311 relations: Absorbed dose, Abundances of the elements (data page), Actinide, Alkali metal, Alkene, Alloy, Alpha particle, Aluminium, Aluminium oxide, Aluminium–lithium alloy, Ammonia, Andes, Anionic addition polymerization, Anode, Argentina, Argonne National Laboratory, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Atomic vapor laser isotope separation, Augustus Matthiessen, Baryon, Base (chemistry), Beryllium, Beryllium fluoride, Big Bang, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, Binary phase, Bipolar disorder, Birch reduction, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg L.P., Bolivia, Boric acid, Borohydride, Boron, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bretislav Friedrich, Brine, Brown dwarf, Cadmium, Carbanion, Carbide, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon star, Carbonate, Carbon–carbon bond, Castle Bravo, ..., Catalysis, Ceramic, Ceramic glaze, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chile, Christian Gmelin, Clay, Cluster headache, Cold War, Combustibility and flammability, Continuous casting, Coolant, Cornwall, Corrosion, Corrosive substance, Covalent bond, Crust (geology), Crystal, Crystal oscillator, Crystallographic defect, Cubic crystal system, Desiccant, Deuterium, Diagonal relationship, Diffusionless transformation, Disposable product, Drinking water, Dry lake, Ebstein's anomaly, Electric battery, Electric vehicle, Electrode potential, Electrolysis, Energy density, Ephedrine, Ernest Walton, Explosion, Fermionic condensate, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Fire extinguisher, Fireworks, Flare, Flux (metallurgy), Ford Motor Company, Functional group, Fusion power, Geothermal energy, Geothermal power, Ghazni Province, Government Accountability Office, Granite, Grease (lubricant), Half-life, Halide, Hall–Héroult process, Halo nucleus, Heat capacity, Heat transfer, Hectorite, Helium, Helium-3, Henry Kravis, Hexagonal crystal family, Human nose, Humphry Davy, Hydride, Hydrogen, Hydrothermal vent, Hygroscopy, Igneous rock, Infrared, Ion, Ion exchange, Ionic radius, Iron, Irritation, Isotope, Isotope separation, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Johan August Arfwedson, John Cockcroft, José Bonifácio de Andrada, Julio Ponce Lerou, Kilowatt hour, Kings Mountain, North Carolina, Laser cooling, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lead–acid battery, Lepidolite, LiHe, Liquid nitrogen, List of chemical elements, List of countries by lithium production, Lithia water, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lithium amide, Lithium as an investment, Lithium battery, Lithium borate, Lithium borohydride, Lithium bromide, Lithium burning, Lithium carbide, Lithium carbonate, Lithium chloride, Lithium fluoride, Lithium hydride, Lithium hydroxide, Lithium iodide, Lithium iron phosphate battery, Lithium niobate, Lithium nitrate, Lithium nitride, Lithium oxide, Lithium perchlorate, Lithium peroxide, Lithium polymer battery, Lithium soap, Lithium sulfide, Lithium superoxide, Lithium triethylborohydride, Lithium-ion battery, Lithium–air battery, Lung, Lustre (mineralogy), Magnesium, Magnetic confinement fusion, Major depressive disorder, Manganese, Mark 50 torpedo, Melting point, Metabolism, Metallgesellschaft, Methamphetamine, Millisecond, Mineral oil, Mineral spring, Molar concentration, Molding sand, Molten salt reactor, Mood stabilizer, N-Butyllithium, Nanowire battery, Naphtha, Natural abundance, Neutron, Neutron capture, Neutron cross section, Nevada, Nitride, Nitrogen, Nonlinear optics, Nuclear arms race, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear physics, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Nuclear weapons testing, Nucleon, Nucleosynthesis, Nuclide, Oligopoly, Optical modulator, Orders of magnitude (temperature), Ore Mountains, Organolithium reagent, Oxide, Oxygen, Pegmatite, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Petalite, Petroleum jelly, Photon, Plasma (physics), Plug-in hybrid, Potassium, Potassium chloride, Pound (mass), Primary cell, Primordial nuclide, Proton, Proton emission, Pseudoephedrine, Pulmonary edema, Pyrotechnic colorant, Radical initiator, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rankine cycle, Reactivity (chemistry), Red dwarf, Refractive index, Relative atomic mass, Robert Bunsen, Rock Springs Uplift, Rocket propellant, Salar de Arizaro, Salar de Atacama, Salar de Uyuni, Salt (chemistry), Salt evaporation pond, Salt lake, Salt pan (geology), Schizoaffective disorder, Short circuit, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Sociedad Química y Minera, Sodium, Soldering, Solid fuel, Solubility, Spacecraft, Spodumene, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Steam, Stearate, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Submarine, Sulfide, Sulfur hexafluoride, Superbase, Superconductivity, Superoxide, Talison Minerals, Telescope, Tert-Butyllithium, The Guardian, The New York Times, Thermal expansion, Thermal runaway, Thermoluminescent dosimeter, Thermonuclear weapon, Thickening agent, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Tin, Titanium, Tonne, Tritium, Two-electron atom, Ultraviolet, United States Geological Survey, University of California, Berkeley, University of Michigan, Utö, Sweden, Uyuni, Valence electron, Van der Waals molecule, Viscosity, Volt, Welding, William Thomas Brande, World War II, Zinc–carbon battery. 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Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Aluminium–lithium alloys (Al–Li) are a series of alloys of aluminium and lithium, often also including copper and zirconium.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Anionic addition polymerization is a form of chain-growth polymerization or addition polymerization that involves the polymerization of vinyl monomers with strong electronegative groups.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
Atomic vapor laser isotope separation, or AVLIS, is a method by which specially tuned lasers are used to separate isotopes of uranium using selective ionization of hyperfine transitions.
Augustus Matthiessen, FRS (2 January 1831, in London – 6 October 1870, in London), the son of a merchant, was a British chemist and physicist who obtained his PhD in Germany at the University of Gießen in 1852 with Johann Heinrich Buff.
A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Beryllium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BeF2.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis, arch(a)eonucleosynthesis, archonucleosynthesis, protonucleosynthesis and pal(a)eonucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the Universe.
In materials chemistry, a binary phase is chemical compound containing two different elements.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
The Birch reduction is an organic reaction which is particularly useful in synthetic organic chemistry.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
Borohydride refers to the anion BH4− and its salts.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.
Bretislav Friedrich (born 29 May 1953) is a Research Group leader at the Department of Molecular Physics, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and Honorarprofessor at the Technische Universität in Berlin, Germany.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carbon star is typically an asymptotic giant branch star, a luminous red giant, whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen; the two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon atoms free to form other carbon compounds, giving the star a "sooty" atmosphere and a strikingly ruby red appearance.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms.
Castle Bravo was the first in a series of high-yield thermonuclear weapon design tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, as part of Operation Castle.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Christian Gottlob Gmelin (12 October 1792 – 13 May 1860) was a German chemist.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Cluster headache (CH) is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, severe headaches on one side of the head, typically around the eye.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
Continuous casting, also called strand casting, is the process whereby molten metal is solidified into a "semifinished" billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in the finishing mills.
A coolant is a substance, typically liquid or gas, that is used to reduce or regulate the temperature of a system.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.
Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
A diagonal relationship is said to exist between certain pairs of diagonally adjacent elements in the second and third periods of the periodic table.
A diffusionless transformation is a phase change that occurs without the long-range diffusion of atoms but rather by some form of cooperative, homogeneous movement of many atoms that results in a change in crystal structure.
A disposable (also called disposable product) is a product designed for a single use after which it is recycled or is disposed as solid waste.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
A dry lake is either a basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation processes exceeded recharge.
Ebstein's anomaly is a congenital heart defect in which the septal and posterior leaflets of the tricuspid valve are displaced towards the apex of the right ventricle of the heart.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electric vehicle, also called an EV, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion.
Electrode potential, E, in chemistry or electrochemistry, according to a IUPAC definition, is the electromotive force of a cell built of two electrodes.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (6 October 1903 – 25 June 1995) was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with "atom-smashing" experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s, and so became the first person in history to artificially split the atom.
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
A fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
A flare, also sometimes called a fusee, is a type of pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an explosion.
In metallurgy, a flux (derived from Latin fluxus meaning “flow”) is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
Geothermal power is power generated by geothermal energy.
Ghazni (غزنی; غزني) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southeastern part of the country.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Grease is a semisolid lubricant.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The Hall–Héroult process is the major industrial process for smelting aluminium.
In nuclear physics, an atomic nucleus is called a halo nucleus or is said to have a nuclear halo when it has a core nucleus surrounded by a "halo" of orbiting protons or neutrons, which makes the radius of the nucleus appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
Hectorite is a rare soft, greasy, white clay mineral with a chemical formula of Na0.3(Mg,Li)3Si4O10(OH)2.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).
Henry R. Kravis (born January 6, 1944) is an American businessman, investor, and philanthropist.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Johan August Arfwedson (12 January 1792 – 28 October 1841) was a Swedish chemist who discovered the chemical element lithium in 1817 by isolating it as a salt.
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft, (27 May 1897 – 18 September 1967) was a British physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951 for splitting the atomic nucleus with Ernest Walton, and was instrumental in the development of nuclear power.
José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (13 June 17636 April 1838) was a Brazilian statesman, naturalist, professor and poet, born in Santos, São Paulo, then part of the Portuguese Empire.
Julio Ponce Lerou is a Chilean billionaire who is the principal shareholder of Soquimich.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
Kings Mountain is a small suburban city within the Charlotte metropolitan area in Cleveland and Gaston counties, North Carolina, United States.
Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.
Lepidolite is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group of minerals with formula K(Li,Al,Rb)2(Al,Si)4O10(F,OH)2.
LiHe is a compound of helium and lithium.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
, 118 chemical elements are identified.
This is a list of countries by lithium mine production in 2016.
Lithia water is defined as a type of mineral water characterized by the presence of lithium salts (as lithium carbonate or lithium chloride).
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
Lithium amide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Li+NH2−, i.e. it is composed of a lithium cation, and the conjugate base of ammonia.
As widespread economic turmoil in the first decade of the 21st century resulted in the broad destabilization of many traditional investment products and venues alternative investment options began to realize an increase in popularity among investors who may not have otherwise strayed from established investment practices under previous markets.
Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have lithium as an anode.
Lithium borate, also known as lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7), is the lithium salt of boric acid.
Lithium borohydride (LiBH4) is a tetrahydroborate and known in organic synthesis as a reducing agent for esters.
Lithium bromide (LiBr) is a chemical compound of lithium and bromine.
Lithium burning is a nucleosynthetic process in which lithium is depleted in a star.
Lithium carbide,, often known as dilithium acetylide, is a chemical compound of lithium and carbon, an acetylide.
Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl.
Lithium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiF.
Lithium hydride is an inorganic compound with the formula LiH.
Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH.
Lithium iodide, or LiI, is a compound of lithium and iodine.
The lithium iron phosphate battery, also called LFP battery (with "LFP" standing for "lithium ferrophosphate"), is a type of rechargeable battery, specifically a lithium-ion battery, which uses 4 as a cathode material, and a graphitic carbon electrode with a metallic current collector grid as the anode.
Lithium niobate is a compound of niobium, lithium, and oxygen.
Lithium nitrate is an inorganic compound with the formula LiNO3.
Lithium nitride is a compound with the formula Li3N.
Lithium oxide (2O) or lithia is an inorganic chemical compound.
Lithium perchlorate is the inorganic compound with the formula LiClO4.
Lithium peroxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Li2O2.
A lithium polymer battery, or more correctly lithium-ion polymer battery (abbreviated as LiPo, LIP, Li-poly, lithium-poly and others), is a rechargeable battery of lithium-ion technology using a polymer electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte.
Lithium soap, often loosely referred to as "lithium grease" or "white lithium", is a soap that is a lithium derivative.
Lithium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula Li2S.
Lithium triethylborohydride is the organoboron compound with the formula LiEt3BH). Commonly referred to as LiTEBH or Superhydride, it is a powerful reducing agent used in organometallic and organic chemistry. It is a colorless or white solid but is typically marketed and used as a THF solution.Marek Zaidlewicz, Herbert C. Brown "Lithium Triethylborohydride" Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis 2001, John Wiley & Sons. The related reducing agent sodium triethylborohydride is commercially available as toluene solutions. LiBHEt3 is stronger reducing agent than lithium borohydride and lithium aluminium hydride.
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.
The lithium-air battery (Li-air) is a metal–air electrochemical cell or battery chemistry that uses oxidation of lithium at the anode and reduction of oxygen at the cathode to induce a current flow.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to generate thermonuclear fusion power that uses magnetic fields to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of a plasma.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The Mark 50 torpedo is a U.S. Navy advanced lightweight torpedo for use against fast, deep-diving submarines.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metallgesellschaft AG was formerly one of Germany's largest industrial conglomerates based in Frankfurt.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.
Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.
Mineral springs are naturally occurring springs that produce water containing minerals, or other dissolved substances, that alter its taste or give it a purported therapeutic value.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
Molding sand, also known as foundry sand, is a sand that when moistened and compressed or oiled or heated tends to pack well and hold its shape.
A molten salt reactor (MSR) is a class of generation IV nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant, or even the fuel itself, is a molten salt mixture.
A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.
n-Butyllithium (abbreviated n-BuLi) is an organolithium reagent.
A nanowire battery uses nanowires to increase the surface area of one or both of its electrodes.
Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of 3-.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.
The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War.
Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
An oligopoly (from Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (olígos) "few" + πωλεῖν (polein) "to sell") is a market form wherein a market or industry is dominated by a small number of large sellers (oligopolists).
An optical modulator is a device which is used to modulate a beam of light.
Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude.
The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range (Erzgebirge; Krušné hory; both literally "ore mountains") in Central Europe have formed a natural border between Saxony and Bohemia for around 800 years, from the 12th to the 20th centuries.
Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Petalite, also known as castorite, is a lithium aluminium tectosilicate mineral LiAlSi4O10, crystallizing in the monoclinic system.
Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin/paraffin wax or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25), originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle whose battery can be recharged by plugging it in to an external source of electric power as well by its on-board engine and generator.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
A primary cell is a battery that is designed to be used once and discarded, and not recharged with electricity and reused like a secondary cell (rechargeable battery).
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Proton emission (also known as proton radioactivity) is a rare type of radioactive decay in which a proton is ejected from a nucleus.
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
A pyrotechnic colorant is a chemical compound which causes a flame to burn with a particular color.
In chemistry, radical initiators are substances that can produce radical species under mild conditions and promote radical reactions.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
The Rankine cycle is a model used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (30 March 1811N1 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist.
The Rock Springs Uplift is an area of uplifted Cretaceous to Eocene rocks in Wyoming surrounded and once covered by sediments of the Green River Formation which were deposited in the Eocene Lake Gosiute.
Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.
Salar de Arizaro is a large salt flat of the Andes in north-western Argentina, bordering with Chile.
Salar de Atacama is the largest salt flat in Chile.
Salar de Uyuni (or Salar de Tunupa) is the world's largest salt flat at 10 582 square kilometers (4 086 sq mi).
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
San Francisco Bay salt ponds salar'' is rich in lithium, and the mine concentrates the brine in the ponds Contemporary solar evaporation salt pans on the island of Lanzarote at Salinas de Janubio Solar evaporation ponds in the Atacama Desert Solar evaporation ponds in the Salt Valley of Añana, Spain Solar evaporation ponds in the Salt Valley of Añana, Spain A salt evaporation pond is a shallow artificial salt pan designed to extract salts from sea water or other brines.
A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts (typically sodium chloride) and other dissolved minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least three grams of salt per litre).
Natural salt pans or salt flats are flat expanses of ground covered with salt and other minerals, usually shining white under the sun.
Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.
A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Sociedad Química y Minera de Chile (SQM) is a Chilean chemical company and a supplier of plant nutrients, iodine, lithium and industrial chemicals.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Soldering (AmE:, BrE), is a process in which two or more items (usually metal) are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
Solid fuel refers to various forms of solid material that can be burnt to release energy, providing heat and light through the process of combustion.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spodumene is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium aluminium inosilicate, LiAl(SiO3)2, and is a source of lithium.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
Stearates are the salts and esters of stearic acid.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator.
In chemistry, a superbase is an extremely basic compound or caustic substance that has a high affinity for protons.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
Talison Minerals Pty Ltd was a mining company based in Australia.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
tert-Butyllithium is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)3CLi.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thermal runaway occurs in situations where an increase in temperature changes the conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often leading to a destructive result.
A thermoluminescent dosimeter, or TLD, is a type of radiation dosimeter.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
In atomic physics, a two-electron atom or helium-like ion is a quantum mechanical system consisting of one nucleus with a charge of Ze and just two electrons.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Utö is a small island in the East of Stockholm archipelago, known for its nature.
Uyuni (Aymara, uyu pen (enclosure), yard, cemetery, -ni a suffix to indicate ownership, "the one that has got a pen", "the one with a pen") is a city in the southwest of Bolivia.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
A van der Waals molecule is a weakly bound complex of atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular attractions such as van der Waals forces or by hydrogen bonds.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
William Thomas Brande FRS FRSE (11 January 1788 – 11 February 1866) was an English chemist.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A zinc–carbon battery is a dry cell primary battery that delivers about 1.5 volts of direct current from the electrochemical reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide.