216 relations: Aden, Adoption of Chinese literary culture, Africa, Ainslie Embree, Ainu people, Alania, Almaliq, Xinjiang, Altan Khan, Andkhoy, Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest, Annam (province), Arabian Peninsula, Badakhshan, Baekje, Baiyue, Balhae, Balkh, Barawa, Bengal, Borneo, Brunei, Bukhara, Caboloan, Cambodia, Carol Gluck, Caspian Sea, Catty, Central Asia, Cham–Annamese War, Champa, Champa rice, Chūzan, Chenla, Chi Tu, China, Chinese imperialism, Chinese nationalism, Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes, Client state, Coimbatore, Coromandel Coast, Dayuan, Dhofar Governorate, Dian Kingdom, Dorgon, Dzungar people, East Asia, Emperor Wu of Han, England, Eunuch, ..., Europe, Fergana Valley, Foreign relations of imperial China, Fujian, Funan, Gansu, Gaochang, George H. Kerr, Goguryeo, Goryeo, Goryeo missions to Imperial China, Greater China, Greater Khorasan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hami, Harvard University Press, Herat, History of Bhutan, History of Brunei, History of Cambodia, History of Japan, History of Kedah, History of Korea, History of Myanmar, History of Nepal, History of Sri Lanka, History of Thailand, History of Tibet, History of Vietnam, Hokuzan, Hongwu Emperor, Hotan, Huế, Imperial Chinese Tributary System, Indigenous peoples of Sikkim, Inner Mongolia, Isfahan, James Hoare, Japan, Japanese missions to Ming China, Japanese missions to Sui China, Japanese missions to Tang China, Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh, Java, Jimsar County, John K. Fairbank, Joseon, Joseon missions to Imperial China, Jurchen people, Kannur, Karasahr, Karluks, Kashgar, Kashmir, Kayalpatnam, Keith Pratt, Kelantan, Khalkha Mongols, Khanate of Kokand, Khujand, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Khotan, Kings of the Han dynasty, Kochi, Kollam, Korea, Kozhikode, Kucha, Kunduz, Kyrgyz people, Lanfang Republic, Langkasuka, Laos, Lâm Ấp, Lý dynasty, Lifan Yuan, List of recipients of tribute from China, Liuqiu, Loulan Kingdom, Majapahit, Malacca, Malacca Sultanate, Malaysia, Maldives, Malindi, Manchuria, Manila, Marinduque, Mecca, Medina, Melayu Kingdom, Ming–Turpan conflict, Minyue, Mogadishu, Mongkut, Myanmar, Nanman, Nanyue, Nanzan, National Chengchi University, National University of Singapore, Nepal, Netherlands, Nishapur, Oirats, Ormus, Pahang, Palembang, Philippines, Portugal, Princess Uisun, Puppet state, Qiang people, Richard Rutt, Ryukyu Islands, Ryukyu Kingdom, Ryukyuan missions to Imperial China, Samarkand, Samudera Pasai Sultanate, Satellite state, Shiraz, Siberia, Sikkim, Silk Road, Silla, Sinocentrism, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Srivijaya, Sui dynasty, Sukhothai Kingdom, Sultanate of Rum, Sultanate of Sulu, Sulu, Suzerainty, Syria, Tabriz, Taklamakan Desert, Tang dynasty, Thailand, Timur, Trần dynasty, Tributary state, Tribute, Tsinghua University, Turkic Khaganate, Turpan, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, University of Pennsylvania, Vietnam, Wa (Japan), Wang Mang, Wuhuan, Wusun, Xinjiang, Xiongnu, Yarkant County, Yining, Yongle Emperor, Yuezhi, Yunnan, Zhao Tuo, Zheng He, Zhengde Emperor. Expand index (166 more) » « Shrink index
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Chinese writing, culture and institutions were imported as a whole by Vietnam, Korea, Japan and the Ryukyus over an extended period.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Ainslie Thomas Embree (January 1, 1921 – June 6, 2017) was an American Indologist and historian.
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).
Alania was a medieval kingdom of the Iranian Alans (proto-Ossetians) that flourished in the Northern Caucasus, roughly in the location of latter-day Circassia and modern North Ossetia–Alania, from its independence from the Khazars in the late 9th century until its destruction by the Mongol invasion in 1238-39.
Almaliq (Previously transcribed into Chinese as 阿尔马立克, Ā'ěrmǎlì; 阿里马城, Ālǐmǎchéng; 阿里麻, Ālǐmá; and 阿力马力, Ālìmǎlì.), also spelled Armalec, Almalik, Almalig, and Almaligh, was a medieval city in the Ili basin in present-day Huocheng County in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang.
Altan Khan of the Tümed (1507–1582; Алтан хан; Chinese: 阿爾坦汗), whose given name was Anda (in Mongolian; 俺答 in Chinese), was the leader of the Tümed Mongols, Shunyi Wang (Prince of Shunyi, Chinese: 顺义王) of Ming dynasty China, and de facto ruler of the Right Wing, or western tribes, of the Mongols.
Andkhoy (اندخوی) is a town and district in northern Afghanistan, Faryab Province, is located at, 316 m altitude.
Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest (1 November 1739 in Werkhoven – 8 July 1801 in Amsterdam) Dutch-American merchant who is mostly known for his participation in the last Dutch embassy to China under the tributary system.
Annam was the southernmost province of China after the Tang dynasty.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Badakhshan (Pashto/بدخشان, Badaxšân; Бадахшон, Badaxşon;;, Dungan: Бадахәшон, Xiao'erjing: بَا دَا کْ شًا, Ming dynasty era Chinese name- 巴丹沙) is a historic region comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan and southeastern Tajikistan.
Baekje (18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located in southwest Korea.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
Balhae (698–926), also known as Parhae or Bohai was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.
Barawa (Baraawe, مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة Madīna Barāwa), also known as Barawe and Brava, is a port town in the southwestern Lower Shebelle region of Somalia.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
Caboloan (also spelled Kaboloan; Luyag na Caboloan), referred to Chinese records as Feng-chia-hsi-lan, was a sovereign pre-colonial Philippine polity located in the fertile Agno River basin and delta, with Binalatongan as the capital.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Carol Gluck (born November 12, 1941) is an American academic and Japanologist.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The catty, kati (in Singaporean English) or jin (commonly in China), symbol 斤, is a traditional Chinese unit of mass used across East and Southeast Asia, notably for weighing food and other groceries in some wet markets, street markets, and shops.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Cham-Đại Việt War of 1471 began when Emperor Lê Thánh Tông of Đại Việt launched a military expedition that is widely regarded as an event that marked the downfall of Champa. The Đại Việt forces attacked and sacked the kingdom's capital Vijaya, and decimated the Cham army. As a result of the conflict, Champa was forced to cede territory to Annam and ceased to pose a threat to Annamese territory since then.
Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.
Champa rice is a quick-maturing, drought resistant rice that can allow two harvests, of sixty days each in one growing season.
Chūzan (中山) was one of three kingdoms which controlled Okinawa in the 14th century.
Chenla or Zhenla (ចេនឡា; Chân Lạp) is the Chinese designation for the successor polity of the Kingdom of Funan preceding the Khmer Empire that existed from around the late sixth to the early ninth century in Indochina.
Chi Tu (other alternative spellings include Chihtu, Chitu or Ch-ih-t'u; Sanskrit: Raktamaritika or Raktamrittika; Chinese: 赤土国, pinyin: Chì-tǔ-guó; Malay language: Tanah Merah) was an ancient kingdom mentioned in the history of China.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Historically, ancient China has been one of the world's oldest empires.
Chinese nationalism is the form of nationalism in China which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese.
Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes (1759–1845) was a French merchant-trader, ambassador and scholar, born in Paris.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Coimbatore (Tamil: கோயம்புத்தூர்), also known as Kovai, is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Coromandel Coast is the southeastern coast region of the Indian subcontinent, bounded by the Utkal Plains to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Kaveri delta to the south, and the Eastern Ghats to the west, extending over an area of about 22,800 square kilometres.
Dayuan (Ta-yuan; Old Chinese reconstructed pronunciation: /dhaːts ʔwan/; Middle Chinese reconstructed pronunciation according to Edwin G. Pulleyblank: /daj ʔuan/) was a country in Ferghana valley in Central Asia, described in the Chinese historical works of Records of the Grand Historian and the Book of Han.
The Dhofar Governorate (محافظة ظفار, Muḥāfaẓat Ẓufār) is the largest of the eleven Governorates in the Sultanate of Oman in terms of area.
The Dian Kingdom was an ancient kingdom established by the Dian people, an ancient group of indigenous non-Chinese metalworking tribes that inhabited around the Dian Lake plateau of central northern Yunnan, China from the late Spring and Autumn period until the Eastern Han dynasty.
Dorgon (Manchu:, literally "badger"; 17 November 1612 – 31 December 1650), formally known as Prince Rui, was a Manchu prince and regent of the early Qing dynasty.
The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.
Imperial China had a long tradition of foreign relations.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Funan, (ហ្វូណន - Fonon), (Phù Nam) or Nokor Phnom (នគរភ្នំ) was the name given by Chinese cartographers, geographers and writers to an ancient Indianised state—or, rather a loose network of states (Mandala)—located in mainland Southeast Asia centered on the Mekong Delta that existed from the first to sixth century CE.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Gaochang (Old Uyghur: قۇچۇ, Qocho), also called Karakhoja, Qara-hoja, Kara-Khoja, or Karahoja (قاراغوجا in Uyghur), is the site of a ruined, ancient oasis city on the northern rim of the inhospitable Taklamakan Desert in present-day Xinjiang, China.
George H. Kerr (November 7, 1911 – August 27, 1992), also known in Taiwan as 葛超智 (or 柯喬治), was a United States diplomat during World War II, and in later years he was an author and an academic.
Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
Goryeo missions to Imperial China were the diplomatic ventures of Kingdom of Goryeo which were intermittently sent in the years 918–1392, representing a significant aspect of the international relations of mutual Goryeon-Chinese contacts and communication.
Greater China or the Greater China Region is a term used to refer to Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Hami, also known as Kumul, is a prefecture-level city in eastern Xinjiang, China.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
Bhutan's early history is steeped in mythology and remains obscure.
The history of Brunei concerns the settlements and societies located on the north coast of the island of Borneo; the influence of Indianised kingdoms and empires for much of its history.
The history of Cambodia, a country in mainland Southeast Asia, can be traced back to at least the 5th millennium BC.
The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times.
Kedah, also written as Queda, and known in the early days as Qalha, Kalah Bar, Kalah or Kalaha by the Arabs and Persians, Cheh-Cha, Ka-Cha by the Chinese and Kedaram, Kidaram, Kalagam and Kataha by the Tamils, is an early kingdom on the Malay Peninsula and an important early trade centre.
The Lower Paleolithic era in the Korean Peninsula began roughly half a million years ago.
The history of Myanmar (also known as Burma) covers the period from the time of first-known human settlements 13,000 years ago to the present day.
The history of Nepal has been influenced by its position in the Himalaya and its two neighbours, modern day India and China.
The earliest human remains found on the island of Sri Lanka date to about 35,000 years ago (Balangoda Man).
History of Thailand concerns the history of the Thai people, who originally lived in southwestern China, migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries.
Tibetan history, as it has been recorded, is particularly focused on the history of Buddhism in Tibet.
Vietnam's recorded history stretches back to the mid-to-late 3rd century BCE, when Âu Lạc and Nanyue (Nam Việt in Vietnamese) were established (Nanyue conquered Âu Lạc in 179 BCE).
Hokuzan (北山) was one of three kingdoms which controlled Okinawa in the 14th century.
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.
Hotan, also transliterated from Chinese as Hetian, is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China.
Huế (is a city in central Vietnam that was the seat of Nguyễn Dynasty emperors from 1802 to 1945, and capital of the protectorate of Annam. A major attraction is its vast, 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls. It encompasses the Imperial City, with palaces and shrines; the Forbidden Purple City, once the emperor's home; and a replica of the Royal Theater. The city was also the battleground for the Battle of Huế, which was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.
The Imperial Chinese Tributary System is a term created by John King Fairbank to describe "a set of ideas and practices developed and perpetuated by the rulers of China over many centuries".
The indigenous peoples of Sikkim include the Lepchas and the Bhutias.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
James Edward Hoare (born 1943) is a British academic and historian specialising in Korean and Chinese studies, and a career diplomat in the British Foreign Office.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Japanese missions to Ming China represent a lens for examining and evaluating the relationships between China and Japan in the 15th through the 17th centuries.
Japanese missions to Sui China represent a lens for examining and evaluating the relationships between China and Japan in the 7th, 8th and 9th centuries.
Japanese missions to Tang China (遣唐使, Kentōshi) represent Japanese efforts to learn from the Chinese culture and civilization in the 7th, 8th and 9th centuries.
Jaunpur (is a town and a municipal board in Jaunpur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 228 km southeast of state capital Lucknow. Jaunpur is located to the northwest of the district of Varanasi in the eastern part of the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Demographically, Jaunpur resembles the rest of the Purvanchal area in which it is located. A greenfield international airport is being constructed in Mariahu tehsil of Jaunpur to ease out the traffic at Babatpur Airport in Varanasi.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jimsar County (Xiao'erjing: کِمُوسَاعَر ﺷِﯿًﺎ) is a county in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China.
John King Fairbank (May 24, 1907 – September 14, 1991), was a prominent American historian of China.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Joseon missions to Imperial China were Joseon diplomatic ventures which were intermittently sent in the years 1392-1894.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
Kannur, also known by its anglicised name Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India.
Karasahr or Karashar (Chinese 焉耆), which was originally known, in the Tocharian languages as Ārśi (or Arshi) and Agni, or the Chinese derivative Yānqí 焉耆 (Wade–Giles Yen-ch’i), is an ancient town on the Silk Road and the capital of Yanqi Hui Autonomous County in the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, in northwestern China.
The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, Old Turkic:, Qarluq, Persian: خَلُّخ (Khallokh), Arabic قارلوق "Qarluq") were a prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh (Black Irtysh) and the Tarbagatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia.
Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kayalpatnam (also known as Kayalpattinam or Korkai, Arabic - قاهر فطن, Tamil - காயல்பட்டினம்) is a Municipality in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Keith Leslie Pratt (born 27 January 1938) is a British academic, author, historian, Koreanist, Sinologist and professor emeritus in the Department of East Asian Studies at Durham University in the United Kingdom.
Kelantan (Jawi: کلنتن;, Kelantanese: Kelate) is a state of Malaysia.
The Khalkha (Халх, Halh) is the largest subgroup of Mongol people in Mongolia since the 15th century.
The Khanate of Kokand (Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Qoqon xandığı, قوقون حاندىعى; Xânâte Xuqand) was a Central Asian state in Fergana Valley that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan.
Khujand (Xujand; Xo‘jand/Хўжанд; Xojand), formerly known as Leninabad (Leninobod; Leninâbâd) in 1936-1991, is the second-largest city of Tajikistan and the capital of the northernmost province of Tajikistan, now called Sughd.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Khotan was an ancient Iranic Saka Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China).
After Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu and proclaimed himself emperor of the Han dynasty, he followed the practice of Xiang Yu and enfeoffed many generals, noblemen, and imperial relatives as kings, the same title borne by the sovereigns of the Shang and Zhou dynasties and by the rulers of the Warring States.
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Kollam or Quilon (Coulão), formerly Desinganadu, is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast of the Indian state of Kerala.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.
Kucha or Kuche (also: Kuçar, Kuchar; كۇچار, Куча,; also romanized as Qiuzi, Qiuci, Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu, Guizi from; Kucina) was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin and south of the Muzat River.
Kunduz (کندز; قندوز) is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
The Lanfang Republic (Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: Làn-fông Khiung-fò-koet) was a Chinese state and kongsi federation in Western Borneo.
Langkasuka was an ancient Indianised (Hindu-Buddhist) kingdom located in the Malay Peninsula.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Lâm Ấp (Vietnamese pronunciation of Chinese characters 林邑, Linyi) was a kingdom from c. 200 to 750 AD in what is today central Vietnam.
The Lý dynasty (Nhà Lý, Hán Nôm: 家李), sometimes known as the Later Lý dynasty, was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when emperor Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Early Lê dynasty and ended in 1225, when the empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng (then 8 years old) was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh.
The Lifan Yuan (Manchu: Tulergi golo be dasara jurgan; Mongolian: Гадаад Монголын төрийг засах явдлын яам, γadaγadu mongγul un törü-yi jasaqu yabudal-un yamun) was an agency in the government of the Qing dynasty which supervised the Qing Empire's frontier Inner Asia regions such as its Mongolian dependencies and oversaw the appointments of Ambans in Tibet.
Chinese zhongyuan state entities have paid tribute to a number states and confederations throughout history.
Liuqiu or Lewchew is the name historically given by Chinese writers to a territory in the region of the East China Sea, sometimes in mythical or legendary contexts.
Loulan, also called Krorän or Kroraina (Kroran), was an ancient kingdom based around an important oasis city along the Silk Road already known in the 2nd century BCE on the northeastern edge of the Lop Desert.
The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
The Malacca Sultanate (Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Malindi (known as Melinde in antiquity) is a town on Malindi Bay at the mouth of the Galana River, lying on the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Marinduque is an island province in the Philippines located in Southwestern Tagalog Region or MIMAROPA, formerly designated as Region IV-B. Its capital is the municipality of Boac.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
The Melayu Kingdom (also known as Malayu, Dharmasraya Kingdom or the Jambi Kingdom;, reconstructed Middle Chinese pronunciation mat-la-yu kwok)Muljana, Slamet, (2006), Sriwijaya, Yogyakarta: LKIS,.
The Ming–Turpan conflict were a series of conflicts between the Ming Dynasty and Khanate of Turpan that erupted due to disputes over borders, trade and internal succession to the throne of Turpan.
Minyue was an ancient kingdom in what is now Fujian province in southern China.
Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha Mongkut Phra Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรเมนทรมหามงกุฎ พระจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama IV, known in English-speaking countries as King Mongkut (18 October 18041 October 1868), was the fourth monarch of Siam (Thailand) under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1851 to 1868.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Man, commonly called the Nanman or Southern Man, were the ancient indigenous peoples who lived in inland South and Southwest China, mainly the Yangtze River valley.
Nanyue or, or Nam Viet (Nam Việt) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan.
Nanzan (南山), sometimes called Sannan (山南), was one of three kingdoms which controlled Okinawa in the 14th century.
National Chengchi University (shortened as "政大") is a national research university, and the earliest public service training facility in modern China.
The National University of Singapore (NUS) is an autonomous research university in Singapore.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nishapur or Nishabur (نیشابور, also Romanized as Nīshāpūr, Nišâpur, Nişapur, Nīshābūr, Neyshābūr, and Neeshapoor, from Middle Persian: New-Shabuhr, meaning "New City of Shapur", "Fair Shapur", or "Perfect built of Shapur") is a city in Razavi Khorasan Province, capital of the Nishapur County and former capital of Province Khorasan, in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains.
Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.
The Kingdom of Ormus (also known as Ohrmuzd, Hormuz, and Ohrmazd; Portuguese Ormuz) was a 10th- to 17th-century kingdom located within the Persian Gulf and extending as far as the Strait of Hormuz.
Pahang (Jawi: ڤهڠ), officially Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific Darul Makmur (Jawi: دار المعمور, "The Abode of Tranquility") is a sultanate and a federal state of Malaysia.
Palembang (Indonesian pronunciation: palɛmˈbaŋ) is the capital city of South Sumatra province of Indonesia.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Princess Uisun (1635-1662; birth name Yi Ae-suk) was a member of the Joseon royal family, who was adopted as a daughter by Hyojong of Joseon and Queen Inseon so that she could marry the Aisin Gioro prince Dorgon.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Qiang people are an ethnic group in China.
Cecil Richard Rutt CBE (27 August 1925 – 27 July 2011) was an English Roman Catholic priest and a former Anglican bishop.
The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.
The Ryukyu Kingdom (Okinawan: Ruuchuu-kuku; 琉球王国 Ryūkyū Ōkoku; Middle Chinese: Ljuw-gjuw kwok; historical English name: Lewchew, Luchu, and Loochoo) was an independent kingdom that ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th to the 19th century.
Ryukyuan missions to Imperial China were diplomatic missions which were intermittently sent from the Ryukyuan kings to the Ming and Qing emperors.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Samudera Pasai, also known as Samudera or Pasai or Samudera Darussalam, was a Muslim harbour kingdom on the north coast of Sumatra from the 13th to the 16th centuries CE.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Silla (57 BC57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding." – 935 AD) was a kingdom located in southern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula.
Sinocentrism refers to the ideology that China is the cultural center of the world.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
The Kingdom of Sukhothai (สุโขทัย, Soo-Ker Ty) was an early kingdom in the area around the city Sukhothai, in north central Thailand.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
The Sultanate of Sulu (Tausūg: Kasultanan sin Sūg, Jawi: کسلطانن سولو دار الإسلام, Kesultanan Sulu, سلطنة سولك) was a Muslim state that ruled the islands in the Sulu Archipelago, parts of Mindanao, certain portions of Palawan and north-eastern Borneo (present-day the certain parts of Sabah and North Kalimantan).
Sulu (Tausūg: ولايا سين سوگ, Wilāya sin Sūg) is a province of the Philippines in the Sulu Archipelago and part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
The Taklamakan Desert (Xiao'erjing: تَاكْلامَاقًا شَاموْ; تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; Такәламаган Шамә), also spelled "Taklimakan" and "Teklimakan", is a desert in southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The Trần dynasty (Nhà Trần, 陳朝, Trần triều,.) ruled in Vietnam (then known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400.
A tributary state is a term for a pre-modern state in a particular type of subordinate relationship to a more powerful state which involved the sending of a regular token of submission, or tribute, to the superior power.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
Tsinghua University (abbreviated THU;; also romanized as Qinghua) is a major research university in Beijing, China and a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities.
The Turkic Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Kök Türük) or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia.
Turpan, also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD; translation University of Brunei Darussalam; Jawi: يونيبرسيتي بروني دارالسلام) is the first university in Brunei.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Japanese is the oldest recorded name of Japan.
Wang Mang (c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun, was a Han Dynasty official and consort kin who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") Dynasty (新朝), ruling 9–23 AD.
The Wuhuan (Old Chinese: ʔˤa ɢʷˁar, Mongol romanization:Uhuan) were a Proto-Mongolic nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia.
The Wusun were an Indo-European semi-nomadic steppe people mentioned in Chinese records from the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Yarkant County or Yeken County (lit. Cliff cityP. Lurje, “”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition) is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin.
Yining, also known as Ghulja or Qulja (قۇلجا, Құлжа), and formerly Ningyuan is a county-level city in northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China, and the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture.
The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zhao Tuo, known in Vietnamese contexts as Triệu Đà, was a Qin dynasty Chinese general who participated in the conquest of the Baiyue peoples of Guangdong, Guangxi and Northern Vietnam.
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.
The Zhengde Emperor (26October 149120April 1521) was the 11th Ming dynasty Emperor of China between 1505–1521.