer Space Telescope, Star, Starburst galaxy, STS-67, Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, Sun, Sun-synchronous orbit, Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect, Supernova, Supernova remnant, Suzaku (satellite), Swedish National Space Agency, Swedish Space Corporation, Synchrotron radiation, Telescope for Habitable Exoplanets and Interstellar/Intergalactic Astronomy, Tenma, Terrestrial Planet Finder, Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, Uhuru (satellite), Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray, Ultraviolet, United States Department of Energy, United States Navy, University of Birmingham, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Venus Spectral Rocket Experiment, Very-long-baseline interferometry, White dwarf, Wide Field Infrared Explorer, Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, X-ray, X-ray background, X-ray binary, XEUS, XMM-Newton. 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A Broadband Imaging X-ray All-sky Survey, or ABRIXAS was a space-based German X-ray telescope.
An active galactic nucleus (AGN) is a compact region at the center of a galaxy that has a much higher than normal luminosity over at least some portion—and possibly all—of the electromagnetic spectrum, with characteristics indicating that the excess luminosity is not produced by stars.
The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA, formerly named ASTRO-D) was the fourth cosmic X-ray astronomy mission by JAXA, and the second for which the United States provided part of the scientific payload.
The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is an 8– to 16.8–meter UV-optical-NIR space telescope proposed by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA) is a future X-ray telescope of the European Space Agency, under development for launch around 2028.
AGILE (Astro‐Rivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero) is an X-ray and Gamma ray astronomical satellite of the Italian Space Agency (ASI).
Akari (ASTRO-F) is an infrared astronomy satellite developed by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, in cooperation with institutes of Europe and Korea.
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, also designated AMS-02, is a particle physics experiment module that is mounted on the International Space Station (ISS).
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
Ariel 5 was a joint British and American space observatory dedicated to observing the sky in the X-ray band.
The Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors (ALEXIS) X-ray telescopes feature curved mirrors whose multilayer coatings reflect and focus low-energy X-rays or extreme ultraviolet light the way optical telescopes focus visible light.
Aryabhata (Hindi: आर्यभट) was India's first satellite"Aryabhata" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
This enclave of scientific research is officially known as Astro Space Center of PN Lebedev Physics Institute, (ASC LPI) and is under the purview of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
ASTRO-G (also known as VSOP-2, and very rarely called VSOP-B) was a planned radio telescope satellite by JAXA.
Astron was a Soviet spacecraft launched on 23 March 1983 at 12:45:06 UTC, using Proton launcher, which was designed to fulfill an astrophysics mission.
The Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS; also known as Astronomische Nederlandse Satelliet) was a space-based X-ray and ultraviolet telescope.
Astronomical seeing is the blurring and twinkling of astronomical objects like stars due to turbulent mixing in the Earth's atmosphere, causing variations of the optical refractive index.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An astrophysical maser is a naturally occurring source of stimulated spectral line emission, typically in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Astrosat is India's first dedicated multi-wavelength space observatory.
A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, air or water.
BeppoSAX was an Italian–Dutch satellite for X-ray astronomy which played a crucial role in resolving the origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the most energetic events known in the universe.
The Big Bang Observer (BBO) is a proposed successor to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) by the European Space Agency.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
Bright Target Explorer or BRITE, also known as Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment 3 (CanX-3) is a constellation of six nanosatellites operated by a consortium of universities from Canada, Austria and Poland.
The Broad Band X-ray Telescope (BBXRT) was flown on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-35) on 1990 December 2-December 11, as part of the ASTRO-1 payload.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
The Canadian Space Agency (CSA; Agence spatiale canadienne, ASC) was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990.
Cataclysmic variable stars (CV) are stars which irregularly increase in brightness by a large factor, then drop back down to a quiescent state.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.
CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) is a planned European space telescope for the study of the formation of extrasolar planets.
The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is the national space agency of China.
CHIPSat (Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer satellite) is a now-decommissioned, but still-orbiting, microsatellite.
The Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) (English: National Centre for Space Studies) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public administration with industrial and commercial purpose").
The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was a space observatory detecting photons with energies from 20 keV to 30 GeV, in Earth orbit from 1991 to 2000.
The Constellation-X Observatory (HTXS or Con-X) was a mission concept for an X-ray space observatory to be operated by NASA; in 2008 it was merged with ESA and JAXA efforts in the same direction to produce the International X-ray Observatory project, announced on July 24, 2008.
CoRoT (French: Convection, Rotation et Transits planétaires; English: Convection, Rotation and planetary Transits) was a space observatory mission which operated from 2006 to 2013.
COS-B was the first European Space Research Organisation mission to study cosmic gamma ray sources.
The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), also referred to as Explorer 66, was a satellite dedicated to cosmology, which operated from 1989 to 1993.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
The Cosmic Radiation Satellite (CORSA) was a Japanese space telescope.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
The Dark Matter Particle Explorer, or DAMPE (also known as Wukong), is a Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) satellite which launched on 17 December 2015.
The Dark Universe Observatory (DUO) is a planned NASA space-based telescope.
Darwin was a suggested ESA Cornerstone mission which would have involved a constellation of four to nine spacecraft designed to directly detect Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and search for evidence of life on these planets.
The Deci-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (or DECIGO) is a proposed Japanese, space-based, gravitational wave observatory.
Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC; Recherche et développement pour la défense Canada, RDDC) in French), is an agency of the Department of National Defence (DND), whose purpose is to provide the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), other government departments, and public safety and national security communities with knowledge and technology. DRDC has approximately 1,400 employees across eight research centres within Canada.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) was a proposed space telescope as part of the Cosmic Vision roadmap of the European Space Agency, and competed with four other missions for the M3 slot in the programme.
Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2) was the first fully imaging X-ray telescope put into space and the second of NASA's three High Energy Astrophysical Observatories.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Euclid is a visible to near-infrared space telescope currently under development by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Euclid Consortium.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) is a proposed space telescope for NASA's Explorer program to observe circumstellar protoplanetary and debris discs and study planet formation around nearby (within 100 parsecs) stars of spectral classes M to B. Had it been selected for development, it was proposed to launch in 2019.
The European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT), originally named HELOS, was an X-ray telescope operational from May 1983 until April 1986 and in that time made 1780 observations in the X-ray band of most classes of astronomical object including active galactic nuclei, stellar coronae, cataclysmic variables, white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, clusters of galaxies, and supernova remnants.
Extragalactic cosmic rays are very-high-energy particles that flow into the Solar System from beyond the Milky Way galaxy.
The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) was a space telescope for ultraviolet astronomy, launched on June 7, 1992.
The Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph (UVC) was one of the experiments deployed on the lunar surface by the Apollo 16 astronauts.
The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is a space-based telescope operated by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.
Fast Infrared Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey Explorer (FINESSE) is a NASA mission proposal for a space observatory operating in the Near-infrared spectrum for the Medium-Class Explorers program.
The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), formerly called the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), is a space observatory being used to perform gamma-ray astronomy observations from low Earth orbit.
Fast Outgoing Cyclopean Astronomical Lens (FOCAL) is a proposed space telescope that would use the Sun as a gravity lens.
A frequency band is an interval in the frequency domain, delimited by a lower frequency and an upper frequency.
Gaia is a space observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed for astrometry: measuring the positions and distances of stars with unprecedented precision.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
A galaxy cluster, or cluster of galaxies, is a structure that consists of anywhere from hundreds to thousands of galaxies that are bound together by gravity with typical masses ranging from 1014–1015 solar masses.
The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) is an orbiting ultraviolet space telescope launched on April 28, 2003, and operated until early 2012.
Gamma was a Soviet gamma ray telescope.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting Planet Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.
The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.), abbreviated DLR, is the national center for aerospace, energy and transportation research of the Federal Republic of Germany.
ASTRO-C, renamed Ginga (Japanese for 'galaxy'), was an X-ray astronomy satellite launched from the Kagoshima Space Center on 5 February 1987 using M-3SII launch vehicle.
The International Astrophysical Observatory "GRANAT" (usually known as Granat; Гранат), was a Soviet (later Russian) space observatory developed in collaboration with France, Denmark and Bulgaria.
A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.
Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.
The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) mission was a cancelled space observatory mission.
Hakucho (also known as CORSA-b before launch) was Japan's first X-ray astronomy satellite, developed by the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (then a division of the University of Tokyo).
HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy), also known for its project name VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Programme), or the code name MUSES-B (for the second of the Mu Space Engineering Spacecraft series), is a Japanese 8 meter diameter radio telescope satellite which was used for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI).
Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) also known as Insight is a Chinese X-ray space observatory, launched on June 15, 2017 to observe black holes, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei and other phenomena based on their X-ray and gamma-ray emissions.
A heliocentric orbit (also called circumsolar orbit) is an orbit around the barycenter of the Solar System, which is usually located within or very near the surface of the Sun.
The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
HEAO-1 was an X-ray telescope launched in 1977.
The last of NASA's three High Energy Astronomy Observatories, HEAO 3 was launched 20 September 1979 on an Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle, into a nearly circular, 43.6 degree inclination low-Earth orbit with an initial perigeum of 486.4 km.
The High Energy Transient Explorer (abbreviated HETE; also known as Explorer 79) was an American astronomical satellite with international participation (mainly Japan and France).
Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.
Hisaki, also known as the Spectroscopic Planet Observatory for Recognition of Interaction of Atmosphere (SPRINT-A) is a Japanese ultraviolet astronomy satellite operated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
, also known as ASTRO-H and New X-ray Telescope (NeXT), was an X-ray astronomy satellite commissioned by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for studying extremely energetic processes in the Universe.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun) is a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) experimental spacecraft.
The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) is a future space observatory with three identical telescopes designed to measure the polarization of cosmic X-rays.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) provides science operations, data management, data archives and community support for astronomy and planetary science missions.
The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was a space telescope for infrared light designed and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), in cooperation with ISAS (part of JAXA as of 2003) and NASA.
(ISAS) is a Japanese national research organization of astrophysics using rockets, astronomical satellites and interplanetary probes which played a major role in Japan's space development.
The Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute of Aerospace Technology) is Spain's space agency.
INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is a currently operational space telescope for observing gamma rays.
The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), also called Explorer 94, is a NASA solar observation satellite.
The International Lunar Observatory (ILO-1) is a private, scientific and commercial lunar mission to place a small observatory on the South Pole of the Moon to conduct astrophysical studies using an optical telescope.
The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) was an astronomical observatory satellite primarily designed to take ultraviolet spectra.
The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a cancelled X-ray telescope that was to be launched in 2021 as a joint effort by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is a NASA satellite that is making a map of the boundary between the Solar System and interstellar space.
The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was the first-ever space telescope to perform a survey of the entire night sky at infrared wavelengths.
The Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN; "National Institute for Nuclear Physics") is the coordinating institution for nuclear, particle and astroparticle physics in Italy.
The Italian Space Agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana; ASI) is a government agency established in 1988 to fund, regulate and coordinate space exploration activities in Italy.
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope developed in collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency that will be the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope.
The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.
The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) was an Einstein probe that planned to focus on investigating dark energy.
is a national university of Japan in the city of Kanazawa, the capital of Ishikawa Prefecture.
Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Satellite 4 (Kaistsat 4) is an ultraviolet telescope in a satellite.
The Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) established in 1989, is the aeronautics and space agency of Republic of Korea.
In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.
The Low Energy Gamma-Ray Imager (LEGRI) was a payload for the first mission of the Spanish MINISAT platform, and active from 1997 to 2002.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
LISA Pathfinder, formerly Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology-2 (SMART-2), was an ESA spacecraft that was launched on 3 December 2015.
Partial list of Earth observation satellites by series/program.
This is a list of space probes that have left Earth orbit (or were launched with that intention but failed), organized by their planned destination.
List of solar telescopes sorted by default by year of completion, with newer telescopes higher up.
The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT) is a proposed ESA space mission originally slated to launch around 2022, and now proposed to launch around 2025.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) is a Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) satellite experiment (unmanned space mission) to map bright infrared sources in space.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The Microvariability and Oscillations of STars telescope, better known simply as MOST, is Canada's first space telescope.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii.
The National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) is the United States national observatory for ground-based nighttime ultraviolet-optical-infrared (OUVIR) astronomy.
The of Japan, or NASDA, was a Japanese national space agency established on October 1, 1969 under the National Space Development Agency Law only for peaceful purposes.
The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a Canadian microsatellite using a 15-cm aperture f/5.88 Maksutov telescope (similar to that on the MOST spacecraft), with 3-axis stabilisation giving a pointing stability of ~2 arcseconds in a ~100 second exposure.
A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.
The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, previously called the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission, is a NASA space telescope designed to detect gamma-ray bursts (GRBs).
SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research is the Dutch expertise institute for space research.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is a NASA Explorers program Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear physics environments embodied by neutron stars, exploring the exotic states of matter where density and pressure are higher than in atomic nuclei.
NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) is a space-based X-ray telescope that uses a conical approximation to a Wolter telescope to focus high energy X-rays from astrophysical sources, especially for nuclear spectroscopy, and operates in the range of 3 to 79 keV.
Odin is a Swedish satellite working in two disciplines: astrophysics and aeronomy, and it was named after Odin of Norse mythology.
The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) satellites were a series of four American space observatories launched by NASA between 1966 and 1972, which provided the first high-quality observations of many objects in ultraviolet light.
The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO-2, nicknamed Stargazer) was a space observatory launched on December 7, 1968.
The Orion space telescopes were a series of two instruments flown aboard Soviet spacecraft during the 1970s to conduct ultraviolet spectroscopy of stars.
PAMELA (Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics) was a cosmic ray research module attached to an Earth orbiting satellite.
The Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility (commonly known as ASTROMAG) is a NASA project that was designed to investigate anti-matter.
In particle physics, a shower is a cascade of secondary particles produced as the result of a high-energy particle interacting with dense matter.
PEGASE is a design for a space observatory developed by France in the early 2000s.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Planck was a space observatory operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) from 2009 to 2013, which mapped the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at microwave and infra-red frequencies, with high sensitivity and small angular resolution.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
A planetary nebula, abbreviated as PN or plural PNe, is a type of emission nebula consisting of an expanding, glowing shell of ionized gas ejected from red giant stars late in their lives.
PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) is a space observatory under development by the European Space Agency for launch in 2026.
The Proton was a model of Soviet scientific artificial satellites.
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.
A pulsar (from pulse and -ar as in quasar) is a highly magnetized rotating neutron star or white dwarf that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
ROSAT (short for Röntgensatellit, in German X-rays are called Röntgenstrahlen, in honour of Wilhelm Röntgen) was a German Aerospace Center-led satellite X-ray telescope, with instruments built by West Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.
The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) was a satellite that observed the time variation of astronomical X-ray sources, named after physicist Bruno Rossi.
The Russian Space Research Institute (Институт космических исследований Российской академии наук, Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian abbreviation: ИКИ РАН, IKI RAN) is the leading organization of the Russian Academy of Sciences on space exploration to benefit fundamental science.
SAFIR (or Single Aperture Far-InfraRed) is a proposed space observatory for far-infrared light.
The Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) was the UK agency in charge of publicly funded scientific and engineering research activities, including astronomy, biotechnology and biological sciences, space research and particle physics, between 1965 and 1994.
The Small Astronomy Satellite 2, also known also as SAS-2, SAS B or Explorer 48, was a NASA gamma ray telescope.
The Small Astronomy Satellite 3 (SAS 3, also known as SAS-C before launch) was a NASA X-ray astronomy space telescope.
The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) was a NASA solar and magnetospheric observatory, and was the first spacecraft in the Small Explorer program.
Solar energetic particles (SEP) are high-energy particles coming from the Sun.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Sonoma State University (SSU, Sonoma State, and Sonoma) is a public comprehensive university, part of the 23-campus California State University (CSU) system.
The source counts distribution of radio-sources from a radio-astronomical survey is the cumulative distribution of the number of sources (N) brighter than a given flux density (S).
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The was a spacecraft which was launched by Japan on Mar.
The Space Interferometry Mission, or SIM, also known as SIM Lite (formerly known as SIM PlanetQuest), was a planned space telescope proposed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with contractor Northrop Grumman.
A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.
The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST; in orbit since 1990) and for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST; scheduled to be launched in March 2021).
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
Spektr-R (or RadioAstron) is a Russian scientific satellite with a radio telescope on board.
Spektr-RG (Russian for Spectrum + Röntgen + Gamma; also called Spectrum-X-Gamma, SRG, SXG) is an international high-energy astrophysics observatory, which is being built under the leadership of the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI).
The Spektr-UV, also known as World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV), is a proposed space telescope intended for work in the 110 nm to 320 nm wavelength range.
In astronomy, spinning dust is a mechanism proposed to explain anomalous microwave emission from the Milky Way.
The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
A starburst galaxy is a galaxy undergoing an exceptionally high rate of star formation, as compared to the long-term average rate of star formation in the galaxy or the star formation rate observed in most other galaxies.
STS-67 was a human spaceflight mission using that launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida on 2 March 1995.
The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) is a NASA submillimeter astronomy satellite, and is the third spacecraft in the Small Explorer program.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO, also called a heliosynchronous orbit) is a nearly polar orbit around a planet, in which the satellite passes over any given point of the planet's surface at the same local mean solar time.
The Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (named after Rashid Sunyaev and Yakov B. Zel'dovich and often abbreviated as the SZ effect) is the distortion of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) through inverse Compton scattering by high energy electrons in galaxy clusters, in which the low energy CMB photons receive an average energy boost during collision with the high energy cluster electrons.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.
Suzaku (formerly ASTRO-EII) was an X-ray astronomy satellite developed jointly by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science at JAXA to probe high energy X-ray sources, such as supernova explosions, black holes and galactic clusters.
The Swedish National Space Agency (SNSA, Rymdstyrelsen) is a Government agency in Sweden operating under the Swedish Ministry of Education and Science.
Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) is a comprehensive space company that has 40 years of experience in helping space organizations, companies and research organizations with access to space.
Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.
Telescope for Habitable Exoplanets and Interstellar/Intergalactic Astronomy (THEIA) is a NASA-proposed 4-metre optical/ultraviolet space telescope that would succeed the Hubble Space Telescope and complement the infrared-James Webb Space Telescope.
Tenma, known as ASTRO-B before launch, was Japan's second X-ray astronomy satellite, developed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science.
The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) was a proposed project by NASA to construct a system of space telescopes for detecting extrasolar terrestrial planets.
The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a space telescope for NASA's Explorers program, designed to search for exoplanets using the transit method in an area 400 times larger than that covered by the Kepler mission.
Uhuru was the first satellite launched specifically for the purpose of X-ray astronomy.
In astroparticle physics, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) is a cosmic ray particle with a kinetic energy greater than eV, far beyond both the rest mass and energies typical of other cosmic ray particles.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
The Venus Spectral Rocket Experiment (VeSpR) is a suborbital rocket telescope that collected data on the ultraviolet (UV) light that is being emitted from Venus's atmosphere, which can provide information about the history of water on Venus.
Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a type of astronomical interferometry used in radio astronomy.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
The Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) was a satellite launched on March 5, 1999, on the Pegasus XL rocket into polar orbit between above the Earth's surface.
The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA infrared space observatory that was recommended in 2010 by United States National Research Council Decadal Survey committee as the top priority for the next decade of astronomy.
Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011.
The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured temperature differences across the sky in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The observed X-ray background is thought to result from, at the "soft" end (below 0.3 keV), galactic X-ray emission, the "galactic" X-ray background, and, at the "hard" end (above 0.3keV), from a combination of many unresolved X-ray sources outside of the Milky Way, the "cosmic" X-ray background (CXB).
X-ray binaries are a class of binary stars that are luminous in X-rays.
XEUS (X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy) was a space observatory plan developed by the European Space Agency as a successor to the successful XMM-Newton X-ray satellite telescope.
XMM-Newton, also known as the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Mission and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission, is an X-ray space observatory launched by the European Space Agency in December 1999 on an Ariane 5 rocket.