224 relations: Aşub Sultan, Abdülaziz, Abdul Hamid I, Abdul Hamid II, Abdulmejid I, Abdulmejid II, Abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, Absolute monarchy, Agnatic seniority, Ahmed I, Ahmed II, Ahmed III, Akşehir, Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, Algeria, Allies of World War I, Anatolia, Ankara, Auspicious Incident, Çırağan Palace, İsa Çelebi, Şehsuvar Sultan, Şermi Kadın, Şevkefza Kadın, Baghdad, Battle of Ankara, Battle of Çamurlu, Battle of Kosovo, Battle of Mohács (1687), Bayezid I, Bayezid II, Beylerbeyi Palace, Bezmiâlem Sultan, Bithynia, Brill Publishers, British Empire, Bulgaria, Bursa, Byzantine Empire, Caesar (title), Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, Catherine the Great, Central Powers, Channel 4, Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire, Coat of arms of the Ottoman Empire, Commander-in-chief, Constantinople, Constitutional monarchy, ..., Crete, Crimean Khanate, Dündar Ali Osman, Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire, Devlet Hatun, Didymoteicho, Din (Arabic), Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Divine law, Djemal Pasha, Dolmabahçe Palace, Edirne, Edirne event, Emetullah Rabia Gülnuş Sultan, Emine Hatun, Emperor, Enver Pasha, Ertuğrul, Exile, Fall of Constantinople, Figurehead, Firman, First Constitutional Era, France, Fratricide, French colonial empire, Gülçiçek Hatun, Gülüstü Hanım, Gülbahar Hatun (wife of Bayezid II), Gülbahar Hatun (wife of Mehmed II), Gülcemal Kadın, General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire, God, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Grand vizier, Hafsa Sultan (wife of Selim I), Halime Sultan, Handan Sultan, Hatt-i humayun, Hayranidil Kadın, Hüma Hatun, Head of state, Hejaz, Historiography, History of the Republic of Turkey, HMS Malaya, Hungary, Hurrem Sultan, Ibrahim of the Ottoman Empire, Ilkhanate, Imperial Majesty (style), Iraq, Islam, Islam in Russia, Istanbul, Janissaries, Jihad, Kabakçı Mustafa, Kayı tribe, Kösem Sultan, Kingdom of Italy, Library of Congress Country Studies, List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire, List of Kapudan Pashas, List of Ottoman Grand Viziers, List of Ottoman titles and appellations, List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire, Mahfiruz Hatun, Mahmud I, Mahmud II, Malhun Hatun, Malta, Mehmed I, Mehmed III, Mehmed IV, Mehmed the Conqueror, Mehmed V, Mehmed VI, Mevlevi Order, Mihrişah Kadın, Mihrişah Sultan, Mongols, Muazzez Sultan, Murad I, Murad II, Murad III, Murad IV, Murad V, Musa Çelebi, Mustafa I, Mustafa II, Mustafa III, Mustafa IV, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Mustafa Reşid Pasha, Nakşidil Sultan, Nilüfer Hatun, Nurbanu Sultan, Oghuz Turks, Orhan, Osman I, Osman II, Osman III, Ottoman Caliphate, Ottoman conquest of Adrianople, Ottoman constitution of 1876, Ottoman coups of 1807–08, Ottoman dynasty, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman family tree, Ottoman family tree (simplified), Ottoman Imperial Harem, Ottoman Interregnum, Ottoman Old Regime, Ottoman palaces in Istanbul, Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17), Oxford University Press, Padishah, Pan-Islamism, Paris, Partition of the Ottoman Empire, Patrona Halil, Perestu Kadın, Pertevniyal Sultan, President of Turkey, Primogeniture, Rûm, Rise of the Ottoman Empire, Rumelia, Russian Empire, Safiye Sultan, Saliha Sultan (wife of Mustafa II), Samokov, Sanremo, Süleyman Çelebi, Second Constitutional Era, Selim I, Selim II, Selim III, Seljuq dynasty, Sharia, Shaykh al-Islām, Sineperver Sultan, Suleiman II, Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan, Sultanate of Women, Sumatra, Survival of the fittest, Sword of Osman, Talaat Pasha, Tanzimat, Three Pashas, Timur, Tirimüjgan Kadın, Topkapı Palace, Transformation of the Ottoman Empire, Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, Treaty of Lausanne, Tughra, Tulip period, Turhan Hatice Sultan, Turkey, Turkic peoples, Turkish War of Independence, Uluabat, University of California Press, University of Washington Press, Valide sultan, Western world, World War I, Yıldız Palace, Yemen, 31 March Incident. Expand index (174 more) » « Shrink index
Aşub Sultan (آشوب سلطان; ca. 1627 – 4 December 1689) was a consort of Ottoman Sultan Ibrahim I and Valide Sultan to their son Suleiman II.
Abdülaziz (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز / `Abdü’l-`Azīz, Abdülaziz; 8 February 18304 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876.
Abdülhamid I, Abdul Hamid I or Abd Al-Hamid I (عبد الحميد اول, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i evvel; Birinci Abdülhamit; 20 March 1725 – 7 April 1789) was the 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning over the Ottoman Empire from 1773 to 1789.
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-Mecīd-i evvel; 23/25 April 182325 June 1861), also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839.
Abdulmejid II (عبد المجید الثانی, Abd al-Madjeed al-Thâni – Halife İkinci Abdülmecit Efendi, 29 May 1868 – 23 August 1944) was the last Caliph of Islam, nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman Imperial House from 1922 to 1924.
The abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNAT) on 1 November 1922 ended the Ottoman Empire, which had lasted since 1299.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Agnatic seniority is a patrilineal principle of inheritance where the order of succession to the throne prefers the monarch's younger brother over the monarch's own sons.
Ahmed I (احمد اول; I.; 18 April 1590 – 22 November 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death in 1617.
Ahmed II (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثانى Aḥmed-i sānī) (25 February 1643 – 6 February 1695) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1691 to 1695.
Ahmed III (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث, Aḥmed-i sālis) (30/31 December 16731 July 1736) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (r. 1648–87).
Akşehir is a town and district of Konya Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey.
Alemdar Mustafa Pasha (also called Bayraktar Mustafa Pasha; died 15 November 1808) was an Ottoman military commander and a Grand Vizier born in Khotyn in then Ottoman territory Ukraine in 1765.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
The Auspicious Incident (or EventGoodwin, pp. 296–299.) (Turkish: (in Istanbul) Vaka-i Hayriye "Fortunate Event"; (in the Balkans) Vaka-i Şerriyye, "Unfortunate Incident") was the forced disbandment of the centuries-old Janissary corps by Sultan Mahmud II on 15 June 1826.
Çırağan Palace (Çırağan Sarayı), a former Ottoman palace, is now a five-star hotel in the Kempinski Hotels chain.
İsa Çelebi (1380 – 1406) was an Ottoman prince (şehzade) and a co-ruler of the empire during the Ottoman Interregnum.
Şehsuvar Sultan (1682 – 16 April 1756) was the consort (kadinefendi) to the Ottoman Sultan Mustafa II (r. 1695–1703) and Valide Sultan to their son Osman III (r. 1754–1757).
Şermi Kadın (شرمی قادین; died 1732; alias Rabia Sultan (رابعه سلطان) was a consort of Sultan Ahmed III and the mother of Sultan Abdul Hamid I.
Şevkefza Kadın (1825 – 17 September 1889; meaning "who cheers up") a consort of Sultan Abdülmecid I of the Ottoman Empire.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Battle of Ankara (or Angora) was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Çubuk plain near Ankara between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and Timur (Tamerlane), ruler of the Timurid Empire.
The Battle of Çamurlu was fought on July 5, 1413, between Musa Çelebi and Mehmed Çelebi, both sons of Bayezid I, as the last conflict of the Ottoman civil war known as the Ottoman Interregnum.
The Battle of Kosovo took place on 15 June 1389 between an army led by the Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and an invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigâr.
The Second Battle of Mohács, also known as the Battle of Harsány Mountain, was fought on 12 August 1687 between the forces of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV, commanded by the Grand-Vizier Sari Süleyman Paşa, and the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, commanded by Charles of Lorraine.
Bayezid I (بايزيد اول; I. (nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman Turkish: یلدیرم), "Lightning, Thunderbolt"); 1360 – 8 March 1403) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402.
Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
The Beylerbeyi Palace (Beylerbeyi Sarayı), Beylerbeyi meaning "Lord of Lords", is located in the Beylerbeyi neighbourhood of Üsküdar district in Istanbul, Turkey at the Asian side of the Bosphorus.
Bezmiâlem Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Bezmiâlem Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; 1807 – 2 May 1853) (Bezm-î Âlem or Bazim-î Âlam, meaning "feast of the world") was the second wife of Ottoman Sultan Mahmut II, and the mother of Sultan Abdülmecit I of the Ottoman Empire.
Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
The Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire (Klasik Çağ) concerns the history of the Ottoman Empire from the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453 until the second half of the sixteenth century, roughly the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566).
Every sultan of the Ottoman Empire had his own monogram, called the tughra, which served as a royal symbol.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Dündar Ali Osman (born 30 December 1930), also known as Dündar Ali Osman Osmanoğlu (دوندار علي عثمان), is the 45th Head of the fallen House of Osman, which ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922.
Beginning from the late eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire faced challenges defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation.
Devlet Hatun (full name Tâcü'l-havatin Devlet Hâtun bint-i Abdullah; died 23 January 1414) was the twelfth wife of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and the mother of Mehmed I.
Didymóteicho (Διδυμότειχο) is a town located on the eastern edge of the Evros regional unit of East Macedonia and Thrace, in northeastern Greece.
Din (Dīn, also anglicized as Deen) is an Arabic word that roughly means "creed" or "religion".
The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.
Divine law is any law that is understood as deriving from a transcendent source, such as the will of God or gods, in contrast to man-made law.
Ahmed Djemal Pasha (احمد جمال پاشا, Ahmet Cemal Paşa; 6 May 1872 – 21 July 1922), commonly known as Cemal Paşa in Turkey, and Jamal Basha or Jamal Basha Al-Saffah (Jamal Basha the Bloodthirsty) in the Arab world, was an Ottoman military leader and one-third of the military triumvirate known as the Three Pashas (also called the "Three Dictators") that ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Djemal was the Minister of the Navy.
Dolmabahçe Palace (Dolmabahçe Sarayı) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosphorus, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and 1909 to 1922 (Yıldız Palace was used in the interim).
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
The Edirne Event (script) was a janissary revolt that began in Constantinople in 1703.
Emetullah Rabia Gülnuş Sultan (کلنوش سلطان; 1642 – 6 November 1715) was Haseki Sultan of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV and Valide Sultan to their sons Mustafa II and Ahmed III.
Emine Hatun (امینہ خاتون) was the principal consort of Sultan Mehmed I of the Ottoman Empire.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
Ismail Enver Pasha (اسماعیل انور پاشا; İsmail Enver Paşa; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922) was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution.
Ertugrul (ارطغرل, Ertuğrul Gazi, Erṭoġrıl; often with the title Gazi) (died c. 1280) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.
A firman (فرمان farmân), or ferman (Turkish), at the constitutional level, was a royal mandate or decree issued by a sovereign in an Islamic state, namely the Ottoman Empire.
The First Constitutional Era (مشروطيت; Birinci Meşrutiyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning Basic Law or Fundamental Law in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fratricide (from the Latin words frater "brother" and cida "killer," or cidum "a killing," both from caedere "to kill, to cut down") is the act of killing one's brother.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
Gülçiçek Hatun (گلچیچک خاتون; Γκιουλτσιτσέκ Χατούν, Gülçiçek meaning Rose blossom) was the first wife of Ottoman Sultan Murad I and Valide Hatun to their son Bayezid I.
Gülüstü Hanım; (1831 – 1861; کلستو خانم.) was a consort of Sultan Abdülmecid I. She was the mother of Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
Gülbahar Hatun (کل بهار خاتون; 1453 – 1505), also known as Ayşe Hatun.
Gülbahar Hatun (1432 – 1492) was the consort of Sultan Mehmed II, and mother of Sultan Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire.
Gülcemal Kadın (کل جمال قادین) (1826 – 15 December 1851) was a consort of Sultan Abdülmecid I. She was the mother of Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire.
The General Assembly (Meclis-i Umumî or Genel Parlamento) of the Ottoman Empire was the first attempt at representative democracy at the imperial level in the Ottoman Empire.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier (Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.
Hafsa Sultan (حفصه سلطان‎; died 19 March 1534) was the wife of Selim I and the first valide sultan of the Ottoman Empire as the mother of Suleiman the Magnificent.
Halime Sultan (حلیمه سلطان) was a consort of Sultan Mehmed III, and the mother of Sultan Mustafa I and the Valide Sultan as well as a regent of the Ottoman empire.
Handan Sultan (خندان سلطان; died 9 November 1605) was the consort of Sultan Mehmed III, and Valide Sultan to their son Sultan Ahmed I.
Hatt-i humayun (Ottoman Turkish: خط همايون, Turkish: hatt-ı hümayun or hatt-ı hümâyûn), also known as hatt-i sharif (hatt-ı şerîf), is the diplomatics term for a document or handwritten note of an official nature composed by an Ottoman Sultan.
Hayranidil Kadın (2 November 1846 – 26 November 1898) was the fourth wife of Sultan Abdülaziz.
Hatice Âlime (Halime) Hüma Hatun (هما خاتون, 1410 ‒ September 1449) was the fourth wife of Ottoman Sultan Murad II and mother of Mehmed II.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
The Republic of Turkey was created after the overthrow of Sultan Mehmet VI Vahdettin by the new Republican Parliament in 1922.
HMS Malaya was a built for the Royal Navy during the early 1910s.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hurrem Sultan (خرم سلطان, Ḫurrem Sulṭān, Hürrem Sultan; 1502 – 15 April 1558), often called Roxelana, was the favourite and later the chief consort and legal wife of Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent.
Ibrahim (ابراهيم, İbrahim; 5 November 1615 – 18 August 1648) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640 until 1648.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Imperial Majesty (His/Her Imperial Majesty, abbreviated as HIM) is a style used by Emperors and Empresses.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the second most widely professed religion in Russia, encompassing somewhere between 7% and 15% of all Russians.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
Kabakçı Mustafa (1770?-1808) was a rebel leader who caused the delay of Ottoman reformation in the early 19th century.
frame The Kayı tribe or Kai tribe (Kayı boyu) was an Oghuz Turkic people and a sub-branch of the Bozok tribal federation.
Kösem Sultan (كوسم سلطان) (1589 – 2 September 1651) – also known as Mahpeyker SultanDouglas Arthur Howard, The official History of Turkey, Greenwood Press,, p. 195 (Māh-peyker) – was one of the most powerful women in Ottoman history.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
These Admirals of the Ottoman Empire are senior naval officers (script or reis pasha) of the Ottoman Empire other than the Kapudan Pashas who were the Grand Admirals of the Ottoman fleet.
The Kapudan Pasha (قپودان پاشا, Modern Turkish: Kaptan Paşa), also known in Turkish as Kaptan-ı Derya ("Captain of the Seas"), was the commander-in-chief of the navy of the Ottoman Empire.
The Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution.
This is a list of titles and appellations used in the Ottoman Empire.
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.
Mahfiruz Hatun (1590 – by 1610 or 1620) was a wife of Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1603–17) and mother of Sultan Osman II (r. 1618–22).
Mahmud I (محمود اول, I., 2 August 1696 13 December 1754) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1730 to 1754.
Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
Malhun Hatun (died November 1323, other names Mal Hatun, Mala Hatun, Kameriye Sultana) was the first wife of Osman I, the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mehmed I (1379 – 26 May 1421), also known as Mehmed Çelebi (چلبی محمد, "the noble-born") or Kirişci (from Greek Kyritzes, "lord's son"), was the Ottoman Sultan from 1413 to 1421.
Mehmed III (Meḥmed-i sālis; III.; 26 May 1566–21 December 1603) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death in 1603.
Mehmed IV (Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābiʿ; Modern Turkish: IV. Mehmet; also known as Avcı Mehmet, Mehmed the Hunter; 2 January 1642 – 6 January 1693) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
Mehmed V. Reşâd (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Beşinci Mehmet Reşat or Reşat Mehmet) (2 November 1844 – 3 July 1918) was the 35th and penultimate Ottoman Sultan.
Mehmed VI (محمد السادس Meḥmed-i sâdis, وحيد الدين Vahideddin, Vahideddin or Altıncı Mehmet), who is also known as Şahbaba (meaning "Emperor-father") among his relatives, (14 January 1861 – 16 May 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918 to 1922.
The Mawlaw'īyya / Mevlevi Order (Mevlevilik or Mevleviyye طریقت مولویه) is a Sufi order in Konya (modern day Turkey) (capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate) founded by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th-century Persian poet, Islamic theologian and Sufi mystic.
Mihrişah Kadın (مھرشاہ قادین; died 1732) alias Emine (امینه) was a consort of Sultan Ahmed III and the mother of Sultan Mustafa III.
Mihrişah Sultan (also spelled Mihr-i Şāh; 1745 – 16 October 1805), known as "the Georgian Beauty", was the consort to Ottoman Sultan Mustafa III, and the mother of Sultan Selim III and his de facto co-regent (as the Valide Sultan) for sixteen years from 1789 until 1805.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Muazzez Sultan (ca. 1629 – 1687) was the second chief consort of Sultan Ibrahim and the mother of Sultan Ahmed II.
Murad I (مراد اول; I. (nicknamed Hüdavendigâr, from Persian: خداوندگار, Khodāvandgār, "the devotee of God" – but meaning "sovereign" in this context); 29 June 1326 – 15 June 1389) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1362 to 1389.
Murad II (June 1404 – 3 February 1451) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451.
Murad III (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثالث Murād-i sālis, Turkish: III.Murat) (4 July 1546 – 15/16 January 1595) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death in 1595.
Murad IV (مراد رابع, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; 26/27 July 1612 – 8 February 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods.
Murad V (مراد خامس) (21 September 1840 – 29 August 1904) was the 33rd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from 30 May to 31 August 1876.
Musa Çelebi (died July 5, 1413) was an Ottoman prince (şehzade) and a co-ruler of the empire for three years during the Ottoman Interregnum.
Mustafa I (24 June 1591 – 20 January 1639), called Mustafa the Saint (Veli Mustafa) during his second reign and often called Mustafa the Mad (Deli Mustafa) by modern historians, was the son of Mehmed III and was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623.
Mustafa II (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى ثانى Muṣṭafā-yi sānī) (6 February 1664 – 29/30 December 1703) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703.
Mustafa III (28 January 1717 – 24 December 1773) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1757 to 1773.
Mustafa IV (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى رابع Muṣṭafā-yi rābi‘; 8 September 1779 – 17 November 1808) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1808.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (literally Mustafa Reşid Pasha the Great; 13 March 1800 – 7 January 1858) was an Ottoman statesman and diplomat, known best as the chief architect behind the Ottoman government reforms known as Tanzimat.
Nakşidil Sultan (fully Devletli, İsmetli, Nakşidil Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-şân Hazretleri; 1767 – 22 August 1817; meaning "Embroidered on the Heart") was the consort of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid I and Valide Sultan to her son Mahmud II.
Nilüfer Hatun (نیلوفر خاتون, birth name Holifere (Holophira) / Olivera,. other names Bayalun, Beylun, Beyalun, Bilun, Suyun, Suylun) was a Valide Hatun; the wife of Orhan, the second Ottoman Sultan.
Afife Nurbanu Sultan (نور بانو سلطان; 1525 – 7 December 1583) was Haseki Sultan of the Ottoman Empire as the principal consort and later legal wife of Sultan Selim II (reign 1566–1574), as well as Valide Sultan as the mother of Sultan Murad III (reign 1574–1595).
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
Orhan Gazi (اورخان غازی، اورخان بن عثمان بن ارطغرل; Orhan Gazi) (c. 1281 – March 1362) was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Sultanate (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate) from 1323/4 to 1362.
Osman I or Osman Gazi (translit; Birinci Osman or Osman Gazi; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty.
Osman II (عثمان ثانى ‘Osmān-i sānī; 3 November 1604 – 20 May 1622), commonly known in Turkey as Genç Osman ("Osman the Young" in English), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1618 until his death by regicide on 20 May 1622.
Osman III (عثمان ثالث ‘Osmān-i sālis;‎ 2/3 January 1699 – 30 October 1757) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1754 to 1757.
The Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924), under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.
Adrianople, a major Byzantine city in Thrace, was conquered by the Ottomans sometime in the 1360s, and eventually became the Ottoman capital, until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The Ottoman constitution of 1876 (قانون اساسى; Kanûn-u Esâsî; "Basic Law") was the first constitution of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman palace coups of 1807–08 refers to several coups and rebellions deposing or restoring to the throne three Ottoman sultans, that took place as a result of the attempted reforms of Selim III.
The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (خاندان آل عثمان Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
This is a male family tree for all the Ottoman Sultans and their mothers.
The Imperial Harem (حرم همايون, Harem-i Hümâyûn) of the Ottoman Empire was the Ottoman sultan's harem composed of the wives, servants (both female slaves and eunuchs), female relatives, and the sultan's concubines, occupying a secluded portion of the Ottoman imperial household.
The Ottoman Interregnum, or the Ottoman Civil WarDimitris J. Kastritsis, The Sons of Bayezid: Empire Building and Representation in the Ottoman.
War of the Holy League. The history of the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century has classically been described as one of stagnation and reform.
Below are the palaces commissioned by the Ottoman dynasty in İstanbul, Turkey.
The Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Hejaz as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Padishah, sometimes rendered as Padeshah or Padshah (پادشاه, padişah) is a superlative sovereign title of Persian origin, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king", which was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors.
Pan-Islamism (الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a Caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The partition of the Ottoman Empire (Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.
Patrona Halil, (Halil Patrona, Patrona Halil; c. 1690 in Hrupishta - November 25, 1730 in Constantinople), was the instigator of a mob uprising in 1730 which replaced Sultan Ahmed III with Mahmud I and ended the Tulip period.
Perestu Kadın (1826 – 11 December 1904) was a consort of Sultan Abdülmecid I of the Ottoman Empire.
Pertevniyal Sultan (1812 – 5 February 1883), sometimes called Besime and Hasna was a consort of Sultan Mahmud II, and Valide Sultan to their son Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire.
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Rûm, also transliterated as Roum or Rhum (in Koine Greek Ῥωμαῖοι, Rhomaioi, meaning "Romans"; in Arabic الرُّومُ ar-Rūm; in Persian and Ottoman Turkish روم Rûm; in Rum), is a generic term used at different times in the Muslim world to refer to.
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29, 1453.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Safiye Sultan (صفیه سلطان; 1550 – 1619), was the consort of Murad III and Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire as the mother of Mehmed III.
Saliha Sultan (fully Daulatlu İsmatlu Saliha Valida Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-şân Hazretleri; 1680 – 21 September 1739) was the consort of Ottoman sultan Mustafa II.
Samokov (Самоков) is a town in Sofia Province in the southwest of Bulgaria.
Sanremo or San Remo (Sanrému, locally date The name of the city is a phonetic contraction of Sant'Eremo di San Romolo, which refers to Romulus of Genoa, the successor to Syrus of Genoa. It is often stated in modern folk stories that Sanremo is a translation of "Saint Remus", a deceased Saint. In Ligurian, his name is San Rœmu. The spelling San Remo is on all ancient maps of Liguria, the ancient Republic of Genoa, Italy in the Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Kingdom of Italy. It was used in 1924 in official documents under Mussolini. This form of the name appears still on some road signs and, more rarely, in unofficial tourist information. It has been the most widely used form of the name in English at least since the 19th century.
Süleyman Çelebi (1377 – February 17, 1411) was an Ottoman prince (şehzade) and a co-ruler of the empire for several years during the Ottoman Interregnum.
The Second Constitutional Era (ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman Parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and the restoration of the constitution of 1876.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى Selīm-i sānī, Turkish: II.Selim; 28 May 1524 – 12/15 December 1574), also known as "Selim the Sot (Mest)" or ("Selim the Drunkard") and Sarı Selim ("Selim the Blond"), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death in 1574.
Selim III (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثالث Selīm-i sālis) (24 December 1761 – 28 July 1808) was the reform-minded Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shaykh al-Islām (شيخ الإسلام, Šayḫ al-Islām; Şeyḫülislām) was used in the classical era as an honorific title for outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences.
Sineperver Sultan (سینه پرور سلطان; 1761 – 11 December 1828) alias Ayşe (عایشه) was the wife of Sultan Abdulhamid I and Valide Sultan to their son Sultan Mustafa IV of the Ottoman Empire.
Suleiman II (15 April 1642 – 22/23 June 1691) (Ottoman Turkish: سليمان ثانى Süleymān-i sānī) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The Sultanate of Women (Kadınlar Saltanatı) was the nearly 130-year period during the 16th and 17th centuries when the women of the Imperial Harem of the Ottoman Empire exerted extraordinary political influence over state matters and over the (male) Ottoman sultan, starting from the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.
The Sword of Osman (Taklid-i Seyf; Osman'ın Kılıcı) was an important sword of state used during the enthronement ceremony (Kılıç alayı) of the sultans of the Ottoman Empire.
Mehmed Talaat (محمد طلعت; Mehmet Talât; 10 April 1874 – 15 March 1921), commonly known as Talaat Pasha (طلعت پاشا; Talât Paşa), was one of the triumvirate known as the Three Pashas that de facto ruled the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.
The "Three Pashas" (اوچ پاشلار) refers to the triumvirate of senior officials who effectively ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I: Mehmed Talaat Pasha (1874–1921), the Grand Vizier (prime minister) and Minister of the Interior; Ismail Enver Pasha (1881–1922), the Minister of War; and Ahmed Djemal Pasha (1872–1922), the Minister of the Navy.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Tirimüjgan Kadın (16 August 1819 – 3 October 1852; تیرمژکان قادین) was a consort of Sultan Abdülmecid I of the Ottoman Empire.
The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Ottoman Empire in 1683, at the height of its territorial expansion in Europe. The Transformation of the Ottoman Empire, also known as the Era of Transformation, constitutes a period in the history of the Ottoman Empire from to, spanning roughly from the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent to the Treaty of Karlowitz at the conclusion of the War of the Holy League.
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca (today Kaynardzha, Bulgaria) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
A tughra (طغرا tuğrâ) is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of a sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence.
The Tulip Period or Tulip Era (21 July 1718 – 28 September 1730) (Ottoman Turkish: لاله دورى, Lâle Devri) is a period in Ottoman history from the Treaty of Passarowitz on 21 July 1718 to the Patrona Halil Revolt on 28 September 1730.
Turhan Hatice Sultan (c. 1627 – 4 August 1683; Turhan meaning "Of mercy"), was Haseki Sultan of the Ottoman Sultan Ibrahim (reign 1640–48) and Valide Sultan as the mother of Mehmed IV (reign 1648–87).
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.
Ulubad or Uluabat, in the Byzantine period Lopadion (Λοπάδιον), Latinized as Lopadium, is a settlement near the town of Karacabey in the Bursa Province of northwestern Turkey.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
Valide sultan (والده سلطان, lit. "mother sultan") was the title held by the "legal mother" of a ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yıldız Palace (Yıldız Sarayı) is a vast complex of former imperial Ottoman pavilions and villas in Istanbul, Turkey, built in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The 31 March Incident (31 Mart Vakası, 31 Mart Olayı, 31 Mart Hadisesi, or 31 Mart İsyanı) was the defeat of the Ottoman countercoup of 1909 by the Hareket Ordusu ("Army of Action"), which was the 11th Salonika Reserve Infantry Division of the Third Army stationed in the Balkans and commanded by Mahmud Shevket Pasha on 24 April 1909.
Caliph of Turkey, Great Sultan, List of Emperors of the Ottoman Empire, List of Emperors of the Ottoman empire, List of Emperors of the ottoman empire, List of Ottoman Caliphs, List of Ottoman Emperors, List of Ottoman Sultans, List of Ottoman caliphs, List of Ottoman emperors, List of Ottoman monarchs, List of Ottoman sultans, List of Sultans and Caliphs, List of Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, List of Sultans of the Ottoman empire, List of Sultans of the ottoman empire, List of Turkish sultans, List of emperors of the Ottoman Empire, List of emperors of the Ottoman empire, List of emperors of the ottoman empire, List of monarchs of the Ottoman Empire, List of monarchs of the Ottoman empire, List of monarchs of the ottoman empire, List of ottoman caliphs, List of ottoman emperors, List of ottoman monarchs, List of ottoman sultans, List of sultans and caliphs, List of sultans of the Ottoman empire, List of sultans of the ottoman empire, Ottoman Emperor, Ottoman Emperors, Ottoman Sultan, Ottoman Sultans, Ottoman emperor, Ottoman emperors, Ottoman leaders, Ottoman sultan, Ottoman sultans, Padişah-ı İslam, Sultan of Turkey, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Sultans of the Ottoman Empire.