158 relations: Alan Turing, ALGOL, ALWAC III-E, Ambros Speiser, AN/FSQ-7 Combat Direction Central, Andrew Donald Booth, Atanasoff–Berry computer, AVIDAC, Axel Wenner-Gren, Ballistic Research Laboratory, Bendix G-15, BESK, BESM, BINAC, BIZMAC, Bletchley Park, British Tabulating Machine Company, BRLESC, Bureau of Ordnance, CALDIC, CER-10, Colossus computer, Computer program, Continental Europe, Cryptanalysis, Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher, CSIRAC, Cyclone (computer), DASK, Datatron, DYSEAC, EDSAC 2, Eduard Stiefel, EDVAC, ElectroData Corporation, Electronic delay storage automatic calculator, Elliott 152, Elwro, Engineering Research Associates, English Electric DEUCE, ENIAC, ETH Zurich, FACIT EDB, Ferranti, Ferranti Mark 1, Ferranti Mercury, Ferranti Pegasus, Floating-point arithmetic, Florida Automatic Computer, Fortran, ..., FUJIC, Fujifilm, Groupe Bull, Hard disk drive, Harvard Mark III, Harvard Mark IV, Harvard University, Harwell computer, Heinz Billing, Heinz Rutishauser, History of computing hardware, Hollerith Electronic Computer, Howard H. Aiken, IAS machine, IBM, IBM 305 RAMAC, IBM 610, IBM 650, IBM 700/7000 series, IBM 701, IBM 702, IBM 704, IBM 709, IBM Naval Ordnance Research Calculator, ILLIAC I, Institute for Advanced Study, International Computers and Tabulators, J. Lyons and Co., John von Neumann, JOHNNIAC, Kiev, Konrad Zuse, LEO (computer), LGP-30, Librascope, List of transistorized computers, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Magnetic Drum Digital Differential Analyzer, Manchester Baby, Manchester Mark 1, MANIAC I, MANIAC II, Max Planck Institute for Physics, MESM, Michigan State University, MISTIC, Moore School of Electrical Engineering, MUSASINO-1, Museum of Science and Industry (Manchester), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Negative base, Operation Teapot, ORDVAC, Pacific Missile Test Center, Patrick Air Force Base, PERM (computer), Pilot ACE, Plugboard, Programming language, Punched card, RAND Corporation, RAYDAC, Raytheon, RCA, Reeves Instrument Corporation, Relay, Remington Rand, Remington Rand 409, Rice Institute Computer, Sandia National Laboratories, SEAC (computer), SILLIAC, SMIL (computer), Soviet Union, Standard Telephones and Cables, Strela computer, Sumlock ANITA calculator, SWAC (computer), System of linear equations, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, The National Museum of Computing, TIFRAC, Transistor, TU Dresden, UMC (computer), United States Air Force, UNIVAC 1101, UNIVAC 1102, UNIVAC 1103, UNIVAC 1105, UNIVAC I, UNIVAC II, University of California, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University of Minnesota, University of Oklahoma, University of Pennsylvania, University of Sydney, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Ural (computer), Vacuum tube, Von Neumann architecture, WEIZAC, Weizmann Institute of Science, Whirlwind I, Wisconsin Integrally Synchronized Computer, Z22 (computer), ZEBRA (computer). Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
The ALWAC III-E was an early commercial vacuum tube computer employing a rotating magnetic drum main storage unit, operational in 1955.
Ambrosius Paul Speiser (13 November 1922, Basel – 10 May 2003, Aarau) was a Swiss engineer and scientist.
The AN/FSQ-7 Combat Direction Central, referred to as the Q7 for short, was a computerized command and control system for Cold War ground-controlled interception used in the USAF Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) air defense network.
Andrew Donald Booth (11 February 1918 – 29 November 2009), The Times, 12 January 2010.
The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the first automatic electronic digital computer, an early electronic digital computing device that has remained somewhat obscure.
The AVIDAC or Argonne Version of the Institute's Digital Automatic Computer, an early computer built by Argonne National Laboratory, was based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann.
Axel Lennart Wenner-Gren (5 June 1881 – 24 November 1961) was a Swedish entrepreneur and one of the wealthiest men in the world during the 1930s.
The Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland was the center for the United States Army's research efforts in ballistics (interior, exterior, and terminal) as well as vulnerability/lethality analysis.
The Bendix G-15 computer was introduced in 1956 by the Bendix Corporation, Computer Division, Los Angeles, California.
BESK (Binär Elektronisk SekvensKalkylator, Swedish for "Binary Electronic Sequence Calculator") was Sweden's first electronic computer, using vacuum tubes instead of relays.
BESM (БЭСМ) is the name of a series of Soviet mainframe computers built in 1950–60s.
BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer) was an early electronic computer designed for Northrop Aircraft Company by the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) in 1949.
The RCA BIZMAC was a vacuum tube computer manufactured by RCA from 1956 to 1962.
Bletchley Park was the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II.
The British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) was a firm which manufactured and sold Hollerith unit record equipment and other data-processing equipment.
The BRLESC I (Ballistic Research Laboratories Electronic Scientific Computer) was a first-generation electronic computer built by the United States Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) at Aberdeen Proving Ground with assistance from the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology), and was designed to take over the computational workload of EDVAC and ORDVAC, which themselves were successors of ENIAC.
The Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd) was the U.S. Navy's organization responsible for the procurement, storage, and deployment of all naval weapons, between the years 1862 and 1959.
CALDIC (the California Digital Computer) was an electronic digital computer built with the assistance of the Office of Naval Research at the University of California, Berkeley between 1951 and 1955 to assist and enhance research being conducted at the university with a platform for high-speed computing.
CER model 10 was a vacuum tube, transistor and electronic relay based computer developed at IBK-Vinča and the Mihajlo Pupin Institute (Belgrade) in 1960.
Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943–1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher was the process that enabled the British to read high-level German army messages during World War II.
CSIRAC (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Automatic Computer), originally known as CSIR Mk 1, was Australia's first digital computer, and the fifth stored program computer in the world.
The Cyclone, was a vacuum tube computer, built by Iowa State College (later University) at Ames, Iowa.
The DASK was the first computer in Denmark.
The Datatron is an obsolete family of decimal vacuum tube computers developed by ElectroData Corporation and first shipped in 1954.
DYSEAC was the second Standards Electronic Automatic Computer.
EDSAC 2 was an early computer (operational in 1958), the successor to the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC).
Eduard L. Stiefel (21 April 1909 – 25 November 1978) was a Swiss mathematician.
EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was one of the earliest electronic computers.
Sibyl Rock at the console of a ElectroData Datatron computer in 1955 The ElectroData Corporation is a defunct computer company located in Pasadena, California.
The electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer.
The Elliot 152 was a vacuum tube fixed-program computer developed for naval gunnery control at the Elliott Brothers laboratory in Borehamwood, England.
Elwro was a Polish company that manufactured mainframe and microcomputers from 1959 until 1989.
Engineering Research Associates, commonly known as ERA, was a pioneering computer firm from the 1950s.
The DEUCE (Digital Electronic Universal Computing Engine) was one of the earliest British commercially available computers, built by English Electric from 1955.
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.
ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.
FACIT EDB was a vacuum tube based computer that was manufactured by Åtvidabergs Industrier AB after the designs for BESK, that had been developed by the Swedish Board for Computing Machinery (Matematikmaskinnämnden).
Ferranti or Ferranti International plc was a UK electrical engineering and equipment firm that operated for over a century from 1885 until it went bankrupt in 1993.
The Ferranti Mark 1, also known as the Manchester Electronic Computer in its sales literature, and thus sometimes called the Manchester Ferranti, was the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.
The Mercury was an early commercial computer from the mid-1950s built by Ferranti.
Pegasus was an early vacuum tube (valve) computer built by Ferranti, Ltd of Great Britain.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
FLAC, the Florida Automatic Computer, was an early digital electronic computer built for the United States Air Force at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB) in Brevard County of Florida, to perform missile data reduction.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
FUJIC was the first electronic digital computer in operation in Japan.
, trading as Fujifilm (stylized as FUJiFILM), or simply Fuji, is a Japanese multinational photography and imaging company headquartered in Tokyo.
Bull SAS (also known as Groupe Bull, Bull Information Systems, or simply Bull) is a French-owned computer company headquartered in Les Clayes-sous-Bois, in the western suburbs of Paris.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
The Harvard Mark III, also known as ADEC (for Aiken Dahlgren Electronic Calculator) was an early computer that was partially electronic and partially electromechanical.
The Harvard Mark IV was an electronic stored-program computer built by Harvard University under the supervision of Howard Aiken for the United States Air Force.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Harwell computer, later known as the Wolverhampton Instrument for Teaching Computing from Harwell (WITCH), or the Harwell Dekatron Computer, is an early British relay-based computer of the 1950s.
Heinz Billing (7 April 1914 – 4 January 2017) was a German physicist and computer scientist, widely considered a pioneer in the construction of computer systems and computer data storage, who built a prototype laser interferometric gravitational wave detector.
Heinz Rutishauser (30 January 1918 – 10 November 1970) was a Swiss mathematician and a pioneer of modern numerical mathematics and computer science.
The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers.
The Hollerith Electronic Computer (HEC) was produced by the British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) and was based on a design by Professor Andrew Booth of Birkbeck College, London.
Howard Hathaway Aiken (March 8, 1900 – March 14, 1973) was an American physicist and a pioneer in computing, being the original conceptual designer behind IBM's Harvard Mark I computer.
The IAS machine was the first electronic computer to be built at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM 305 RAMAC was the first commercial computer that used a moving-head hard disk drive (magnetic disk storage) for secondary storage.
The IBM 610 Auto-Point Computer is one of the first personal computers, in the sense of a computer to be used by one person whose previous experience with computing might only have been with desk calculators.
The IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine is one of IBM's early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced computer.
The IBM 700/7000 series is a series of large-scale (mainframe) computer systems that were made by IBM through the 1950s and early 1960s.
The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer, which was announced to the public on April 29, 1952.
The IBM 702 was IBM's response to the UNIVAC—the first mainframe computer using magnetic tapes.
The IBM 704, introduced by IBM in 1954, is the first mass-produced computer with floating-point arithmetic hardware.
The IBM 709 was a computer system, initially announced by IBM in January 1957 and first installed during August 1958.
The IBM Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) was a one-of-a-kind first-generation (vacuum tube) computer built by IBM for the United States Navy's Bureau of Ordnance.
The ILLIAC I (Illinois Automatic Computer), a pioneering computer built in 1952 by the University of Illinois, was the first computer built and owned entirely by a US educational institution.
The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld.
International Computers and Tabulators or ICT was formed in 1959 by a merger of the British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) and Powers-Samas.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
The JOHNNIAC was an early computer built by the RAND Corporation (not to be confused with Remington Rand, maker of the contemporaneous UNIVAC I computer) that was based on the von Neumann architecture that had been pioneered on the IAS machine.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.
The LEO I (Lyons Electronic Office I) was the first computer used for commercial business applications.
The LGP-30, standing for Librascope General Purpose and then Librascope General Precision, was an early off-the-shelf computer.
Librascope was a Glendale, California, division of General Precision, Inc..
This is a list of transistorized computers, which were digital computers that used discrete transistors as their primary logic elements.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
The MADDIDA (MAgnetic Drum DIgital Differential Analyzer) was a special-purpose digital computer used for solving systems of ordinary differential equations.
The Manchester Baby, also known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the world's first stored-program computer.
The Manchester Mark 1 was one of the earliest stored-program computers, developed at the Victoria University of Manchester from the Manchester Baby (operational in June 1948).
The MANIAC (Mathematical Analyzer, Numerical Integrator, and Computer or Mathematical Analyzer, Numerator, Integrator, and Computer) was an early computer built under the direction of Nicholas Metropolis at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
The MANIAC II (Mathematical Analyzer Numerical Integrator and Computer Model II) was a first-generation electronic computer, built in 1957 for use at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is a physics institute in Munich, Germany that specializes in high energy physics and astroparticle physics.
MESM (МЭСМ, Малая Электронно-Счетная Машина, Small Electronic Calculating Machine) was the first universally programmable electronic computer in the Soviet Union.
Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States.
The MISTIC, or Michigan State Integral Computer, was the first computer system at Michigan State University and was built by its students, faculty and staff in 1957.
The Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania came into existence as a result of an endowment from Alfred Fitler Moore on June 4, 1923.
The MUSASINO-1 was one of the earliest electronic digital computers built in Japan.
The Museum of Science and Industry (MSI or formerly known as MOSI) in Manchester, England, is a large museum devoted to the development of science, technology and industry with emphasis on the city's achievements in these fields.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
A negative base (or negative radix) may be used to construct a non-standard positional numeral system.
Operation Teapot was a series of fourteen nuclear test explosions conducted at the Nevada Test Site in the first half of 1955.
The ORDVAC or Ordnance Discrete Variable Automatic Computer, an early computer built by the University of Illinois for the Ballistic Research Laboratory at Aberdeen Proving Ground, was based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann, which came to be known as the von Neumann architecture.
Pacific Missile Test Center (PMTC) is the former name of the current Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division.
Patrick Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation located between Satellite Beach and Cocoa Beach, in Brevard County, Florida, in the United States.
PERM or, is a stored-program-controlled electronic computer Munich, built under the auspices of Hans Piloty and Robert Sauer 1952-1956.
The Pilot ACE (Automatic Computing Engine) was one of the first computers built in the United Kingdom at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the early 1950s.
A plugboard, or control panel (the term used depended on the application area), is an array of jacks, or sockets (often called hubs), into which patch cords can be inserted to complete an electrical circuit.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
The RAYDAC (for Raytheon Digital Automatic Computer) was a one-of-a-kind computer built by Raytheon.
The Raytheon Company is a major U.S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics.
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.
Reeves Instrument Corporation (RICO) was a Cold War manufacturer of computer and radar systems for the United States.
A relay is an electrically operated switch.
Remington Rand (1927–1955) was an early American business machines manufacturer, best known originally as a typewriter manufacturer and in a later incarnation as the manufacturer of the UNIVAC line of mainframe computers.
The Remington Rand 409 control panel programmed punched card calculator, designed in 1949, was sold in two models: the UNIVAC 60 (1952) and the UNIVAC 120 (1953).
The Rice Institute Computer, also known as the Rice Computer or R1, was a 54-bit tagged architecture, section "II.", "PREVIOUS WORK" digital computer built during 1958–1961 (partially operational beginning in 1959) on the campus of Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States.
The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.
SEAC (Standards Eastern Automatic Computer or Standards Electronic Automatic Computer) was a first-generation electronic computer, built in 1950 by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and was initially called the National Bureau of Standards Interim Computer, because it was a small-scale computer designed to be built quickly and put into operation while the NBS waited for more powerful computers to be completed (the DYSEAC).
The SILLIAC (Sydney version of the '''Ill'''inois '''A'''utomatic '''C'''omputer, i.e. the Sydney ILLIAC), an early computer built by the University of Sydney, Australia, was based on the ILLIAC and ORDVAC computers developed at the University of Illinois, which in turn were based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann.
SMIL (Siffermaskinen i Lund, "The Number Machine in Lund") was a first-generation computer built at Lund University in Lund, Sweden.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd (later STC plc) was a British telephone, telegraph, radio, telecommunications, and related equipment R&D manufacturer.
Strela computer (arrow) was the first mainframe computer manufactured serially in the Soviet Union, beginning in 1953.
The ANITA Mark VII and ANITA Mark VIII calculators were launched simultaneously in late 1961 as the world's first all-electronic desktop calculators.
The SWAC (Standards Western Automatic Computer) was an early electronic digital computer built in 1950 by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in Los Angeles, California.
In mathematics, a system of linear equations (or linear system) is a collection of two or more linear equations involving the same set of variables.
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) is a public research institution located in Mumbai, India that is dedicated to basic research in mathematics and the sciences.
The National Museum of Computing is a museum in the United Kingdom dedicated to collecting and restoring historic computer systems.
TIFRAC (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Automatic Calculator) was the first computer developed in India, at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
The TU Dresden (abbreviated as TUD and often mistakenly translated from German as Dresden University of Technology) is a public research university, the largest institute of higher education in the city of Dresden, the largest university in Saxony and one of the 10 largest universities in Germany with 37,134 students.
UMC (Uniwersalna Maszyna Cyfrowa - Polish for Universal Digital Machine) is a family of computers produced by Elwro from 1962.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The ERA 1101, later renamed UNIVAC 1101, was a computer system designed and built by Engineering Research Associates (ERA) in the early 1950s and continued to be sold by the Remington Rand corporation after that company later purchased ERA.
The UNIVAC 1102 or ERA 1102 was designed by Engineering Research Associates for the United States Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center in Tullahoma, Tennessee in response to a request for proposal issued in 1950.
The UNIVAC 1103 or ERA 1103, a successor to the UNIVAC 1101, was a computer system designed by Engineering Research Associates and built by the Remington Rand corporation in October 1953.
The UNIVAC 1105 was a follow-on computer to the UNIVAC 1103A introduced by Sperry Rand in September 1958.
The UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States.
The UNIVAC II was an improvement to the UNIVAC I that UNIVAC first delivered in 1958.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.
The University of Oklahoma (OU) is a coeducational public research university in Norman, Oklahoma.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Sydney (informally, USyd or USYD) is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Ural (Урал) is a series of mainframe computers built in the former Soviet Union.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
The von Neumann architecture, which is also known as the von Neumann model and Princeton architecture, is a computer architecture based on the 1945 description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.
The WEIZAC (Weizmann Automatic Computer) was the first computer in Israel, and one of the first large-scale, stored-program, electronic computers in the world.
The Weizmann Institute of Science (מכון ויצמן למדע Machon Weizmann LeMada) is a public research university in Rehovot, Israel, established in 1934, 14 years before the State of Israel.
Whirlwind I was a Cold War-era vacuum tube computer developed by the MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory for the U.S. Navy.
The Wisconsin Integrally Synchronized Computer (WISC) was an early digital computer designed and built at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
The Z22 was the seventh computer model Konrad Zuse developed (the first six being the Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z11, respectively).
The ZEBRA (Zeer Eenvoudige Binaire Reken Automaat translated Very Simple Binary Automatic Calculator) was one of the first computers to be designed in the Netherlands, (the first one was the "ARRA") and one of the first Dutch computers to be commercially available.