318 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire, Abdülmecid I, Abdülmecid II, Abdul Hamid I, Abdul Hamid II, Abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, Absolute monarchy, Adana, Adana Eyalet, Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire, Agnatic seniority, Ahmed I, Ahmed II, Ahmed III, Akşehir, Al-Hasa, Al-Mutawakkil III, Al-Raqqah, Albania, Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, Aleppo, Algeria, Allies of World War I, Amir al-Mu'minin, Anatolia, Anatolia Eyalet, Ankara, Anxiety disorder, Auspicious Incident, Ayşe Hafsa Sultan, Azerbaijan, Çırağan Palace, İsa Çelebi, Şehsuvar Sultan, Şevkefza Sultan, Baghdad, Baghdad Vilayet, Barbara (region), Basra, Basra Vilayet, Battle of Ankara, Battle of Çamurlu, Battle of Kosovo, Battle of Mohács (1687), Bayezid I, Bayezid II, Bayezid Osman, Belgrade, Beylerbeyi Palace, ..., Bezmiâlem Sultan, Black Sea, Bosnia Eyalet, Brill Publishers, British Empire, Bulgaria, Bursa, Byzantine Empire, Caesar (title), Cairo, Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, 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The Abbasid Caliphate (or الخلافة العباسية) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire or Abdülaziz I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز / `Abdü’l-`Azīz, I.; 9/18 February 1830 – 4 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876.
Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-Mecīd-i evvel) (23/25 April 1823 – 25 June 1861) was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839.
Abdülmecid II (عبد المجید الثانی, Abd al-Madjeed al-Thâni – Halife İkinci Abdülmecit Efendi or Abdülmecit Osmanoğlu) (29 May 1868 – 23 August 1944) was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman Dynasty, nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman Imperial House from 1922 to 1924.
Abdülhamid I, Abdul Hamid I or Abd Al-Hamid I (عبد الحميد اول, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i evvel; Birinci Abdülhamit; 20 March 1725 – 7 April 1789) was the 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning over the Ottoman Empire from 1774 to 1789.
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی,; İkinci Abdülhamit; 22 September 1842 – 10 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective autocratic control over the fracturing state.
The abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNAT) on 1 November 1922 ended the Ottoman Empire, which had lasted since 1299.
Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.
Adana is a city in southern Turkey.
The Eyalet of Adana (ایالت آطنه; Eyālet-i Āṭanâ) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, established in 1608, when it was separated from the Eyalet of Aleppo.
The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire were administrative divisions of the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire.
Agnatic seniority is a patrilineal principle of inheritance where the order of succession to the throne prefers the monarch's younger brother over the monarch's own sons.
Ahmed I (احمد اول; I.; April 18, 1590 – November 22, 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death in 1617.
Ahmed II (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثانى Aḥmed-i sānī) (February 25, 1643 – February 6, 1695) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1691 to 1695.
Ahmed III (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث Aḥmed-i sālis) (December 30/31, 1673 – July 1, 1736) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (1648–87).
Akşehir (اقشهر) is a town and district of Konya Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey.
Al Ahsa, El Hasa, or Hadjar (الأحساء, locally; Lahsa) is a traditional oasis region in eastern Saudi Arabia whose name is used by the Al-Ahsa Governorate, which makes up much of that country's Eastern Province.
Al-Mutawakkil III (died 1543) was caliph from 1508 to 1516, and again in 1517.
Al-Raqqah (الرقة), also called Rakka and Raqqa, is a city in Syria located on the north bank of the Euphrates River, about east of Aleppo.
Albania (or sometimes,; Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially known as the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alemdar Mustafa Pasha (also called Bayraktar Mustafa Pasha; died 15 November 1808) was an Ottoman military commander and a Grand Vizier born in Khotyn in then Ottoman land Ukraine in 1765.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is the largest city in Syria and serves as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate.
Algeria (الجزائر), officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.
Amīr al-Mu'minīn (أمير المؤمنين; latinized as Miramolinus, hence Italian Miramolino, French Miramolin, Spanish Miramolín and Portuguese Miramolim, in Byzantine Greek: ἀμερμουμνῆς amermoumnês), usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Leader of the Faithful", is the Arabic style of Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims.
Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.
The Eyalet of Anatolia (ایالت آناطولی; Eyālet-i Ānāṭōlī) was one of the two core provinces (Rumelia being the other) in the early years of the Ottoman Empire.
Ankara (English; Turkish), formerly known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey, located in Central Anatolia.
Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events.
The Auspicious Incident (or EventGoodwin, pp. 296–299.) (Turkish: (in Istanbul) Vaka-i Hayriye "Fortunate Event"; (in Balkans) Vaka-i Şerriyye, "Unfortunate Incident") was the forced disbandment of the centuries-old Janissary corps by Sultan Mahmud II on 15 June 1826.
Ayşe Hafsa Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Ayşe Hafsa Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; عائشه حفصه سلطان‎; 5 December 1479 – 19 March 1534), or in short, Hafsa Sultan, was the first "Valide Sultan" of the Ottoman Empire, wife of Selim I and mother of Suleiman the Magnificent.
Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası), is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Çırağan Palace (Çırağan Sarayı), a former Ottoman palace, is now a five-star hotel in the Kempinski Hotels chain.
İsa Çelebi (1380 – 1406) was an Ottoman prince (şehzade) and a co-ruler of the empire during the Ottoman Interregnum.
Şehsuvar Sultan (1682 – April 1756) was a Serbian noblewoman who was the consort to the Ottoman Sultan Mustafa II (r. 1695–1703) and Valide Sultan ("Mother Sultan") to their son Osman III (r. 1754–1757).
Şevkefza Sultan (12 December 1820 – 17 September 1889; meaning "who cheers up") was the fourth wife of Sultan Abdülmecid I. She held the position of Valide Sultan from 30 May 1876 to 31 August 1876, when her son Şehzade Murad Efendi ascended the throne as Murad V. She was of Circassian origin.
Baghdad (بغداد, Iraqi pronunciation) is the capital of the Republic of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Province.
The Vilayet of Baghdad (Ottoman language:, Vilâyet-i Bagdad, Modern Turkish: Bağdat Vilâyeti, Arabic:ولاية بغداد) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in modern-day central Iraq.
Barbara, also referred to as Bilad al-Barbar ("Land of the Berbers"), was an ancient region on the northern coast of Somalia.
Basra, also written Basrah (البصرة; BGN: Al Başrah), is the capital of Basra Governorate, located on the Shatt al-Arab river in southern Iraq between Kuwait and Iran.
The Vilayet of Basra (Ottoman language:, Vilâyet-i Basra) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on 20 July 1402,"Ankara, Battle of" in The New Encyclopaedia Britannica.
The Battle of Çamurlu was fought on July 5, 1413, between Musa Çelebi and Mehmed Çelebi, both sons of Bayezid I, as the last conflict of the Ottoman civil war known as the Ottoman Interregnum.
The Battle of Kosovo (Косовска битка, Kosovska bitka; Kosova Meydan Muharebesi) took place on 15 June 1389 between the army led by the Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović, and the invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigâr.
The Second Battle of Mohács, also known as the Battle of Harsány Mountain, was fought between the forces of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV, commanded by the Grand-Vizier Sari Süleyman Paşa, and the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, commanded by Charles of Lorraine.
Bayezid I (بايزيد اول; 1.; nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman Turkish: ییلدیرم), "The Lightning"; 1360 – 8 March 1403) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402.
Bayezid II or Sultân Bayezid-î Velî (December 3, 1447 – May 26, 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i sānī, Turkish:II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II and Sitt-î Mükrîme Khātûn, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
Bayezid Osman, also known as Osman Bayazid Osmanoğlu with a surname as required by the Turkish Republic, or known by the Ottoman imperial name as Prince Şehzade Bayezid Efendi (بایزید عثمان; born 23 June 1924), is the 44th Head of the Imperial House of Osman, which ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1922.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд;; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
The Beylerbeyi Palace (Turkish: Beylerbeyi Sarayı, Beylerbeyi meaning "Lord of Lords") is located in the Beylerbeyi neighbourhood of Istanbul, Turkey at the Asian side of the Bosphorus.
Bezm-i Âlem Valide Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Bezmiâlem Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; 1807 – 2 May 1853) (Bezm-î Âlem or Bazim-î Âlam, meaning "feast of the world") was the second wife of Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II, and the mother of Sultan Abdülmecid I of the Ottoman Empire.
The Black Sea is a sea between Southeastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Eyalet of Bosnia (Eyalet-i Bosna) By Gábor Ágoston, Bruce Alan Masters (Bosanski Pašaluk) or Bosnia Beylerbeylik (Bosna Beylerbeyliği) was an eyalet (also known as a beylerbeylik) of the Ottoman Empire, mostly based on the territory of the present-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.
The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
Cairo (القاهرة; Ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle-East and second-largest in Africa after Lagos.
A caliphate (خِلافة khilāfa) is a form of Islamic government led by a caliph (خَليفة)—a person considered a political and religious successor to the prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim community.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Yekaterina Alexeyevna (Екатерина Алексеевна) or Catherine II, also known as Catherine the Great (Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; –), was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of 67.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster which began transmission on 2 November 1982.
In antiquity, Cilicia or less often Kilikia (Կիլիկիա; Κιλικία; Middle Persian: Klikiyā, Parthian: Kilikiyā, Kilikya), was the south coastal region of Asia Minor, south of the central Anatolian plateau.
Circassia (Адыгэ Хэку, Черке́сия, ჩერქეზეთი, شيركاسيا) is a region and historical country in the and along the northeast shore of the Black Sea.
Every sultan of the Ottoman Empire had his own monogram, called the tughra, which served as a royal symbol.
A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis or Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstantinoúpoli; Constantinopolis; قسطنطینية, Kostantiniyye; Цариград; modern Istanbul) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1924) empires.
A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.
A coup d'état (literally "blow of state"; plural: coups d'état, pronounced like the singular form), also known simply as a coup, or an overthrow, is the sudden and (usually) illegal seizure of a state, usually instigated by a small group of the existing government establishment to depose the established regime and replace it with a new ruling body.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, and the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
The Crimean Khanate (Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Qırım Hanlığı قرم خانلغى or Qırım Yurtu قرم يورتى; Крымское ханство Krymskoye khanstvo; Кримське ханство Kryms’ke khanstvo; Chanat Krymski), was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire during 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
The name Cumania originated as the Latin exonym for the Cuman-Kipchak confederation, which was a Turkic confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe, between the 10th and 13th centuries.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
Cyrenaica (Κυρηναϊκή Kyrēnaïkḗ, after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Damascus (دمشق) is the capital and the second-largest city of Syria after Aleppo.
(دين, also anglicized as Deen) is an Arabic word which is commonly associated with Islam, but it is also used in Sikhism and Arab Christian worship.
During the period of decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire (1828–1908), the empire faced challenges in defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation.
The period of defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.
Devlet Hatun (دولت شاه خاتون; died January 1414; meaning "State"; also known as Devletşah) was the wife of Sultan Bayezid I and the mother of Sultan Mehmed I.
Didymóteicho (Διδυμότειχο) is a town located on the eastern edge of the Evros regional unit of East Macedonia and Thrace, in northeastern Greece.
Divine law is any law that supposedly comes directly from the "will of God" in contrast to man-made law.
The divine right of kings or divine right is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Diyarbakır (Kurdish: Amed) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.
The Vilayet of Diyâr-ı Bekr (ولايت ديار بكر, Vilâyet-i Diyarbakır) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
Ahmed Djemal Pasha (احمد جمال پاشا, modern Ahmet Cemal Paşa; 6 May 1872 – 21 July 1922), commonly known as Djemal Pasha to Turks, and Jamal Basha in the Arab world, was an Ottoman military leader and one-third of the military triumvirate known as the Three Pashas that ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Djemal was also Mayor of Istanbul.
Dolmabahçe Palace (Dolmabahçe Sarayı) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coastline of the Bosphorus strait, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1922, apart from a 22-year interval (1887–1909) in which Yıldız Palace was used.
Edirne, is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne, in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
The Edirne Event was a janissary revolt that began in Istanbul in 1703.
Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516.
Emetullah Rabia Gülnuş Valide Sultan or Māh-Pāra Ummatullāh Rābi'ā Gül-Nûş Valide Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Emetullah Rabia Gülnuş Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-şân Hazretleri; 1642 – 6 November 1715) was the favorite consort of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV and Valide Sultan to their sons Mustafa II and Ahmed III.
Emine Hatun (1389 – 1449) was the third wife of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed I, valide sultan to their son Murad II, and the grandmother of Mehmed the Conqueror.
Emine Mihrişah Sultan (Devletli, İsmetli, Emine Mihr-î-Shâh Sultân, Second Kadınefendi Hazretleri) née Jeannette (died 1732) was the French second concubine of Ottoman Sultan Ahmed III, and the mother of Mustafa III, Şehzade Selim, Zeynep Sultan and Ümmügülsüm Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from imperator) is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
Ismail Enver Pasha (اسماعیل انور پاشا; İsmail Enver Paşa; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922), commonly known as Enver Pasha, was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution.
Ertuğrul (ارطغرل, often with the title Gazi) (1191 – 1281) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire.
Erzurum (Կարին Karin, კარნუ-ქალაქი Karnu-Qalaqi) is a city in eastern Turkey.
The Erzurum Eyalet (ایالت ارضروم; Eyālet-i Erżurūm) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ, Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya), also known as Abyssinia, spanned a geographical area covered by present-day Eritrea and the northern half of Ethiopia.
Exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
The eyalet of Van (ایالت وان; Eyālet-i Vān) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.
The Fall of Constantinople (Άλωση της Κωνσταντινούπολης, Alōsē tēs Kōnstantinoupolēs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday, 29 May 1453.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; formerly Theodosia) is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure an important (often supremely powerful) title or office yet de facto executes little actual power, most commonly limited by convention rather than law.
A firman, farman (فرمان farmân) or ferman (Turkish) at the constitutional level was a royal mandate or decree issued by a sovereign in certain historical Islamic states, including the Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire, State of Hyderabad, and Iran under Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi.
The First Constitutional Era (مشروطيت; Birinci Meşrutiyet) of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning "Basic Law" or "Fundamental Law" in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
Fratricide (from the Latin words frater "brother" and cida "killer," or cidum "a killing," both from caedere "to kill, to cut down") is the act of a person, directly or via use of either a hired or an indoctrinated intermediary (an assassin) that ultimately results in the killing of their brother.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 17th century onward.
Gülçiçek Hatun (گلچیچک خاتون; Γκιουλτσιτσέκ Χατούν, Gülçiçek meaning Rose blossom) was the first wife of Ottoman Sultan Murad I and Valide Sultan to their son Bayezid I.
Gülüstü Kadınefendi, Gülistan Münire Kadınefendi (or Gülistü), or Princess Fatma Chachba (1831 – May 1861) (Gülüstü, Gülistü meaning "Rose garden") was the wife of Sultan Abdülmecid I, and the mother of Mehmed VI and Mediha Sultan, Zekiye Sultan and Fehime Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
Gülbahar is a Turkish given name for females and may refer to.
Gülcemal Kadınefendi (گلجمال کادین افندی) (or Gül-Cemâl Kadınefendi) (1826 – 16 November 1851)(Gülcemal, Gül-Cemâl meaning "Rose faced") was the wife of 31st Ottoman Sultan Abdülmecid I. She was the mother of Fatma Sultan, Hadice Sultan, Refia Sultan, Rukiye Sultan and Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire.
The General Assembly (Meclis-i Umumî or Genel Parlamento) of the Ottoman Empire was the first attempt at representative democracy at the imperial level in the Ottoman Empire.
Georgia (საქართველო, tr. Sakartvelo) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
In monotheism and henotheism, God is conceived as the Supreme Being and principal object of faith.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.
The Maghreb (or;Literally sunset; المغرب العربي, "the Arab West"; ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵖⴰ; previously known as Barbary Coast), or the Greater Maghreb (المغرب الكبير el-Maghrib el-Kbīr), is usually defined as much or most of the region of western North Africa or Northwest Africa, west of Egypt.
Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.
The Growth of the Ottoman Empire (1453–1683) is when the Ottoman state reached the Pax Ottomana.
Habesh Eyalet (ایالت حبش; Eyālet-i Ḥabeš), was an Ottoman eyalet.
Halime Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Alime Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; حلیمہ سلطان, 1576 – 1623; meaning gentle, kind), also Alime Sultan (عالمہ سلطان; meaning "learned, cultured or wise") was the wife of Ottoman sultan Mehmet III and the mother of Mustafa I. She was de facto co-ruler as the Valide Sultan from 22 November 1617 to 26 February 1618 and 19 May 1622.
Handan Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Handan Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; ca. 1574 – 26 November 1605)(Handan meaning "Joyful") was the mother of the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I and his Valide Sultan from 21 December 1603 until 26 November 1605.
Hatice Muazzez The Second Haseki Sultan (née Eva, ca. 1629 – 1687, Mu'azzez, Muazzez meaning "Powerful, strong") was a wife of Sultan Ibrahim and the mother of Sultan Ahmed II.
Hatt-i humayun (Ottoman Turkish: خط همايون, Turkish: hatt-ı hümayun or hatt-ı hümâyûn), also known as hatt-i sharif (hatt-ı şerîf), is the diplomatics term for a document or handwritten note of an official nature composed by an Ottoman sultan.
Hayrân-ı Dil Kadın Efendi (2 November 1846 – 26 November 1898) was the fourth wife of 32nd Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz.
Hatice Âlime (Halime) Hüma Hatun (هما خاتون, 1410 - September 1449) was the fourth wife of Ottoman Sultan Murad II and was valide sultan during the first reign of her son Sultan Mehmed II for two years from 1444–1446.
A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.
Al-Hejaz, also Hijaz (الحجاز, literally "the barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Historiography refers to both the study of the methodology of historians and development of history as a discipline, and also to a body of historical work on a particular subject.
HMS Malaya was a of the British Royal Navy, built by Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth and Company at High Walker and launched in March 1915.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Hunkar or Hünkar may also refer to.
Ibrahim (ابراهيم, İbrahim)) (5 November 1615 – 18 August 1648) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640 until 1648. He was born in Istanbul the son of Ahmed I by Valide Kösem Sultan, an ethnic Greek originally named Anastasia. He was later called Ibrahim the Mad (Turkish: Deli İbrahim) by twentieth century historians due to his reputed mental condition —probably psychoneurosis.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilkhanan; Mongolian: Хүлэгийн улс, Hulagu-yn Ulus), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
The Imperial Harem (Harem-i Hümâyûn) of the Ottoman Empire, existing between 1299 and 1923, was the Ottoman sultan's harem composed of the wives, servants (both female slaves and eunuchs), female relatives, and the sultan's concubines, occupying a secluded portion of the Ottoman imperial household.
Imperial Majesty (His/Her Imperial Majesty, abbreviated as HIM) is a style used by emperors and empresses.
Intellectual disability (ID), also called intellectual development disorder (IDD) or general learning disability, and formerly known as mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
Islam is the second most widely professed religion in Russia.
Istanbul (İstanbul), once known as Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey, and the country's economic, cultural, and historical center.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops and bodyguards.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Islamic term referring to the religious duty of Muslims to maintain the religion.
Kabakçı Mustafa (1770?-1808) was a rebel leader who caused the delay of Ottoman reformation in the early 19th century.
The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика, Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ; Karachay-Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика), or Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабарди́но-Балка́рия, Kabardino-Balkariya), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in the North Caucasus.
Kairouan (قيروان, קירואן), also known as Kirwan or al-Qayrawan, is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.
Karaman is a town in south central Turkey, located in Central Anatolia, north of the Taurus Mountains, about south of Konya.
Karaman Eyalet (ایالت قرهمان; Eyālet-i Qarâmān) was one of the subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire.
The Kayı tribe or Kai tribe (Kayı boyu) was an Oghuz Turkic people and a sub-branch of the Bozok tribal federation.
Kayqubad III (كَیقُباد, علاء الدین کیقباد بن فرامرز ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Farāmurz) was briefly sultan of the Sultanate of Rum between the years of 1298 and 1302.
Kösem Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Mahpeyker Kösem Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; 1590 – 3 September 1651) – also known as Mahpeyker Sultan – was one of the most powerful women in Ottoman history.
Kha Khan or Khagan or Qagan (хаан, Khaan) is a title in the Mongolian language equal to the status of emperor and used to refer to someone who rules a khaganate or empire.
Khan, Kahn (хан/khan; kağan or hakan; Azerbaijani: xan; Ottoman: han; Old Turkic:, kaɣan; Chinese: 可汗, kèhán; Goguryeo: 皆, key; Silla: 干, kan; Baekje: 瑕, ke; Manchu:, Pashto: خان خان, Balochi: خان Hindi: ख़ान; Nepali: खाँ Bengali: খ়ান; Bulgarian: хан, Chuvash: хун, hun) is an originally Mongol and subsequently Central Asian title for a sovereign or military ruler, widely used by medieval nomadic Mongol tribes living to the north of China.
The Khanate of Kazan (قازان خانليغى; Russian: Казанское ханство, tr: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian-Tatar Turkic state which occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.
The Kipchak (also spelled Qipchaq, Kypchak, Kupchak or Kıpçak) were a Turkic nomadic people.
Kurdistan (Kurdish:; "Land of the Kurds"; also formerly spelled Curdistan; ancient name: CordueneA.D. Lee, The Role of Hostages in Roman Diplomacy with Sasanian Persia, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Vol. 40, No. 3 (1991), pp. 366–374 (see p.371)) (Arabic:أرض الأكراد Ard al-Akrad), or Greater Kurdistan, is a roughly defined geo-cultural region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population, and Kurdish culture, language, and national identity have historically been based.
Lake Uluabat (Uluabat Gölü and Apolyont Gölü) is the name of a freshwater lake in the vicinity of Bursa, Turkey.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
The Ottoman Dynasty had unusual succession practices compared to other monarchies.
These Admirals of the Ottoman Empire are senior naval officers (reis or reis pasha) of the Ottoman Empire other than the Kapudan Pashas who were the Grand Admirals of the Ottoman fleet.
This is a list of people who have held the title of Caliph, the supreme religious and political leader of an Islamic state known as the Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, as the political successors to Muhammad.
This is the list of cities and towns in Serbia, according to the criteria used by Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, which classifies the settlements into urban and rural, depending not only on size, but also on other administrative and legal criteria.
This is a list of fortifications in Serbia (тврђава, pl.). The list includes remains (ruins) of military constructions; castles (Замак), towers (Кула, Кулe) etc.
The Kapudan Pasha (کاپیتان پاشا, Modern Turkish: Kaptan Paşa), also known in Turkish as Kaptan-ı Derya ("Captain of the Seas"), was the commander-in-chief of the navy of the Ottoman Empire.
The Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution.
This is a list of titles and appellations used in the Ottoman Empire.
This is a complete list of Presidents of Turkey consisting of the twelve heads of state in the country's inception following the Turkish War of Independence.
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), made up solely of the members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.
Mahfiruz Hatice Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Mahfiruz Hatice Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; 1590 – 26 October 1620) was a wife of Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1618–1622).
Mahmud I (محمود اول, I., 2 August 1696 13 December 1754) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1730 to 1754.
Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (II.) (20 July 1789 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
Malhun Hatun (died November 1323, other names Mal Hatun, Mala Hatun, Kameriye Sultana) was the first wife of Osman I, the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire.
Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country comprising an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mecca (مكة), also transliterated Makkah, is a city in the Hejaz in Saudi Arabia.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz, and the capital of the Al Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.
Mehmed I Çelebi (چلبی محمد, Mehmed I or Mehmed Çelebi) (1381, Bursa – May 26, 1421, Edirne, Ottoman Empire) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Rûm) from 1413 to 1421.
Mehmed III Adli (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثالث Meḥmed-i sālis, III.Mehmed; May 26, 1566 – December 21/22, 1603) was sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death.
Mehmed IV Modern Turkish Mehmet (Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābi‘; also known as Avcı Mehmed, Mehmed the Hunter; January 2, 1642 – January 6, 1693) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى,; II.; also known as, الفاتح, "the Conqueror" in Ottoman Turkish; in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Han; also called Mahomet II in early modern Europe), also known as Muhammed bin Murad, Mehmed the Conqueror, Grand Turk, Kayser-i Rûm (Caesar of Rome) and Turcarum Imperator, and Fatih Sultan Mehmed (30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), was an Ottoman sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
Mehmed V Reshad (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Mehmed V Reşad or Reşat Mehmet) (2 November 1844 – 3 July 1918) was the 35th Ottoman Sultan.
Mehmed VI (محمد السادس Meḥmed-i sâdis, وحيد الدين Vahideddin. Vahideddin or VI.) who is also known as Şahbaba (meaning Emperor-father) among his relatives, (14 January 1861 – 16 May 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918 to 1922.
The Mawlaw'īyya / Mevlevi Order or (Mevlevilik or Mevleviyye, طریقت مولویه) is a Sufi order founded in Konya (then capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate) by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th-century PersianFranklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2000.
Mihrişah Sultan (fully Devletli İsmetli Mihrişah Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-şân Hazretleri; birthname Agnès, also known by her epithet Gürcü Güzeliİsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı,, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1961, pp. 13, 16.Osman Horata,, T.C. Kültür Bakanlığı, 1998, p. 60. meaning "Georgian Beauty", (1745 – 16 October 1805) was a GeorgianAlbert Habib Hourani, Philip Shukry Khoury, Mary Christina Wilson,, University of California Press, 1993, ISBN 0520082400, 9780520082403, p. 42.İsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı, Enver Ziya Karal,, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1961, pp. 13, 16.Necati Elgin,, Yildiz Basimevi, 1959, p. 9. consort to Ottoman Sultan Mustafa III. She was the mother of Sultan Selim III of the Ottoman Empire and his de facto co-regent as the Valide Sultan for sixteen years from 1789 until 1805.
The Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for culture and tourism affairs in Turkey.
Moldavia (Moldova) is a geographic and historical region and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river.
A monarch is the sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Morea (Μωρέας or Μωριάς, Morée, Morea, Mora) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
The Eyalet of the Morea (ایالت موره; Eyālet-i Mōrâ) was a first-level province (eyalet) of the Ottoman Empire, centred on the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece.
Mosul (الموصل; مووسڵ. Mûsil; North Mesopotamian Arabic:; ܢܝܢܘܐ; Musul), is a city of over a million people in northern Iraq, some 400 km north of Baghdad.
The Vilayet of Mosul (ولايت موصل, Vilâyet-i Musul) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
Muhammadfull name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (محمد; – 8 June 632 CEElizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (mainly non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.) is generally regarded by non-Muslims to have been the founder of Islam, and almost universallyThe Ahmadiyya Muslim Community considers Muhammad to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khātam an-Nabiyyīn) and the last law-bearing Prophet but not the last Prophet.
Murad I (مراد اول) (I.) (nicknamed Hüdavendigâr, from Persian خداوندگار Khodāvandgār, "the devotee of God" – but meaning "sovereign" in this context) (29 June 1326, Amasya – 15 June 1389, Kosovo Field) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1362 to 1389.
Murad II Kodja or Amurathes II (June 1404, Amasya – 3 February 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446 when his son Mehmed II reigned).
Murad III (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثالث Murād-i sālis, Turkish:III.Murat) (4 July 1546 – 15/16 January 1595) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death in 1595.
Murad IV (مراد رابع Murād-ı Rābi‘; July 26/27, 1612 – February 8, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods.
Murad V (مراد خامس) (21 September 1840 – 29 August 1904) was the 33rd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from 30 May to 31 August 1876.
Musa Çelebi (? – July 5, 1413) was an Ottoman prince (şehzade) and a co-ruler of the empire for three years during Ottoman Interregnum.
Mustafa I (1591 – January 20, 1639), son of Mehmed III, was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623.
Mustafa II (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى ثانى Muṣṭafā-yi sānī) (February 6, 1664 – December 28/30, 1703) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703.
Mustafa III (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى ثالث Muṣṭafā-yi sālis) (January 28/18, 1717 – January 21, 1774) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1757 to 1774.
Mustafa IV (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى رابع Muṣṭafā-yi rābi‘; 8 September 1779 – 15/16 November 1808) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1808.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and the first President of Turkey.
Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (literally Great Mustafa Reşid Pasha; 13 March 1800 – 7 January 1858) was an Ottoman statesman and diplomat, known best as the chief architect behind the Ottoman government reforms known as Tanzimat.
Nakşidil Valide Sultan (fully Devletli, İsmetli, Nakşidil Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-şân Hazretleri; 19 December 1768 – 22 August 1817; meaning "Embroidered on the Heart") was the consort of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid I and Valide Sultan to her adoptive son Mahmud II.
Nilüfer Hatun (نیلوفر خاتون, birth name Holofira, other names Bayalun, Beylun, Beyalun, Bilun, Suyun, Suylun) was a Valide Sultan; the wife of Orhan, the second sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
Nurbanu Sultan (full style Haseki Afife Nûr-Banû Vâlide Sultân Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; نور بانو سلطان; 1525 – 7 December 1583) was the favourite consort and later wife of Sultan Selim II of the Ottoman Empire, mother of Sultan Murad III, and de facto co-ruler as the Valide Sultan for nine years from 1574 until 1583.
The Ghuzz or Turkmen also known as Oguzes (a linguistic term designating the Western Turkic or Oghuz languages from the Oghur sub-division of Turkic language family) were a historical Turkic tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in Central Asia during the early medieval period.
Orhan of the Ottoman Empire or Orhan Bey (اورخان غازی,Orhan Gazi; 1281 – March 1362) was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Empire (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate) from 1326 to 1362.
Osman Gazi ben Ertuğrul (عثمان غازى Osman Ghazi; or Osman Bey or Osman Gazi Han); (1258–1326), sometimes transliterated in the past as Othman or Ottoman or Ataman and nicknamed "Kara" ("black" in Turkish), was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder and namesake of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire.
Osman II (ثانى عثمان ‘Osmān-i sānī; November 3, 1604 – May 20, 1622), commonly known as Genç Osman ("Osman the Young" in Turkish), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1618 until his death on 20 May 1622.
Osman III (عثمان ثالث ‘Osmān-i sālis;‎ 2/3 January 1699 – 30 October 1757) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1754 to 1757.
Ottoman Albania comprised Albania during the period it was part of the Ottoman Empire, from 1385 to 1912.
The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.
Adrianople, a major Byzantine city in Thrace, was conquered by the Ottomans sometime in the 1360s, and eventually became the Ottoman capital, until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The Ottoman constitution of 1876 (قانون اساسى,"basic law"; Kanûn-u Esâsî) was the first constitution of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman palace coups of 1807–08 refers to several coups and rebellions deposing or restoring the throne of three Ottoman sultans that took place as a result of the attempted reforms of Selim III.
The Eyalet of Cyprus (ایالت قبرص, Eyālet-i Qibriṣ) was an eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus, which was annexed into the Empire in 1571.
The Ottoman dynasty, made up of the members of the House of Osman (Osmanlı Hanedanı), ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until Orhan Bey declared himself sultan.
The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
Most of the areas which today are within modern Greece's borders were at some point in the past a part of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Interregnum, or the Ottoman Civil WarDimitris J. Kastritsis, The Sons of Bayezid: Empire Building and Representation in the Ottoman.
Below are the palaces commissioned by the Ottoman dynasty in İstanbul, Turkey.
The territory of what is now the Republic of Serbia was part of the Ottoman Empire throughout the Early Modern period.
Ottoman Syria refers to divisions of the Ottoman Empire within the Levant, usually defined as the region east of the Mediterranean Sea, west of the Euphrates River, north of the Arabian Desert and south of the Taurus Mountains.
The coastal region of what is today Libya was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania (ایالت طرابلس غرب Eyālet-i Trâblus Gârb) or Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary from 1551 to 1864 and as the Vilayet of Tripolitania (ولايت طرابلس غرب Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârb) from 1864 to 1911.
Ottoman Tunis refers to the episode of the Turkish presence in Ifriqiya during the course of three centuries from the 16th century until the 18th century, when Tunis was officially integrated into the Ottoman Empire as the Eyalet of Tunis (province).
The Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
Padeshah, Padshah, Padishah or Badishah (پادشاه, padişah) is a superlative royal title, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king", which was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors.
Pan-Islamism (الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a Caliphate – or an international organization similar to a European Union with Islamic principles.
Paris (UK:; US:; French) is the capital and most-populous city of France.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺, Parθava, 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅, Parθaw, 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥, Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The partitioning of the Ottoman Empire (30 October 1918 – 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I. The huge conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states.
Patrona Halil (c. 1690 in Manastir - November 25, 1730 in Constantinople), was the instigator of a mob uprising in 1730 which replaced Sultan Ahmed III with Mahmud I and ended the Tulip period.
The Peace of Zsitvatorok was a peace treaty which ended the Fifteen Years' War between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy on November 11, 1606.
Persian Iraq (عراق عجم; عراق العجم), also spelled Persian Irak, is a historical term for the central-western region of Iran, including cities such as Isfahan, Ray, Qazvin, and Kashan.
Pertevniyal Sultan Beşinci Kadınefendi, sometimes called Besîme and Hasnâ (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; 1812 – 5 February 1883), was a Circassian consort of Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II, and Valide Sultan (queen mother) to their son Abdülaziz.
The President of Turkey (Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn male child to inherit the family estate, in preference to siblings (compare to ultimogeniture).
Rabia Sultan (رابعه سلطان; before 1680 - 14 January 1712) was a consort to Sultan Ahmed II of the Ottoman Empire.
Rahime Perestu Sultan (1826 - 11 December 1905; born Rahime Gogen; Perestu meaning "Peacock") was the wife of Sultan Abdülmecid I. In 1876 she was given the title and position of Valide Sultan when Şehzade Abdul Hamid ascended the throne as 34th Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II.
Rûm (pronounced ˈrüm or ˈru̇m), also transliterated as Roum or Rhum (in Koine Greek "Ρωμιοί" or "Romans", in Arabic الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, Persian/Turkish روم Rûm, from Middle Persian Rhōm), is a generic term used at different times in Muslim world to refer to.
Eyalet of Rûm (ایالت روم; Eyālet-i Rūm; originally Arabic for Eastern Roman Empire), later named as the Eyalet of Sivas (ایالت سیواس; Eyālet-i Sīvās), was an Ottoman eyalet in northern Anatolia, founded following Bayezid I's conquest of the area in the 1390s.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire (1299 – 29 May 1453) is the period that started with the weakening of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in the very early 14th century and ended with the fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453.
Hürrem Sultan (خُرَّم سلطان; fully: Devletlu İsmetlu Hürrem Haseki Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; 1502 – 15 April 1558, also known as Roxelana) was the favorite consort and later the legal wife of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and the mother of Şehzade Mehmed, Mihrimah Sultan, Şehzade Abdullah, Sultan Selim II, Şehzade Bayezid and Şehzade Cihangir.
Rumelia (Rumeli; Rumelija, Ρωμυλία, Romylía, or Ρούμελη, Roúmeli; Rumelia; Rumelija and Румелия, Rumeliya) was a historical term describing the area now referred to as the Balkans or the Balkan Peninsula when it was administered by the Ottoman Empire.
The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
Safiye Sultan (fully Davlatlu İsmatlu Sāfiya Vālida Sultān Aliyyetü'ş-şân Hazretleri; صفیه سلطان; 1550 – 10 November 1605), was the favourite consort of Ottoman Sultan Murad III and valide sultan to her son Mehmed III.
Sâliha Dil-Âşûb Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Sâliha Dil-Âşûb Valida Sultânā Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; née Katarina; ca. 1627 – 4 December 1689) was the Serbian wife of Ottoman Sultan Ibrahim I and Valide Sultan to their son Suleiman II.
Saliha Sultan (fully Daulatlu İsmatlu Saliha Valida Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-şân Hazretleri; 1680 – 21 September 1739) was a consort of Greek descent, to Ottoman sultan Mustafa II.
Samokov (Самоков) is a town in Sofia Province in the southwest of Bulgaria.
Sanremo or San Remo (Ligurian: Sanrœmu) is a city on the Mediterranean coast of western Liguria in north-western Italy.
Süleyman Çelebi (pronounced Chalabi) (1377 – February 17, 1411) was an Ottoman prince (şehzade) and a co-ruler of the empire for several years during the Ottoman Interregnum.
The Second Constitutional Era (ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and restoring of the Ottoman constitution of 1876.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اوّل, Modern Turkish: I.Selim or Yavuz Sultan Selim), nicknamed Yavuz (traditionally translated as "grim," but closer to "stern" or "implacable" in meaning) (October 10, 1465/1466/1470 – September 22, 1520), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى Selīm-i sānī, Turkish:II.Selim; 28 May 1524 – 12 December/15 December 1574), also known as "Selim the Sot (Mest)" in west and as "Sarı Selim" (Selim the Blond) in east, was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death in 1574.
Selim III (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثالث Selīm-i sālis) (24 December 1761 – 28 or 29 July 1808) was the reform-minded Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807.
The Seljuq dynasty (سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; Selçuklular; Selçuklar) was a Turkish Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually adopted Persian culture and contributed to the Turko-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Serbia (Србија, Srbija), officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија, Republika Srbija), is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads between Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.
Sharia or sharia law (شريعة, is the Islamic legal system derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. The term sharia comes from the Arabic language term sharīʿah, which means a body of moral and religious law derived from religious prophecy, as opposed to human legislation. Sharia deals with many topics, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, everyday etiquette and fasting. Adherence to sharia has served as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Muslim faith historically. In its strictest and most historically coherent definition, sharia is considered in Islam as the infallible law of God.Coulson, N. J. (2011), A history of Islamic law, Aldine, ISBN 978-1412818551 There are two primary sources of sharia: the Quran, and the Hadiths (opinions and life example of Muhammad).Esposito, John (2001), Women in Muslim family law, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085 For topics and issues not directly addressed in these primary sources, sharia is derived. The derivation differs between the various sects of Islam (Sunni and Shia), and various jurisprudence schools such as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari. The sharia in these schools is derived hierarchically using one or more of the following guidelines: Ijma (usually the consensus of Muhammad's companions), Qiyas (analogy derived from the primary sources), Istihsan (ruling that serves the interest of Islam in the discretion of Islamic jurists) and Urf (customs). Sharia is a significant source of legislation in various Muslim countries. Some apply all or a majority of the sharia code, and these include Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brunei, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen and Mauritania. In these countries, sharia prescribed punishments such as beheading, flogging and stoning continue to be practiced judicially or extra-judicially. The introduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements globally, including in Western countries, but attempts to impose sharia have been accompanied by controversy, violence, and even warfare. Most countries do not recognize sharia; however, some countries in Asia, Africa and Europe recognize parts of sharia and accept it as the law on divorce, inheritance and other personal affairs of their Islamic population. In Britain, the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal makes use of sharia family law to settle disputes, and this limited adoption of sharia is controversial. The concept of crime, judicial process, justice and punishment embodied in sharia is different from that of secular law. The differences between sharia and secular laws have led to an ongoing controversy as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.
Shaykh al-Islām (Sheikh ul-Islam, Sheikhul Islam, Shaikh al-Islam, Şeyhülislam) is an honorific title used for outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences and was first used in Khurasan towards the end of the 4th Islamic century.
Sittişah Hatun, (1435 – April 1467), was the third wife of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II and the real-biological mother of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II.
Sivas (Latin: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste) is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; الصومال), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The stagnation and reform of the Ottoman Empire lasted between 1683 to 1827 and was followed by its decline and modernization.
Suleiman II (April 15, 1642 – June 22/23 1691) (Ottoman Turkish: سليمان ثانى Süleymān-i sānī) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691.
Suleiman I (سلطان سليمان اول; I.; 6 November 1494 – 7 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and "Kanuni" (the Lawgiver) in the East, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566.
Suleyman Shah (سلیمان شاه, full name: سلیمان بن کیا آلپ Süleyman bin Kaya Alp; 1236) was the son of Qutalmish and the father of Ertuğrul, who was, in turn, the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire.
Sultan (سلطان) is a noble title with several historical meanings.
Sultan of Sultans is the literal English translation of the Ottoman Turkish royal title Sultan es-Selatin or Sultan us-Selatin.
The Sultanate of Rum (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti, meaning "Anatolian Seljuk State"; سلجوقیان روم Saljūqiyān-i Rūm), was a medieval Turko-Persian, Sunni Muslim state in Anatolia.
The Sultanate of Women (Kadınlar Saltanatı) was the nearly 130-year period during the 16th and 17th centuries when the women of the Imperial Harem of the Ottoman Empire exerted extraordinary political influence over state matters and over the (male) Ottoman sultan, starting from the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent.
Sumatra (Sumatera) is an island in western Indonesia and part of the Sunda Islands.
"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from an evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.
The Sword of Osman (Taklid-i Seyf; Osman Kılıcı) was an important sword of state used during the coronation ceremony (Kılıç alayı) of the sultans of the Ottoman Empire.
The historic region of Syria (Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or inaccurately, the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
Mehmed Talaat Pasha (محمد طلعت پاشا; Mehmet Talât Paşa; 1874 – 15 March 1921), commonly known as Talaat Pasha, was one of the triumvirate known as the Three Pashas that de facto ruled the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
The Tanzimât (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), literally meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.
Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, inhabited mostly by Turkic peoples after the Mongol-Turkic invasion.
The Tatars (Mongolic "Татар", Old Turkic tatar; modern Volga Tatar: Татарлар, Tatarlar تاتارلار; татары) are a Turkic people living in Asia and Europe.
The Ottomans: Europe's Muslim Emperors is a 2013 BBC Two documentary in three parts presented by Rageh Omaar.
The "Three Pashas" (Üç Paşalar, also known as the "dictatorial triumvirate") of the Ottoman Empire refers to the Grand Vizier (prime minister) and Minister of the Interior, Mehmed Talaat Pasha (1874–1921); the Minister of War, Ismail Enver Pasha (1881–1922); and the Minister of the Navy, Ahmed Djemal Pasha (1872–1922).
Timur (تیمور Timūr, Chagatai: Temür, Temur; died 18 February 1405), historically known as Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Timūr(-e) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror and the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia.
Tirimüjgan Kadınefendi (b. Circassia, 16 August 1819 – d. Beylerbeyi Palace, 2 November 1853), was the daughter of Bekhan Bey, who belonged to the tribe of Shapsugs in Circassia, and his wife Almaş Hanım.
The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in Ottoman) is a large palace in Istanbul, Turkey, that was the one of the major residency of the Ottoman sultans for almost 400 years (1465–1856) of their 624-year reign.
The Treaty of Jassy, signed at Jassy (Iași) in Moldavia (presently in Romania), was a pact between the Russian and Ottoman Empires ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92 and confirming Russia's increasing dominance in the Black Sea.
The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–97 in which the Ottoman side had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta.
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarjæ) was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca (today Kaynardzha, Bulgaria) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Lausanne was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Ṭrables) is the de jure capital city and the largest city of Libya.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Latin Regio Tripolitana) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
A tughra (طغرا tuğrâ) is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of a sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence.
The Tulip Period or Tulip Era (21 July 1718 - 28 September 1730) (Ottoman Turkish: لاله دورى, Lâle Devri) is a period in Ottoman history from the Treaty of Passarowitz on 21 July 1718 to the Patrona Halil Revolt on 28 September 1730.
Turhan Hatice Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Turhan Hatice Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-şân Hazretleri; 1627 – 5 July 1683; Turhan meaning "Of mercy"), was one of the hasekis ("favourite concubine") of the Ottoman sultan Ibrahim I (reign 1640-1648) and the mother of his successor, Mehmed IV (reign 1648-1687).
Turkestan, also spelt as Turkistan, literally means "Land of the Turks".
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups that live in northern, eastern, central, and western Asia, northwestern China, and parts of eastern Europe.
The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: İstiklâl Harbi, literally "Independence War" or Kurtuluş Savaşı literally "Liberation War" or Millî Mücadele literally "National Campaign"; May 19, 1919 – July 24, 1923) was fought between the Turkish nationalists and the proxies of the Allies, namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul), after the country was occupied and partitioned following the Ottoman Empire's defeat in World War I. Although present, few British, French, Italian or Georgian troops were deployed or engaged in combat.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
Valide sultan (والده سلطان, literally "mother sultan") was the title held by the queen mother of a ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
Van (Վան; Wan; وان; فان) is a city in eastern Turkey's Van Province, located on the eastern shore of Lake Van.
Wallachia or Walachia (Proto-Rom. Ţara Muntenească, Țara Românească or Valahia; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Cyrillic: Цѣра Румѫнѣскъ / Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ / Землѧ Ѹгровлахїиска, Земля Угровлахийская, Угровлашская Земля, Влашская Земля, Власское, Transalpina, Valachia) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.
World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
Yıldız Palace (Yıldız Sarayı) is a vast complex of former imperial Ottoman pavilions and villas in Istanbul, Turkey, built in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The 31 March Incident (31 Mart Vakası or 31 Mart Olayı or 31 Mart Hadisesi or 31 Mart İsyanı) was the put down of the Ottoman countercoup of 1909 by the Hareket Ordusu ("Army of Action"), which was the 11th Salonika Reserve Infantry Division of the Third Army (Ottoman Empire) stationed in the Balkans commanded by Mahmud Shevket Pasha on 24 April 1909.
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