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Literary criticism

Index Literary criticism

Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. [1]

258 relations: A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, A. C. Bradley, Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz, Abrahamic religions, Academic journal, Adultery, Aesthetics, Al-Jahiz, Alexander Pope, Anandavardhana, Anatole France, Anatomy of Criticism, André Breton, Anti-Oedipus, Arabic literature, Arabic poetry, Aristotle, Arthur Schopenhauer, Augustine of Hippo, Authorial intent, Émile Zola, Benedetto Croce, Bharata Muni, Bibliography, Boethius, Book review, Boris Eikhenbaum, Brill Publishers, Cao Pi, Carl Jung, Catharsis, Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, Charles Baudelaire, Chinua Achebe, Christian literature, Christine de Pizan, Classicism, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Cleanth Brooks, Clifford Geertz, Close reading, Comic book, Comparative literature, Continental philosophy, Copenhagen, Critic, Critical theory, Critique of Judgment, Cultural history, ..., Cultural studies, Culture, Dante Alighieri, Darwinian literary studies, David Hume, Denis Diderot, Diego Rivera, Dublin Review of Books, E. D. Hirsch, E. Michael Jones, Ecocriticism, Edgar Allan Poe, Edmund Burke, Edward Said, Edward Young, Elaine Showalter, Ernst Cassirer, Ernst Gombrich, Evaluation, Evolution, Exegesis, Félix Guattari, Feminist literary criticism, Ferdinand de Saussure, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Film criticism, Francis Bacon, Friedrich Hölderlin, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Schiller, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Gaston Bachelard, Genre fiction, Genre studies, Geoffrey Hartman, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Georges Bataille, Georges Poulet, Germaine de Staël, German Romanticism, Giambattista Vico, Gilles Deleuze, Giorgio Valla, Giovanni Boccaccio, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, György Lukács, Hans Robert Jauss, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Harold Bloom, Hayden White, Hélène Cixous, Henri Bergson, Henry Reynolds (poet), Hermeneutics, Hippolyte Taine, History of literature, History of the book, Horace, Hu Shih, I. A. Richards, Ideology, Ignatius Press, Immanuel Kant, Indian literature, Influence of mass media, Intellectual history, Interpretation (logic), Irving Babbitt, Islamic literature, J. Hillis Miller, Jacopo Mazzoni, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Lacan, James Joyce, Jan Mukařovský, Jürgen Habermas, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jewish literature, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Crowe Ransom, John Dennis (dramatist), John Dryden, John Keats, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, Johns Hopkins University Press, Jonathan Culler, Joseph Addison, Joshua Reynolds, Julia Kristeva, Karl Marx, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, Kenneth Burke, Knowledge and Human Interests, Latin, Leo Tolstoy, Leon Trotsky, Library of Congress, Lionel Trilling, Literary theory, Literature, Liu Xie, Lodovico Castelvetro, London Review of Books, Lu Ji (Shiheng), M. H. Abrams, Martin Heidegger, Mary Wollstonecraft, Matthew Arnold, Media studies, Michel Foucault, Middle Ages, Mikhail Bakhtin, Mimesis, Mina Loy, Monroe Beardsley, Murray Krieger, Natya Shastra, Neoclassicism, New Criticism, Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, Noam Chomsky, Northrop Frye, Octavio Paz, On the Sublime, Oscar Wilde, Oswald de Andrade, Paul de Man, Paul Ricœur, Paul Valéry, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Philip Sidney, Philip Wheelwright, Philosophical analysis, Philosophy and literature, Pierre Corneille, Plato, Plotinus, Poetic tradition, Poetics (Aristotle), Poetry, Post-structuralism, Pulp magazine, R. P. Blackmur, Rajashekhara, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ramayana, Raymond Williams, Reader-response criticism, Renaissance, René Girard, Richard Sharp (politician), Riichi Yokomitsu, Roland Barthes, Roman Jakobson, Romanticism, Ronald Crane, Russian formalism, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Sandra Gilbert, Søren Kierkegaard, Sigmund Freud, Simone de Beauvoir, Social criticism, Social history, Stanley Fish, Stéphane Mallarmé, Stephen James Joyce, Structuralism, Sublime (philosophy), Susan Gubar, T. E. Hulme, T. S. Eliot, The Anxiety of Influence, The Birth of Tragedy, The German Ideology, The Nation, The New York Review of Books, The New York Times Book Review, The New Yorker, The Poetic Principle, The Times Literary Supplement, Theodor W. Adorno, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Love Peacock, Torquato Tasso, Translation, Translation criticism, Tristan Tzara, Truth and Method, Valmiki, Viktor Shklovsky, Virginia Woolf, Vladimir Nabokov, Walter Benjamin, Walter Pater, Wang Changling, Western canon, What Is Art?, Wilhelm von Humboldt, William Blake, William K. Wimsatt, William Wordsworth, Wolfgang Iser, Women's writing (literary category). Expand index (208 more) »

A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy

A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (Zur Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie) is a book by Karl Marx, first published in 1859.

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A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects (1792), written by the 18th-century British proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.

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A. C. Bradley

Andrew Cecil Bradley, FBA (26 March 1851 – 2 September 1935) was an English literary scholar, best remembered for his work on Shakespeare.

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Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz

Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz (861 – 17 December 908) (عبد الله بن المعتز / ALA-LC: ‘Abd Allāh bin al-Mu‘utaz) is best known, not as a political figure, but as a leading Arabic poet and the author of the Kitab al-Badi, an early study of Arabic forms of poetry.

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Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.

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Academic journal

An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.

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Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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al-Jāḥiẓ (الجاحظ) (full name Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī أبو عثمان عمرو بن بحر الكناني البصري) (born 776, in Basra – December 868/January 869) was an Arab prose writer and author of works of literature, Mu'tazili theology, and politico-religious polemics.

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Alexander Pope

Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.

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Ānandavardhana (820–890) was the author of Dhvanyāloka, a work articulating the philosophy of "aesthetic suggestion".

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Anatole France

italic (born italic,; 16 April 1844 – 12 October 1924) was a French poet, journalist, and successful novelist with several best-sellers.

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Anatomy of Criticism

Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton University Press, 1957) is a book by Canadian literary critic and theorist, Northrop Frye, which attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature.

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André Breton

André Breton (18 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer, poet, and anti-fascist.

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Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (Capitalisme et schizophrénie.) is a 1972 book by French authors Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, respectively a philosopher and a psychoanalyst.

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Arabic literature

Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.

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Arabic poetry

Arabic poetry (الشعر العربي ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.

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Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

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Authorial intent

In literary theory and aesthetics, authorial intent refers to an author's intent as it is encoded in his or her work.

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Émile Zola

Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.

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Benedetto Croce

Benedetto Croce (25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics.

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Bharata Muni

Bharata Muni was an ancient Indian theatrologist and musicologist who wrote the Natya Shastra, a theoretical treatise on ancient Indian dramaturgy and histrionics, especially Sanskrit theatre.

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Bibliography (from Greek βιβλίον biblion, "book" and -γραφία -graphia, "writing"), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek -λογία, -logia).

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Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.

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Book review

A book review is a form of literary criticism in which a book is analyzed based on content, style, and merit.

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Boris Eikhenbaum

Boris Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum (p; October 16, 1886 – November 2, 1959) was a Russian and Soviet literary scholar and historian of Russian literature.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Cao Pi

Cao Pi (– 29 June 226), courtesy name Zihuan, was the first emperor of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

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Catharsis (from Greek κάθαρσις meaning "purification" or "cleansing") is the purification and purgation of emotions—particularly pity and fear—through art or any extreme change in emotion that results in renewal and restoration.

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Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve

Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (23 December 1804, in Boulogne-sur-Mer – 13 October 1869, in Paris) was a literary critic of French literature.

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Charles Baudelaire

Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.

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Chinua Achebe

Chinua Achebe (born Albert Chinụalụmọgụ Achebe, 16 November 1930 – 21 March 2013) was a Nigerian novelist, poet, professor, and critic.

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Christian literature

Christian literature is writing that deals with Christian themes and incorporates the Christian world view.

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Christine de Pizan

Christine de Pizan (also seen as de Pisan;; 1364 – c. 1430) was an Italian late medieval author.

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Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.

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Claude Lévi-Strauss

Claude Lévi-Strauss (28 November 1908, Brussels – 30 October 2009, Paris) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology.

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Cleanth Brooks

Cleanth Brooks (October 16, 1906 – May 10, 1994) was an American literary critic and professor.

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Clifford Geertz

Clifford James Geertz (August 23, 1926 – October 30, 2006) was an American anthropologist who is remembered mostly for his strong support for and influence on the practice of symbolic anthropology, and who was considered "for three decades...the single most influential cultural anthropologist in the United States." He served until his death as professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton.

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Close reading

In literary criticism, close reading is the careful, sustained interpretation of a brief passage of a text.

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Comic book

A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine or simply comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes.

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Comparative literature

Comparative literature is an academic field dealing with the study of literature and cultural expression across linguistic, national, and disciplinary boundaries.

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Continental philosophy

Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.

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Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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A critic is a professional who communicates an assessment and an opinion of various forms of creative works such as art, literature, music, cinema, theater, fashion, architecture, and food.

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Critical theory

Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.

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Critique of Judgment

The Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, KdU), also translated as the Critique of the Power of Judgment, is a 1790 philosophical work by Immanuel Kant.

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Cultural history

Cultural history combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience.

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Cultural studies

Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Darwinian literary studies

Darwinian literary studies (also known as literary Darwinism) is a branch of literary criticism that studies literature in the context of evolution by means of natural selection, including gene-culture coevolution.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.

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Diego Rivera

Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957) was a prominent Mexican painter.

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Dublin Review of Books

The Dublin Review of Books (drb) is an Irish review of literature, history, the arts, and culture.

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E. D. Hirsch

Eric Donald Hirsch Jr. (born March 22, 1928), usually cited as E. D. Hirsch, is an American educator and academic literary critic.

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E. Michael Jones

Eugene Michael Jones (born May 4, 1948) is an American writer, former professor, media commentator and the current editor of Culture Wars magazine (formerly Fidelity Magazine).

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Ecocriticism is the study of literature and the environment from an interdisciplinary point of view, where literature scholars analyze texts that illustrate environmental concerns and examine the various ways literature treats the subject of nature.

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Edgar Allan Poe

Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.

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Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.

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Edward Said

Edward Wadie Said (إدوارد وديع سعيد,; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a professor of literature at Columbia University, a public intellectual, and a founder of the academic field of postcolonial studies.

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Edward Young

Edward Young (3 July 1683 – 5 April 1765) was an English poet, best remembered for Night-Thoughts.

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Elaine Showalter

Elaine Showalter (born January 21, 1941) is an American literary critic, feminist, and writer on cultural and social issues.

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Ernst Cassirer

Ernst Alfred Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German philosopher.

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Ernst Gombrich

Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian who, after settling in England in 1936, became a naturalised British citizen in 1947 and spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom.

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Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.

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Félix Guattari

Pierre-Félix Guattari (April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French psychotherapist, philosopher, semiologist, and activist.

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Feminist literary criticism

Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theory, or more broadly, by the politics of feminism.

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Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.

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Filippo Tommaso Marinetti

Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (22 December 1876 – 2 December 1944) was an Italian poet, editor, art theorist, and founder of the Futurist movement.

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Film criticism

Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films and the film medium.

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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Friedrich Hölderlin

Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (20 March 1770 – 7 June 1843) was a German poet and philosopher.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Friedrich Schiller

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.

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Gaston Bachelard

Gaston Bachelard (27 June 1884 – 16 October 1962) was a French philosopher.

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Genre fiction

Genre fiction, also known as popular fiction, is plot-driven fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre, in order to appeal to readers and fans already familiar with that genre.

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Genre studies

Genre studies is an academic subject which studies genre theory as a branch of general critical theory in several different fields, including the literary or artistic, linguistic, or rhetorical.

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Geoffrey Hartman

Geoffrey H. Hartman (August 11, 1929 – March 14, 2016) was a German-born American literary theorist, sometimes identified with the Yale School of deconstruction, although he cannot be categorised by a single school or method.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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Georges Bataille

Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (10 September 1897 – 9 July 1962) was a French intellectual and literary figure working in literature, philosophy, anthropology, economics, sociology and history of art.

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Georges Poulet

Georges Poulet (29 November 1902 – 31 December 1991) was a Belgian literary critic associated with the Geneva School.

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Germaine de Staël

Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein (née Necker; 22 April 176614 July 1817), commonly known as Madame de Staël, was a French woman of letters of Swiss origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.

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German Romanticism

German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism.

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Giambattista Vico

Giambattista Vico (B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June 1668 – 23 January 1744) was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment.

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Gilles Deleuze

Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.

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Giorgio Valla

Giorgio Valla (Latin: Georgius Valla; 1447–1500) was an Italian academic, mathematician, philologist and translator.

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Giovanni Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.

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Gotthold Ephraim Lessing

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era.

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György Lukács

György Lukács (also Georg Lukács; born György Bernát Löwinger; 13 April 1885 – 4 June 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, aesthetician, literary historian, and critic.

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Hans Robert Jauss

Hans Robert Jauss (Jauß; 12 December 1921 in Göppingen – 1 March 1997 in Konstanz) was a German academic, notable for his work in reception theory and medieval and modern French literature.

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Hans-Georg Gadamer

Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher of the continental tradition, best known for his 1960 magnum opus Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode) on hermeneutics.

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Harold Bloom

Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American literary critic and Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University.

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Hayden White

Hayden White (July 12, 1928 – March 5, 2018) was an American historian in the tradition of literary criticism, perhaps most famous for his work Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1973/2014).

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Hélène Cixous

Hélène Cixous (born 5 June 1937) is a professor, French feminist writer, poet, playwright, philosopher, literary critic and rhetorician.

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Henri Bergson

Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.

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Henry Reynolds (poet)

Henry Reynolds (1564–1632) was an English schoolmaster poet and literary critic of the seventeenth century.

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Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.

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Hippolyte Taine

Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (21 April 1828 – 5 March 1893) was a French critic and historian.

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History of literature

The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry that attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/listener/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces.

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History of the book

The History of the Book is an academic discipline that studies the production, transmission, circulation and dissemination of text from antiquity to the present day.

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Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).

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Hu Shih

Hu Shih (17 December 1891 – 24 February 1962) was a Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat.

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I. A. Richards

Ivor Armstrong Richards (26 February 1893 – 7 September 1979), known as I. A. Richards, was an English educator, literary critic, and rhetorician whose work contributed to the foundations of the New Criticism, a formalist movement in literary theory, which emphasized the close reading of a literary text, especially poetry, in an effort to discover how a work of literature functions as a self-contained, self-referential æsthetic object.

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An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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Ignatius Press

Ignatius Press, named for Saint Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit Order, is a Catholic publishing house based in San Francisco, California, USA.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Indian literature

Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter.

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Influence of mass media

In media studies, media psychology, communication theory and sociology, media influence and media effects are topics relating to mass media and media culture effects on individual or audience thought, attitudes and behavior.

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Intellectual history

Intellectual history refers to the historiography of ideas and thinkers.

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Interpretation (logic)

An interpretation is an assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal language.

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Irving Babbitt

Irving Babbitt (August 2, 1865 – July 15, 1933) was an American academic and literary critic, noted for his founding role in a movement that became known as the New Humanism, a significant influence on literary discussion and conservative thought in the period between 1910 and 1930.

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Islamic literature

Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.

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J. Hillis Miller

Joseph Hillis Miller Jr. (born March 5, 1928) is an American literary critic who has been heavily influenced by—and who has heavily influenced—deconstruction.

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Jacopo Mazzoni

Jacopo Mazzoni (Latinized as Jacobus Mazzonius) (27 November 1548 – 10 April 1598) was an Italian philosopher, a professor in Pisa, and friend of Galileo Galilei.

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Jacques Derrida

Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.

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Jacques Lacan

Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".

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James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.

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Jan Mukařovský

Jan Mukařovský (11 November 1891 – 8 February 1975) was a Czech literary, linguistic, and aesthetic theorist.

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Jürgen Habermas

Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.

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Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.

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Jewish literature

Jewish literature includes works written by Jews on Jewish themes, literary works written in Jewish languages on various themes, and literary works in any language written by Jewish writers.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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John Crowe Ransom

John Crowe Ransom (April 30, 1888 – July 3, 1974) was an American educator, scholar, literary critic, poet, essayist and editor.

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John Dennis (dramatist)

John Dennis (16 September 1658 – 6 January 1734) was an English critic and dramatist.

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John Dryden

John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.

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John Keats

John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.

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Jonathan Culler

Jonathan Culler (born 1944) is a Professor of English at Cornell University; his published works are in the fields of structuralism, literary theory and criticism.

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Joseph Addison

Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essayist, poet, playwright, and politician.

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Joshua Reynolds

Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits.

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Julia Kristeva

Julia Kristeva (Юлия Кръстева; born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829), usually cited as Friedrich Schlegel, was a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and Indologist.

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Kenneth Burke

Kenneth Duva Burke (May 5, 1897 – November 19, 1993) was an American literary theorist, as well as poet, essayist, and novelist, who wrote on 20th-century philosophy, aesthetics, criticism, and rhetorical theory.

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Knowledge and Human Interests

Knowledge and Human Interests (Erkenntnis und Interesse) is a 1968 book by the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas, in which the author gives an account of the development of the modern natural and human sciences.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Lionel Trilling

Lionel Mordecai Trilling (July 4, 1905 – November 5, 1975) was an American literary critic, short story writer, essayist, and teacher.

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Literary theory

Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.

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Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.

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Liu Xie

Liu Xie (fl. 5th century), courtesy name Yanhe (彦和), was a Chinese writer.

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Lodovico Castelvetro

Lodovico Castelvetro (ca. 1505 in Modena – 1571 in Chiavenna) was an important figure in the development of neo-classicism, especially in drama.

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London Review of Books

The London Review of Books (LRB) is a British journal of literary essays.

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Lu Ji (Shiheng)

Lu Ji (261–303), courtesy name Shiheng, was a writer and literary critic who lived during the late Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China.

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M. H. Abrams

Meyer Howard "Mike" Abrams (July 23, 1912 – April 21, 2015), usually cited as M. H. Abrams, was an American literary critic, known for works on romanticism, in particular his book The Mirror and the Lamp.

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Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".

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Mary Wollstonecraft

Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.

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Matthew Arnold

Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.

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Media studies

Media studies is a discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history, and effects of various media; in particular, the mass media.

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Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mikhail Bakhtin

Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Бахти́н,; – 7 March 1975) was a Russian philosopher, literary critic, semiotician and scholar who worked on literary theory, ethics, and the philosophy of language.

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Mimesis (μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate", from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.

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Mina Loy

Mina Loy (born Mina Gertrude Löwy; 27 December 1882 – 25 September 1966), was a British artist, writer, poet, playwright, novelist, futurist, feminist, designer of lamps, and bohemian.

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Monroe Beardsley

Monroe Curtis Beardsley (December 10, 1915 – September 18, 1985) was an American philosopher of art.

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Murray Krieger

Murray Krieger (November 27, 1923 – August 5, 2000) was an American literary critic and theorist.

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Natya Shastra

The Nāṭya Śāstra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is a Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts.

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Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.

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New Criticism

New Criticism was a formalist movement in literary theory that dominated American literary criticism in the middle decades of the 20th century.

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Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux

Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux (1 November 1636 – 13 March 1711), often known simply as Boileau, was a French poet and critic.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Northrop Frye

Herman Northrop Frye (July 14, 1912 – January 23, 1991) was a Canadian literary critic and literary theorist, considered one of the most influential of the 20th century.

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Octavio Paz

Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican poet and diplomat.

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On the Sublime

On the Sublime (Περì Ὕψους Perì Hýpsous) is a Roman-era Greek work of literary criticism dated to the 1st century AD.

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Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.

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Oswald de Andrade

José Oswald de Souza Andrade (January 11, 1890 – October 22, 1954) was a Brazilian poet and polemicist.

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Paul de Man

Paul de Man (December 6, 1919 – December 21, 1983), born Paul Adolph Michel Deman, was a Belgian-born literary critic and literary theorist.

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Paul Ricœur

Jean Paul Gustave Ricœur (27 February 1913 – 20 May 2005) was a French philosopher best known for combining phenomenological description with hermeneutics.

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Paul Valéry

Ambroise Paul Toussaint Jules Valéry (30 October 1871 – 20 July 1945) was a French poet, essayist, and philosopher.

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Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.

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Philip Sidney

Sir Philip Sidney (30 November 1554 – 17 October 1586) was an English poet, courtier, scholar, and soldier, who is remembered as one of the most prominent figures of the Elizabethan age.

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Philip Wheelwright

Philip Ellis Wheelwright (July 6, 1901 – January 6, 1970) was an American philosopher, classical scholar and literary theorist.

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Philosophical analysis

Philosophical analysis (from Φιλοσοφική ανάλυση) is a general term for techniques typically used by philosophers in the analytic tradition that involve "breaking down" (i.e. analyzing) philosophical issues.

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Philosophy and literature

Philosophy and literature involves the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes (the literature of philosophy), and the philosophical treatment of issues raised by literature (the philosophy of literature).

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Pierre Corneille

Pierre Corneille (Rouen, 6 June 1606 – Paris, 1 October 1684) was a French tragedian.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.

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Poetic tradition

Poetic tradition is a concept similar to that of the poetic or literary canon (a body of works of significant literary merit, instrumental in shaping Western culture and modes of thought).

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Poetics (Aristotle)

Aristotle's Poetics (Περὶ ποιητικῆς; De Poetica; c. 335 BCDukore (1974, 31).) is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory in the West.

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Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Pulp magazine

Pulp magazines (often referred to as "the pulps") were inexpensive fiction magazines that were published from 1896 to the 1950s.

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R. P. Blackmur

Richard Palmer Blackmur (January 21, 1904 – February 2, 1965) was an American literary critic and poet.

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Rajashekhara was an eminent Sanskrit poet, dramatist and critic.

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Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.

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Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.

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Raymond Williams

Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 – 26 January 1988) was a Welsh Marxist theorist, academic, novelist and critic.

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Reader-response criticism

Reader-response criticism is a school of literary theory that focuses on the reader (or "audience") and their experience of a literary work, in contrast to other schools and theories that focus attention primarily on the author or the content and form of the work.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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René Girard

René Noël Théophile Girard (25 December 1923 – 4 November 2015) was a French historian, literary critic, and philosopher of social science whose work belongs to the tradition of anthropological philosophy.

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Richard Sharp (politician)

Richard Sharp, FRS, FSA (1759 – 30 March 1835), also known as "Conversation" Sharp, was a British hat-maker, banker, merchant, poet, critic, Member of Parliament, and conversationalist.

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Riichi Yokomitsu

was an experimental, modernist Japanese writer.

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Roland Barthes

Roland Gérard Barthes (12 November 1915 – 26 March 1980) was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician.

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Roman Jakobson

Roman Osipovich Jakobson (Рома́н О́сипович Якобсо́н; October 11, 1896Kucera, Henry. 1983. "Roman Jakobson." Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America 59(4): 871–883. – July 18,, compiled by Stephen Rudy 1982) was a Russian–American linguist and literary theorist.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Ronald Crane

Ronald Salmon Crane (January 5, 1886 – July 12, 1967) was a literary critic, historian, bibliographer, and professor.

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Russian formalism

Russian formalism was a school of literary criticism in Russia from the 1910s to the 1930s.

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Samuel Johnson

Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.

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Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.

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Sandra Gilbert

Sandra M. Gilbert (born December 27, 1936), Professor Emerita of English at the University of California, Davis, is an American literary critic and poet who has published in the fields of feminist literary criticism, feminist theory, and psychoanalytic criticism.

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Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Simone de Beauvoir

Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.

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Social criticism

The term social criticism often refers to a mode of criticism that locates the reasons for malicious conditions in a society considered to be in a flawed social structure.

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Social history

Social history, often called the new social history, is a field of history that looks at the lived experience of the past.

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Stanley Fish

Stanley Eugene Fish (born April 19, 1938) is an American literary theorist, legal scholar, author and public intellectual.

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Stéphane Mallarmé

Stéphane Mallarmé (18 March 1842 – 9 September 1898), whose real name was Étienne Mallarmé, was a French poet and critic.

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Stephen James Joyce

Stephen James Joyce (born 15 February 1932) is the grandson of James Joyce and the controversial executor of Joyce's estate.

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In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.

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Sublime (philosophy)

In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic.

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Susan Gubar

Susan D. Gubar (born November 30, 1944) is an American author and distinguished Professor Emerita of English and Women's Studies at Indiana University.

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T. E. Hulme

Thomas Ernest Hulme (16 September 1883 – 28 September 1917) was an English critic and poet who, through his writings on art, literature and politics, had a notable influence upon modernism.

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T. S. Eliot

Thomas Stearns Eliot, (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and "one of the twentieth century's major poets".

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The Anxiety of Influence

The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry is a 1973 book by Harold Bloom.

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The Birth of Tragedy

The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik) is an 1872 work of dramatic theory by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.

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The German Ideology

The German Ideology (German: Die deutsche Ideologie) is a set of manuscripts written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels around April or early May 1846.

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The Nation

The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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The New York Times Book Review

The New York Times Book Review (NYTBR) is a weekly paper-magazine supplement to The New York Times in which current non-fiction and fiction books are reviewed.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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The Poetic Principle

"The Poetic Principle" is an essay by Edgar Allan Poe, written near the end of his life and published posthumously in 1850, the year after his death.

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The Times Literary Supplement

The Times Literary Supplement (or TLS, on the front page from 1969) is a weekly literary review published in London by News UK, a subsidiary of News Corp.

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Theodor W. Adorno

Theodor W. Adorno (born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German philosopher, sociologist, and composer known for his critical theory of society.

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

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Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Thomas Love Peacock

Thomas Love Peacock (18 October 1785 – 23 January 1866) was an English novelist, poet, and official of the East India Company.

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Torquato Tasso

Torquato Tasso (11 March 1544 – 25 April 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered, 1581), in which he depicts a highly imaginative version of the combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the Siege of Jerusalem.

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Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.

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Translation criticism

Translation criticism is the systematic study, evaluation, and interpretation of different aspects of translated works.

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Tristan Tzara

Tristan Tzara (born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; – 25 December 1963) was a Romanian and French avant-garde poet, essayist and performance artist.

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Truth and Method

Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode) is a 1960 book by Hans-Georg Gadamer, his major philosophical work.

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Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, Vālmīki) is celebrated as the harbinger-poet in Sanskrit literature.

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Viktor Shklovsky

Viktor Borisovich Shklovsky (p; – 6 December 1984) was a Russian and Soviet literary theorist, critic, writer, and pamphleteer.

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Virginia Woolf

Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.

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Vladimir Nabokov

Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.

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Walter Benjamin

Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (15 July 1892 – 26 September 1940) was a German Jewish philosopher, cultural critic and essayist.

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Walter Pater

Walter Horatio Pater (4 August 1839 – 30 July 1894) was an English essayist, literary and art critic, and fiction writer, regarded as one of the great stylists.

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Wang Changling

Wang Changling (698–756) was a major Tang dynasty poet.

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Western canon

The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".

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What Is Art?

What is Art? (Что такое искусство? Chto takoye iskusstvo?) is a book by Leo Tolstoy.

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Wilhelm von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt, a naturalist).

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William Blake

William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.

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William K. Wimsatt

William Kurtz Wimsatt Jr. (November 17, 1907 – December 17, 1975) was an American professor of English, literary theorist, and critic.

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William Wordsworth

William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).

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Wolfgang Iser

Wolfgang Iser (22 July 1926 – 24 January 2007) was a German literary scholar.

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Women's writing (literary category)

The academic discipline of Women's Writing as a discrete area of literary studies is based on the notion that the experience of women, historically, has been shaped by their gender, and so women writers by definition are a group worthy of separate study: "Their texts emerge from and intervene in conditions usually very different from those which produced most writing by men." It is not a question of the subject matter or political stance of a particular author, but of her gender, i.e. her position as a woman within the literary world.

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Book reviewer, Book reviewing, Classical criticism, Crit lit, Lit Crit, Lit crit, Literary Critic, Literary Criticism, Literary Studies, Literary analysis, Literary critic, Literary critics, Literary critique, Literary interpretation, Literary science, Literary scientist, Literary studies, Literary study, Literature analysis, Literology.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literary_criticism

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