1069 relations: Abraomas Kulvietis, Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian, Act of Independence of Lithuania, Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania, Adolf Hitler, Adolfas Večerskis, Adomas Varnas, Adversarial system, Aerobatics, Aesti, Afghanistan, Age of Enlightenment, Aleksandras Stulginskis, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Alexander II of Russia, Algirdas, Algirdas Brazauskas, Algirdas Julien Greimas, Algirdas Kaušpėdas, Altar, Alytus, Alytus County, Amber, Amber Road, Andrius Mamontovas, Animal language, Annals of Quedlinburg, Anno Domini, Antanas Škėma, Antanas Žmuidzinavičius, Antanas Baranauskas, Antanas Gustaitis, Antanas Juknevičius, Antanas Merkys, Antanas Smetona, Antanas Vienuolis, Antis, Arūnas Matelis, Art Deco, Artillery, Artillery battery, Arvydas Sabonis, Ash Wednesday, Asteroid, Astronaut, Astronomy, Aušrinė, Audrius Stonys, August Schleicher, Augustinas Povilaitis, ..., Augustinas Voldemaras, Aukštaitian dialect, Aukštaitija National Park, Aukštojas 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Abraomas Kulvietis (Abraham Culvensis; Abraham Kulwieć; c. 1509 – 19 June 1545) was a Lithuanian jurist and a professor at Königsberg Albertina University, as well as a reformer of the church.
Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian (Didysis lietuvių kalbos žodynas or Akademinis lietuvių kalbos žodynas) is the complete thesaurus of the Lithuanian language and is one of the most extensive lexicographical pieces in the world.
The Act of Reinstating Independence of Lithuania (Lietuvos Valstybės atkūrimo aktas) or Act of 16 February was signed by the Council of Lithuania on 16 February 1918, proclaiming the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania, governed by democratic principles, with Vilnius as its capital.
The Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania or Act of March 11 (Aktas dėl Lietuvos nepriklausomos valstybės atstatymo) was an independence declaration by the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic adopted on March 11, 1990, signed by all members of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania led by Sąjūdis.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolfas Večerskis (born 4 September 1949 in Kretinga), is a Lithuanian movie and stage actor, director and translator.
Adomas Varnas (January 1, 1879 in Joniškis, Lithuania – July 19, 1979 in Chicago, United States) was a prominent Lithuanian painter, photographer, collector, philanthropist, and educator.
The adversarial system or adversary system is a legal system used in the common law countries where two advocates represent their parties' case or position before an impartial person or group of people, usually a jury or judge, who attempt to determine the truth and pass judgment accordingly.
Aerobatics (a portmanteau of aerial-acrobatics) is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft attitudes that are not used in normal flight.
The Aesti (also Aestii, Astui or Aests) were an ancient people first described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his treatise Germania (circa 98 AD).
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Aleksandras Stulginskis (February 26, 1885 – September 22, 1969) was the second President of Lithuania (1920–1926).
Aleksandras Stulginskis University is a university in Lithuania, in Akademija, west of Kaunas.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Algirdas (Альгерд, Ольгерд, Olgierd; – May 1377) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania.
Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas (1932 – 2010) was the first President of a newly independent post-Soviet Lithuania from 1993 to 1998 and Prime Minister from 2001 to 2006.
Algirdas Julien Greimas (born Algirdas Julius Greimas; 9 March 1917 – 27 February 1992), was a French-Lithuanian literary scientist, known among other things for the Greimas Square (le carré sémiotique).
Algirdas Kaušpėdas (born August 12, 1953, in Vilnius, Lithuania) is a Lithuanian rock musician, the leader of Lithuanian rock group Antis, an architect and one of the Sąjūdis initiators.
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican churches.
Alytus is a city with municipal rights in southern Lithuania.
Alytus County (Alytaus apskritis) is one of ten counties in Lithuania.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
Andrius Mamontovas (born August 23, 1967) is a Lithuanian rock musician of Russian descent.
Animal languages are forms of non-human animal communication that show similarities to human language.
The Annals of Quedlinburg (Saxonicae Annales Quedlinburgenses, Quedlinburger Annalen) were written between 1008 and 1030 in the convent of Quedlinburg Abbey.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Antanas Škėma (November 29, 1910 – August 11, 1961) was a Lithuanian writer, stage actor and director.
Antanas Žmuidzinavičius (October 31, 1876 – August 9, 1966) was a Lithuanian painter and art collector.
Antanas Baranauskas (Antonius Baranovski, Antoni Baranowski; January 17, 1835 in Anykščiai – November 26, 1902) was a Lithuanian poet, mathematician and Catholic bishop of Sejny.
Antanas Gustaitis (March 26, 1898 – October 16, 1941) was an officer in the Lithuanian Armed Forces who modernized the Lithuanian Air Force, which at that time was part of the Lithuanian Army.
Antanas Juknevicius (born 13 June 1974) is a Lithuanian professional rally driver.
Antanas Merkys (1 February 1887 – 5 March 1955) was the last Prime Minister of independent Lithuania, serving from November 1939 to June 1940.
Antanas Smetona (10 August 1874 – 9 January 1944) was one of the most important Lithuanian political figures between World War I and World War II.
Antanas Vienuolis (born Antanas Žukauskas; April 7, 1882 — August 17, 1957) was a Lithuanian writer, dramatist and one of the most famous realistic prosaists.
Antis is a Lithuanian postmodernist rock band.
Arūnas Matelis (9 April 1961, Kaunas) is an acclaimed Lithuanian documentary film director.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.
Arvydas Romas Sabonis (born December 19, 1964) is a Lithuanian retired professional basketball player and businessman.
Ash Wednesday is a Christian holy day of prayer, fasting and repentance.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Aušrinė (not to be confused with Aušra – dawn) is a feminine deity of the Morning Star (Venus) in the Lithuanian mythology.
Audrius Stonys (born on April 28, 1966 in Vilnius) is a Lithuanian documentary filmmaker.
August Schleicher (19 February 1821 – 6 December 1868) was a German linguist.
Augustinas Povilaitis (24 February 1900 in Pašventys, Jurbarkas district – 12 July 1941 in Moscow) was a captain of the Lithuanian Army and Director of the State Security Department of Lithuania.
Augustinas Voldemaras (16 April 1883 – 16 May 1942) was a Lithuanian nationalist political figure.
Aukštaitian (Aukštaičių tarmė) is one of the dialects of the Lithuanian language, spoken in ethnographic regions of Aukštaitija, Dzūkija and Suvalkija.
Aukštaitija National Park is a national park in north-eastern Lithuania, about 100 km north of Vilnius.
Aukštojas Hill is the highest point in all of Lithuania; it is located in the Medininkai Highlands, Migūnai forestry, approximately southeast of the capital city of Vilnius.
Autumn, also known as fall in American and Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons.
Čepkeliai marsh (Čepkelių raistas) is the largest swamp in Lithuania, in the territory of Dzūkija National Park.
Lithuanian šakotis or raguolis, Polish sękacz ("tree cake"; literally "branchy") is a Polish-Lithuanian traditional spit cake.
Šalčininkai District Municipality (Šalčininkų rajonas) is one of 60 municipalities in Lithuania.
Šarūnas Bartas (born 16 August 1964) is a Lithuanian film director.
Raimondas Šarūnas Marčiulionis (born June 13, 1964) is a Lithuanian retired professional basketball player.
Šarūnas Sauka (born 1958 in Vilnius, Lithuania) is a postmodern painter.
Šiauliai is the fourth largest city in Lithuania, with a population of 107,086.
Šiauliai County (Šiaulių apskritis) is one of ten counties in Lithuania.
Šiauliai International Airport (also known as Zokniai Airport, Zoknių oro uostas) is located southeast of the city of Šiauliai, in northern Lithuania.
Šiauliai University, established in 1997, is located in Šiauliai, Lithuania.
Širvintos (Szyrwinty) is a city in Vilnius County in the eastern part of Lithuania.
Šventaragis' Valley is a valley at the confluence of Neris and Vilnia Rivers in Vilnius, Lithuania.
Šventoji (Sventāja) is a small resort town on the coast of the Baltic Sea in Lithuania.
Šviesa or Szviesa (literally: The Light) was a short-lived Lithuanian-language newspaper printed during the Lithuanian press ban in Tilsit (now Sovetsk) in German East Prussia and smuggled to Lithuania by the knygnešiai.
Żeligowski's Mutiny (bunt Żeligowskiego also żeligiada, Želigovskio maištas) was a Polish military operation led by General Lucjan Żeligowski in October 1920, which resulted in the creation of the Republic of Central Lithuania.
A žaltys (literally: grass snake) is a household spirit in the Lithuanian mythology.
Žemaičių Alkas (Samogitian sanctuary) is a pagan sanctuary in Lithuania, a reconstruction of a medieval pagan observatory.
Žemyna (derived from žemė – earth) is the goddess of the earth in Lithuanian religion.
The Baltic air-policing mission is a NATO air defence Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) in order to guard the airspace over the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
The Baltic Assembly (BA) is a regional organisation that promotes intergovernmental cooperation between Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Baltic mythology is the body of mythology of the Baltic people stemming from Baltic paganism and continuing after Christianization and into Baltic folklore.
The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Baltic Tiger is a term used to refer to any of the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania during their periods of economic boom, which started after the year 2000 and continued until 2006–2007.
The Baltic Way or Baltic Chain (also Chain of Freedom; Balti kett, Baltijas ceļš, Baltijos kelias, Балтийский путь) was a peaceful political demonstration that occurred on 23 August 1989.
The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
Balys Sruoga (February 2, 1896, in Baibokai, Kovno Governorate – October 16, 1947, Vilnius) was a Lithuanian poet, playwright, critic, and literary theorist.
Bangpūtys is the name of a masculine deity in Lithuanian mythology.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
Basketball at the Summer Olympics has been a sport for men consistently since 1936.
The Battle of Blue Waters (Mūšis prie Mėlynųjų Vandenų, Бітва на Сініх Водах, Битва на Синіх Водах) was a battle fought at some time in autumn 1362 or 1363 on the shores of the Synjucha River, left tributary of the Southern Bug, between the armies of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Golden Horde.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Orsha was fought on 8 September 1514, between the allied forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, under the command of Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski; and the army of the Grand Duchy of Moscow under Konyushy Ivan Chelyadnin and Kniaz Mikhail Golitsin.
The Battle of Saule (Saulės mūšis or Šiaulių mūšis; Schlacht von Schaulen; Saules kauja) was fought on 22 September 1236, between the Livonian Brothers of the Sword and pagan Samogitians.
The Battle of the Vorskla River was a great battle in the medieval history of Eastern Europe.
The Battle of Vienna (Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg; bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months.
Būtingė oil terminal (Būtingės naftos terminalas) is an oil terminal near the village of Būtingė in northern Lithuania.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Basketball Club Žalgiris (Krepšinio klubas Žalgiris) is a professional basketball team that is based in Kaunas, Lithuania.
Major beer scene of the Lithuania in the northern part of the country, centred around the towns of Pasvalys, Pakruojis, Kupiškis and Biržai.
The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Belarus–Lithuania border is an international border almost 679 km in length between Republic of Belarus (CIS member) and Republic of Lithuania (EU member) and also serves as an outer border of the European Union and the eastern border of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Benediktas Vanagas (born 16 March 1977) is a Lithuanian rally driver.
Bernardas Brazdžionis (1907 January 11 in Stebeikėliai - 2002 July 11 in Los Angeles) was a Lithuanian poet.
“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Birštonas (בירשטאן Birshton) is a balneological resort and a spa town in Lithuania situated south of Kaunas on the right bank of the Nemunas River.
Biržai Castle is a castle in Biržai, Lithuania.
Birutė Marija Filomena Galdikas, OC (born 10 May 1946), is a Lithuanian-Canadian anthropologist, primatologist, conservationist, ethologist, and author.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
A blini (sometimes spelled bliny) (Russian: блины pl., diminutive: блинчики, blinchiki) or, sometimes, blin (more accurate as a single form of the noun), is a Russian pancake traditionally made from wheat or (more rarely) buckwheat flour and served with sour cream, quark, butter, caviar and other garnishes.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
A bonfire is a large but controlled outdoor fire, used either for informal disposal of burnable waste material or as part of a celebration.
Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в,; c. 1551) ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Botanical Garden of Vilnius University (Vilniaus universiteto botanikos sodas) is a botanical garden situated in Vilnius, Lithuania.
The Boxer is a German-Dutch multirole armoured fighting vehicle designed to accomplish a number of operations through the use of installable mission modules.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Bronius Kutavičius (born 1932 in Molainiai, Panevėžys district municipality, Lithuania) is a Lithuanian composer.
The Brothers Grimm (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century.
Saint Bruno of Querfurt (974 – 14 February 1009 AD), also known as Brun and Boniface, was a missionary bishop and martyr, who was beheaded near the border of Kievan Rus and Lithuania while trying to spread Christianity in Eastern Europe.
Bryansk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located southwest of Moscow.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Bystraya Sosna (Бы́страя Сосна́) is a river in Oryol and Lipetsk oblasts in Russia.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9) is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease enzyme associated with the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) adaptive immunity system in Streptococcus pyogenes, among other bacteria.
Kazimierz Siemienowicz (Casimirus Siemienowicz, Kazimieras Simonavičius, Kazimierz Siemienowicz, born 1600 – 1651), was a Polish–Lithuanian general of artillery, gunsmith, military engineer, and pioneer of rocketry.
The Casimir's Code (Kazimiero teisynas, Statut Kazimierza) was a legal code adopted in 1468 by Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Casimir IV Jagiellon with an approval of the Lithuanian Council of Lords.
The Cathedral of the Theotokos in Vilnius is the main Orthodox Christian church of the Republic of Lithuania.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Lithuania is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
Cepelinai ('zeppelins'; singular: cepelinas) or didžkukuliai is a traditional Lithuanian dish of stuffed potato dumplings.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
Chaghcharān (Dari-Persian), also called Firuzkuh, Dari-Persian) is a town and district in central Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Ghor Province. It is located on the southern side of the Hari River, at an altitude of 2,230 m above sea level. In 2014, the Government of Afghanistan formally changed the name of this town to Firuzkoh. Chaghcharan is linked by a 380-kilometre-long highway with Herat to the west and is about the same distance from Kabul to the east and is also served by Chaghcharan Airport. It has a population of about 15,000 who are mostly Dari speakers. However the recent data showed a population of 31,266 (in 2015). it has 1 district and a total land area of 2,614 Hectares. The total number of dwellings in this city are 3,474.
The practice of charity means the voluntary giving of help to those in need, as a humanitarian act.
Chebureki, sometimes spelled chiburekki (çiberek, çiğ börek, chiburekki, șuberec, чебурек, cheburek, ət qutabı, чебуреки; also known as çır-çır), is a deep-fried turnover with a filling of ground or minced meat and onions.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Chief of Civil Administration ('Chef der Zivilverwaltung, CdZ') was an office introduced in Nazi Germany, operational during World War II.
The chief of defence (or head of defence) is the highest ranked commissioned officer of a nation's armed forces.
A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.
The Choral Synagogue of Vilnius (Vilniaus choralinė sinagoga) is the only synagogue in Vilnius that is still in use.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas) occurred in 1387, initiated by King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło and his cousin Vytautas the Great.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Lithuanian Civil Code from 18 July 2000 (Lietuvos Respublikos civilinis kodeksas, LR CK) is Civil Code of Lithuania.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.
The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an annual publication by Germanwatch and Climate Action Network Europe.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), also known as the Colorado beetle, the ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle or the potato bug, is a major pest of potato crops.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Communications security is the discipline of preventing unauthorized interceptors from accessing telecommunications in an intelligible form, while still delivering content to the intended recipients.
The Communist Party of Lithuania (Lietuvos komunistų partija, Коммунистическая партия Литвы) was a communist party in Lithuania, established in early October 1918.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
The Congress of Lutsk was a diplomatic gathering held in Lubart's Castle in Lutsk, Grand Duchy of Lithuania over a 13-week period beginning on January 6, 1429.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
In linguistics, a conservative form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change.
A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a document called the constitution.
The Constituent Assembly of Lithuania (Steigiamasis Seimas) was democratically elected in 1920 to draft and adopt the 1922 constitution of Lithuania.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija) defines the legal foundation for all laws passed in the Republic of Lithuania.
The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania (in Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucinis Teismas) is a special court established by the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania of 1992; it began the activities after the adoption of the Law on Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania on February 3, 1993.
Constitutional law is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Container-deposit legislation (also known as a deposit-refund system, bottle bill, or deposit-return system) is any law that requires the collection of a monetary deposit on beverage containers (refillable or non-refillable) at the point of sale.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
The word contraband, reported in English since 1529, from Medieval French contrebande "a smuggling," denotes any item that, relating to its nature, is illegal to be possessed or sold.
In lab experiments that study chaos theory, approaches designed to control chaos are based on certain observed system behaviors.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
The Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; céramique cordée; touwbekercultuur) comprises a broad archaeological horizon of Europe between 2900 BCE – circa 2350 BCE, thus from the late Neolithic, through the Copper Age, and ending in the early Bronze Age.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The first Corsican Constitution was drawn up in 1755 for the short-lived Corsican Republic independent from Genoa beginning in 1755 and remained in force until the annexation of Corsica by France in 1769.
Cost of living is the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of Lithuania (Lietuvos Taryba, Litauischer Staatsrat), after July 11, 1918 the State Council of Lithuania (Lietuvos Valstybės Taryba) was convened at the Vilnius Conference that took place between 18 and 23 September 1917.
The Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) is a regional intergovernmental organisation working on three priority areas: Regional Identity, Safe & Secure Region and Sustainable & Prosperous Region.
The territory of Lithuania is divided into 10 counties (Lithuanian: singular apskritis, plural apskritys), all named after their capitals.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.
The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар sg. къарай – qaray; Trakai Karaim: sg. karaj, pl. karajlar; קראי מזרח אירופה; Karaylar), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the former Russian Empire.
A criminal code (or penal code) is a document which compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law.
CRISPR is a family of DNA sequences in bacteria and archaea.
Curds are a dairy product obtained by coagulating milk in a process called curdling.
The Curonian Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf; Куршский залив, Kuršių marios, Zalew Kuroński, Kurisches Haff, Kuršu joma) is separated from the Baltic Sea by the Curonian Spit.
The Curonian Spit (Kuršių nerija; Ку́ршская коса́ (Kurshskaya kosa); Kurische Nehrung,; Kuršu kāpas) is a 98 km long, thin, curved sand-dune spit that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea coast.
The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.
Daina is the traditional name of vocal folk music in the Baltic languages, and is preserved in Lithuania and Latvia.
The Dakar Rally (or simply "The Dakar"; formerly known as the "Paris–Dakar Rally") is an annual rally raid organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation.
Dalia Grybauskaitė (born 1 March 1956) is a Lithuanian politician and the President of Lithuania, inaugurated on 12 July 2009 and reelected in May 2014.
Daniel Klein (Danielius Kleinas) (1609–1666) was a Lutheran pastor and scholar from Tilsit, Duchy of Prussia, who is best known for writing the first grammar book of the Lithuanian language.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.
Daugavpils (Daugpiļs; Даугавпилс; see other names) is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
Delfi (occasionally capitalized as DELFI) is a major internet portal in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania providing daily news, ranging from gardening to politics.
The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.
A political demarcation line is a geopolitical border, often agreed upon as part of an armistice or ceasefire.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Department of Statistics, full name is Department of Statistics to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, is an institution in Lithuania which is managed by the government.
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country.
A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.
Devilstone Open Air (aka "Velnio Akmuo" in Lithuanian) is a summer open air rock and metal music festival.
Lithuanian Dievas, Latvian Dievs, Latgalian Dīvs, Prussian Deywis, Yotvingian Deivas was the supreme god in the Baltic mythology and one of the most important deities together with Perkūnas.
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
The Directorate of the Klaipėda Region (Landesdirektorium; Klaipėdos krašto direktorija) was the main governing institution (executive branch) in the Klaipėda Region (Memel Territory) from February 1920 to March 1939.
The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
Domantas Sabonis (born May 3, 1996) is a Lithuanian American professional basketball player for the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
Donatas Malinauskas (1877 in Latvia – November 30, 1942 in Altai Krai, Russia) was a Lithuanian politician and diplomat, and one of twenty signatories to the Act of Independence of Lithuania.
Druskininkai (Druskieniki, Друскенiкi, דרוזגעניק Druzgenik, Друскеники) is a spa town on the Nemunas River in southern Lithuania, close to the borders of Belarus and Poland.
Duchy of Lithuania (Ducatus Lithuaniae; Lietuvos kunigaikštystė) was a state-territorial formation of ethnic Lithuanians, that existed from the 13th century until 1413.
Dzūkija or Dainava is one of five ethnographic regions of Lithuania.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the average level of English language skills amongst those adults who took the EF test.
Eglė the Queen of Serpents, alternatively Eglė the Queen of Grass Snakes (Eglė žalčių karalienė), is a Lithuanian folk tale.
Eimuntas Nekrošius (born November 21, 1952 in Pažobris village, Raseiniai district municipality) is one of the most renowned theatre directors in Lithuania.
The term Elder or its equivalent in another language, is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority.
A seniūnija (in English: eldership, elderate, ward, parish, or subdistrict) is the smallest administrative division of Lithuania.
The Elektrėnai Power Plant or Lithuania Power Plant (Lietuvos elektrinė) is an 1,800-MW electrical generating station near Elektrėnai, Lithuania, about west of Lithuania's capital, Vilnius.
Elvyra Katalina Kriaučiūnaitė (born 1942) is an Argentine born Lithuanian graphic artist.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The term energy is used by writers and practitioners of various esoteric forms of spirituality and alternative medicine to refer to a variety of phenomena.
The English Pronouncing Dictionary (EPD) was created by the British phonetician Daniel Jones and was first published in 1917.
Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the process of including new member states in NATO.
Equinor ASA (formerly Statoil and StatoilHydro) is a Norwegian multinational energy company headquartered in Stavanger, Norway.
The Erasmus Programme (EuRopean Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students) is a European Union (EU) student exchange programme established in 1987.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonian Song Festival (in Estonian: laulupidu) is one of the largest amateur choral events in the world, a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.
An eternal flame is a flame, lamp or torch that burns continuously for an indefinite period.
The government of Lithuania has made provision for ethnic minorities since 1918.
In religious studies, an ethnic religion (or indigenous religion) is a religion associated with a particular ethnic group.
An ethnographic village is a real or artificial settlement which portrays complete historical and ethnographic characteristics of life of a certain ethnic group.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Euro Health Consumer Index (EHCI) is a comparison of European health care systems based on waiting times, results, and generosity.
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
EuroBasket, also commonly referred to as the European Basketball Championship, is the main international basketball competition that is contested biannually, by the senior men's national teams that are governed by FIBA Europe, which is the European zone within the International Basketball Federation.
The 1937 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1937, was the second FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe.
The 1939 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1939, was the third FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe.
The 2003 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 2003, was the 33rd FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which also served as Europe qualifier for the 2004 Summer Olympics, giving a berth to the top three teams in the final standings.
EuroBasket 2011 was the 37th men's European Basketball Championship, held by FIBA Europe.
The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole fighter.
The EuroLeague, also known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for name sponsorship reasons, is the European-wide top-tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2000, for eligible European basketball clubs.
The Europa Tower (Europos bokštas) is the tallest skyscraper in the Baltic states.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European bison (Bison bonasus), also known as wisent or the European wood bison, is a Eurasian species of bison.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Grand Prix for Choral Singing (in French, Grand Prix Européen de Chant Choral, commonly abbreviated as European Choral Grand Prix or GPE) is an annual choral competition between the winners of six European choral competitions.
The European Heritage Label is a recognition awarded by the European Union to buildings, documents, museums, archives, monuments or events which are seen as milestones in the creation of today's Europe.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.
The European University Institute (EUI) in Florence, Italy, is an international postgraduate and post-doctoral teaching and research institute established by European Union member states to contribute to cultural and scientific development in the social sciences, in a European perspective.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
EuroVelo is a network of long-distance cycling routes (currently 14) criss-crossing Europe, in various stages of completion.
Eurovoc is a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
In general, expansionism consists of policies of governments and states that involve territorial, military or economic expansion.
A fair (archaic: faire or fayre), also known as funfair, is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities.
The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.
The fern flower is a magic flower in Baltic mythology (paparčio žiedas, papardes zieds), in Estonian mythology (sõnajalaõis) and in Slavic mythology (папараць-кветка, kwiat paproci, цветок папоротника, цвіт папороті).
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures.
The FIBA Basketball World Cup, also known as the FIBA World Cup of Basketball or simply the FIBA World Cup, between 1950 and 2010 known as the FIBA World Championship, is an international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams of the members of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA), the sport's global governing body.
A field officer, field-grade officer, or senior officer is an army, Marine, or air force commissioned officer senior in rank to a company officer but junior to a general officer.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Financial technology (FinTech or fintech) is the new technology and innovation that aims to compete with traditional financial methods in the delivery of financial services.
Finno-Ugric, Finno-Ugrian or Fenno-Ugric is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
Foje was one of the most successful and best known rock bands in Lithuania.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franciszek Smuglewicz, or Pranciškus Smuglevičius, 6 October 1745 – 18 September 1807) was a Polish-Lithuanian draughtsman and painter. Smuglewicz is considered a progenitor of Lithuanian art in the modern era. Some consider him as a spiritual father of Jan Matejko's school of painting. His brother was Antoni Smuglewicz.
Franz Bopp (14 September 1791 – 23 October 1867) was a German linguist known for extensive and pioneering comparative work on Indo-European languages.
Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone (SEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries.
French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France.
Gabija (also known as Gabieta, Gabeta) is the spirit of the fire in Lithuanian mythology.
Gaižiūnai is a village in Jonava district municipality, Lithuania.
Galindians were two distinct, and now extinct, tribes of the Balts.
Gas Interconnection Poland–Lithuania (GIPL), also known as Lithuania–Poland pipeline, is a proposed natural gas pipeline interconnection between Lithuania and Poland that is expected to be finished by 2019.
Gediminas (– December 1341) was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.
The General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania (Generolo Jono Žemaičio Lietuvos karo akademija) is a state-sponsored institution of higher learning based in Vilnius, Lithuania.
The Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania (Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras or LGGRTC) is a state-funded research institute in Lithuania dedicated to "the study of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes in Lithuania; the study of the persecution of local residents by occupying regimes; the study of armed and unarmed resistance to occupying regimes; the initiation of the legal evaluation of the activities of the organisers and implementers of genocide; and the commemoration of freedom fighters and genocide victims." The centre was founded on 25 October 1992 by the Supreme Council of the Lithuanian Republic as the "State Genocide Research Centre of Lithuania".
The location of the geographical centre of Europe depends on the definition of the borders of Europe, mainly whether remote islands are included to define the extreme points of Europe, and on the method of calculating the final result.
Europe is traditionally defined as one of seven continents.
George Maciunas (Jurgis Mačiūnas; November 8, 1931 – May 9, 1978) was a Lithuanian American artist.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The cuisine of Germany has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany lasted from the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 to the end of the Battle of Memel on January 28, 1945.
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghōr (Pashto/غور), also spelled Ghowr or Ghur, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
Bell tower of Church of St. Bartholomew Giedraičiai is a town in Molėtai district municipality, Lithuania with about 700 residents.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
Golden Liberty (Aurea Libertas; Złota Wolność, Auksinė laisvė), sometimes referred to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles' Democracy or Nobles' Commonwealth (Szlachecka or Złota wolność szlachecka, aureă lībertās) was a political system in the Kingdom of Poland and, after the Union of Lublin (1569), in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The grass snake (Natrix natrix), sometimes called the ringed snake or water snake, is a Eurasian non-venomous snake.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Great Žemaičių Kalvarija Festival or The Great Samogitian Calvary Festival (Didieji Žemaičių Kalvarijos atlaidai) is a Roman Catholic festival dedicated to St.
The Great Frost, as it was known in England, or Le Grand Hiver ("The Great Winter"), as it was known in France, was an extraordinarily cold winter in Europe in late 1708 and early 1709,.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712.
The Great Sejm, also known as the Four-Year Sejm (Polish: respectively, Sejm Wielki or Sejm Czteroletni; Lithuanian: Didysis seimas or Ketverių metų seimas) was a Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that was held in Warsaw between 1788 and 1792.
The Great Turkish War (Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup (haploid from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, simple" and group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
In music, heterophony is a type of texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line.
Hetmans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were the highest-ranking military officers, second only to the King, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Hexameter is a metrical line of verses consisting of six feet.
The Hill of Crosses (Lithuanian) is a site of pilgrimage about 12 km north of the city of Šiauliai, in northern Lithuania.
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.
The Historical Presidential Palace (Istorinė Prezidentūra) is a Neo-baroque building in the Old Town of Kaunas, Lithuania that served as the Presidential Palace during the interwar years.
The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD.
The history of the Jews in Lithuania spans the period from the 8th century to the present day.
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
A hot air balloon is a lighter-than-air aircraft consisting of a bag, called an envelope, which contains heated air.
Household final consumption expenditure (HFCE) is a transaction of the national account's use of income account representing consumer spending.
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
A hydronym (from ὕδωρ, hydor, "water" and ὄνομα, onoma, "name") is a proper name of a body of water.
The Hypatian Codex (also known as Hypatian Chronicle, Ipatiev Chronicle, Іпацьеўскі летапіс; Ипатьевская летопись; Іпатіївський літопис, Іпатський літопис, Літопис руський за Іпатським списком) is a compendium of three chronicles: the Primary Chronicle, Kiev Chronicle, and Galician-Volhynian Chronicle.
The IAAF World Championships, commonly referred to as the World Championships in Athletics, is a biennial athletics event organized by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Ignalinos Atominė Elektrinė, IAE, Игналинская атомная электростанция, Ignalinskaya atomnaya elektrostantsiya) is a closed two-unit RBMK-1500 nuclear power station in Visaginas Municipality, Lithuania.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to Lithuania.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indo-European migrations were the migrations of pastoral peoples speaking the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), who departed from the Yamnaya and related cultures in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, starting at.
Industrial production is a measure of output of the industrial sector of the economy.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Inija Trinkūnienė (born on October 25, 1951 in Kelmė) is a Lithuanian ethnologist, folklorist, sociologist, psychologist, head of folk music group Kūlgrinda and the chief of the Romuva community of the old Lithuanian faith.
An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecution and the defense.
The Institut national de l’information géographique et forestière (National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information), previously Institut géographique national (National Geographic Institute) or IGN is a French public state administrative establishment founded in 1940 to produce and maintain geographical information for France and its overseas departments and territories.
Integrity is the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles, or moral uprightness.
An interior ministry (sometimes ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a government ministry typically responsible for policing, emergency management, national security, registration, supervision of local governments, conduct of elections, public administration and immigration matters.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Innovation Index is a global index measuring the level of innovation of a country, produced jointly by The Boston Consulting Group (BCG), the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), and The Manufacturing Institute (MI), the NAM's nonpartisan research affiliate.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Iron Wolf (Geležinis Vilkas) is a mythical character from a medieval legend of the founding of Vilnius, the capital city of the old Grand Duchy of Lithuania and modern Republic of Lithuania.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam in Lithuania, unlike many other northern and western European countries, has a long history.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Jagiellonian dynasty was a royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila (the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen regnant (also styled "King") Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. The dynasty reigned in several Central European countries between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526). The personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (converted in 1569 with the Treaty of Lublin into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onward. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as a branch of the House of Habsburg. The Polish "Golden Age", the period of the reigns of Sigismund I and Sigismund II, the last two Jagiellonian kings, or more generally the 16th century, is most often identified with the rise of the culture of Polish Renaissance. The cultural flowering had its material base in the prosperity of the elites, both the landed nobility and urban patriciate at such centers as Kraków and Gdańsk.
Jan Rustem (Յան Ռուստամ; 1762 – 21 June 1835) was a painter of Armenian ethnicity who lived and worked in the territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Józef Oleszkiewicz, or Juozapas Oleškevičius (Юзеф Иванович Олешкевич, c.1777, Šiluva – 5 October 1830, Saint Petersburg) was a Polish-Lithuanian painter, known primarily for his portraits and his eccentric behavior.
Jewish cuisine is a diverse collection of cooking traditions of the Jewish people worldwide.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Christoph Glaubitz (– 30 March 1767) was an architect of German descent who is generally considered to be the most prominent Baroque architect in the lands of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Jonas Žemaitis (also known under his codename Vytautas; March 15, 1909 in Palanga – November 26, 1954 in Moscow) was one of the leaders of the Lithuanian partisans, armed resistance against the Soviet occupation of Lithuania, and acknowledged as the head of state by independent Lithuania.
Jonas Basanavičius (Jan Basanowicz; 23 November 1851 – 16 February 1927) was an activist and proponent of the Lithuanian National Revival.
Jonas Bretkūnas, Johann(es) Bretke, also known as Bretkus (born 1536 in Bammeln near Friedland (Frydląd) – 1602 Königsberg (Królewiec) was a Lutheran pastor and was one of the best known developers of the written Lithuanian language. He translated the Bible into Lithuanian, was the author of twelve Lithuanian books, and a historian as well.
Jonas Jablonskis (30 December 1860, Kubilėliai, Šakiai district – 23 February 1930, Kaunas) was a distinguished Lithuanian linguist and one of the founders of the standard Lithuanian language.
Jonas Kubilius (27 July 1921 – 30 October 2011) was a Lithuanian mathematician who worked in probability theory and number theory.
Jonas Mekas (born December 24, 1922) is a Lithuanian American filmmaker, poet and artist who has often been called "the godfather of American avant-garde cinema".
Jonas Vaitkus (born May 20, 1944 in Lithuania) is a lecturer, theatre and film director.
Jonas Valančiūnas (born 6 May 1992) is a Lithuanian professional basketball player for the Toronto Raptors of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The June deportation (Juuniküüditamine, Jūnija deportācijas, Birželio trėmimai) was a mass deportation by the Soviet Union of tens of thousands of people from the territories occupied in 1940–1941: Baltic states, occupied Poland (mostly present-day western Belarus and western Ukraine), and Moldavia.
The June Uprising (birželio sukilimas) was a brief period in the history of Lithuania between the first Soviet occupation and the Nazi occupation in late June 1941.
Juozas Ambrazevičius or Juozas Brazaitis (December 9, 1903 in Trakiškiai, Marijampolė parish – October 28, 1974 in South Orange, New Jersey), was a Lithuanian literary historian, better known for his political career and nationalistic views.
Juozas Tumas, also known by the pen name Vaižgantas (September 20, 1869 – April 29, 1933), was a prominent Lithuanian writer, Roman Catholic priest, social activist, literary historian, and one of the founders of the Party of National Progress.
Juozas Urbšys (February 29, 1896 – April 30, 1991) was a prominent interwar Lithuanian diplomat, the last head of foreign affairs in independent interwar Lithuania, and a translator.
Juozas Zikaras (November 18, 1881 – November 10, 1944) was a Lithuanian sculptor and artist, who created the design for pre-war Lithuanian litas coins.
Jurgis Baltrušaitis (May 7, 1903 – January 25, 1988) was a Lithuanian art historian, art critic and a founder of comparative art research.
Justas Paleckis (– 26 January 1980) was a Lithuanian journalist and politician.
Justinas Marcinkevičius (10 March 1930 – 16 February 2011) was a prominent Lithuanian poet and playwright.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea.
Kandahar (کندھار; قندهار) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southern part of the country next to Pakistan.
Kanklės is a Lithuanian plucked string instrument (chordophone) belonging to the Baltic box zither family known as the Baltic psaltery along with Latvian kokles, Estonian kannel, Finnish kantele, and Russian gusli.
Kanuty Rusiecki, or Kanutas Ruseckas in Lithuanian (10 February 1800, Stebėkiai, near Vadokliai, Lithuania – 21 August 1860, Vilnius, Lithuania) was a Lithuanian painter of Polish descent.
Kapiniškiai is an ethnographic village in Lithuania.
Karol Podczaszyński (Karolis Podčašinskis) (November 7, 1790 – April 19, 1860) was a Polish architect, a representative of the neoclassical architecture and a professor of the Imperial University of Vilna, as well as one of the pioneers of industrial design.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
Kaunas International Airport (Kauno tarptautinis oro uostas), is the second-busiest civil airport in Lithuania after Vilnius Airport and the fourth-busiest in the Baltic states.
Kaunas County (Kauno apskritis) is one of ten counties of Lithuania.
Kaunas Fortress (Kauno tvirtovė, Кοвенская крепость) is the remains of a fortress complex in Kaunas, Lithuania.
Kaunas Garrison Officers' Club Building (Kauno įgulos karininkų ramovė) is a building in Kaunas, Lithuania.
The Kaunas Hydroelectric Power Plant, located on the Nemunas River about southeast of central Kaunas, Lithuania, was completed in 1960.
Kaunas Jazz is an annual international jazz festival in Kaunas, Lithuania.
Kaunas Prison (Kauno tardymo izoliatorius) is a prison in the center of Kaunas, second largest city of Lithuania.
Kaunas railway tunnel (Kauno geležinkelio tunelis) is one of the two railway tunnels existing in Lithuania and the only railway tunnel operating in the Baltic states.
The Kaunas State Drama Theatre is the biggest theatre in Kaunas, and one of the oldest functioning theatres in Lithuania.
Kaunas University of Technology (KTU) is a public research university located in Kaunas, Lithuania.
Days of Kaunas City (Kauno miesto dienos) is an annual series of cultural events to celebrate the anniversary of Kaunas, Lithuania.
The Kavli Prize was established in 2005 through a joint venture between the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, and The Kavli Foundation.
Kazimieras Simonavičius University (previously: Vilnius Academy of Business Law, Vilniaus verslo teisės akademija) is a private university in Lithuania.
Kaziuko mugė or Saint Casimir's Fair is a large annual folk arts and crafts fair in Vilnius, Lithuania, dating to the beginning of the 17th century.
Kazys Škirpa (born February 18, 1895, Namajūnai, Kovno Governorate, Lithuania – August 18, 1979, Washington, D.C.) was a Lithuanian military officer and diplomat.
Kazys Bizauskas (1893, Pāvilosta, Courland Governorate – 26 June 1941) was a Lithuanian statesman, diplomat, author, and one of the twenty signatories of the Act of Independence of Lithuania.
Kazys Grinius (17 December 18664 June 1950) was the third President of Lithuania, and held that office from 7 June 1926 to 17 December 1926.
Kazys Musteikis (November 22, 1894 – June 6, 1977) was a Lithuanian military brigadier general, Lithuanian Minister of National Defence in 1938–1940.
Kazys Skučas (3 March 1894 in Mauručiai, Marijampolė district – 30 July 1941 in the Butyrka prison) was a Lithuanian politician and General of the Lithuanian Army.
Kęstutis (born ca. 1297, died on 3 August or 15 August 1382 in Kreva) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania.
Kęstutis Antanėlis (born 28 March 1951 in Vilnius, Lithuania) is a Lithuanian composer, architect and sculptor.
Kūčios or Kūtės (Samogitian Dialect) is the traditional Christmas Eve dinner in Lithuania, held on the twenty fourth of December.
Kūčiukai (also šližikai) is a traditional Lithuanian dish served on Kūčios, the traditional Christmas Eve dinner in Lithuania.
Keistuolių Teatras ("Weirdos' Theatre", "Theatre of Eccentric Men") is a Lithuanian theatre troupe.
Kernavė was a medieval capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and today is a tourist attraction and an archeological site (population 272, 2011).
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Kibinai (singular: kibinas) are traditional pastries filled with mutton and onion, popular with Karaite ethnic minority in Lithuania.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom of Lithuania was a Lithuanian monarchy which existed from 1251 to roughly 1263.
Kishka or kishke (kašnica; Belarusian кішка, kishka; kiszka / kaszanka; Romanian chişcă; Yiddish קישקע; Lithuanian vėdarai; Hebrew קישקע; Russian кишка; Ukrainian кишка) refers to various types of sausage or stuffed intestine with a filling made from a combination of meat and meal, often a grain.
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
Klaipėda County (Klaipėdos apskritis) is one of ten counties in Lithuania.
The Klaipėda Geothermal Demonstration Plant is a geothermal heating plant in Klaipėda, Lithuania, constructed during the late 1990s and early 2000s.
Klaipėda liquefied natural gas floating storage and regasification unit terminal or Klaipėda LNG FSRU (Klaipėdos suskystintų gamtinių dujų terminalas) is a LNG terminal in the port of Klaipėda, Lithuania.
The Klaipėda Region (Klaipėdos kraštas) or Memel Territory (Memelland or Memelgebiet) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 and refers to the most northern part of the German province of East Prussia, when as Memelland it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors.
The Klaipėda Sea Festival has been held annually in the city of Klaipėda, Lithuania during the month of July since 1934.
Klaipėda University (Klaipėdos Universitetas or KU) is a university in the Lithuanian seaport Klaipėda.
Konstantinas Sirvydas (rarely referred as Konstantinas Širvydas; Constantinus Szyrwid; Konstanty Szyrwid) 1579 – 8 August 1631) was a Lithuanian religious preacher, lexicographer and one of the pioneers of Lithuanian literature from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, at the time a confederal part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.Note that in 16th and 17th centuries the idea of national identity did not yet exist in its modern sense and Szyrwid is referred to either as a Pole or Lithuanian; as in: He was a Jesuit priest, a professor at the Academia Vilnensis and the author of, among other works, the first grammar of the Lithuanian language and the first tri-lingual dictionary in Lithuanian, Latin and Polish (1619). Famous for his eloquence, Sirvydas spent 10 years of his life preaching sermons at St. John's church in Vilnius (twice a day - once in Lithuanian, and once in Polish).
Kostanty Iwanowicz Ostrogski (c. 1460 – 10 August 1530; Канстантын Іванавіч Астроскі, Костянтин Іванович Острозький, Kostjantyn Ostroz'kyj, Konstantinas Ostrogiškis, also known under his Ruthenian name Vasyl-Kostjantyn Ostroz'kyj and modern Belarusian transliteration Kanstancin Astrožski) was a magnate of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later a Grand Hetman of Lithuania from 11 September 1497 until his death.
Kristijonas Donelaitis (1 January 1714 – 18 February 1780; Christian Donalitius) was a Prussian Lithuanian poet and Lutheran pastor.
Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant (the KPSP) is located near Kruonis, Lithuania, east of Kaunas.
In mathematics, the Kubilius model relies on a clarification and extension of a finite probability space on which the behaviour of additive arithmetic functions can be modeled by sum of independent random variables.
Kulionys is a village in Lithuania (Molėtai district municipality), near Molėtai, mostly famous for its Molėtai Astronomical Observatory and Lithuanian Museum of Ethnocosmology.
Kunda Culture, originating from the Swiderian culture, comprised mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities of the Baltic forest zone extending eastwards through Latvia into northern Russia, dating to the period 8500–5000 BC according to calibrated radiocarbon dating.
is a style of stand-up, full contact karate, founded in 1964 by Korean-Japanese.
Ladislav Starevich (Владисла́в Алекса́ндрович Старе́вич, Władysław Starewicz; August 8, 1882 – February 26, 1965) was a Polish-Russian stop-motion animator notable as the author of the first puppet-animated film The Beautiful Lukanida (1912).
Laima is a Baltic goddess of fate.
Laisvės Alėja (literally Liberty Boulevard or Liberty Avenue) is a prominent pedestrian street in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania.
Lake Asveja or Dubingiai Lake (Asveja or Dubingių ežeras) is the longest lake in Lithuania (length: 21.9 km or 29.7 km counting the Žalktynė, Vyriogala and Dubingiai bights).
Lake Žuvintas is a shallow lake in Alytus district, central Lithuania.
Lake Drūkšiai, also called Lake Drysviaty or Lake Drysvyaty, or Drisvyaty (Дрысвяты,; Дрисвяты) is the largest of the Braslau Lakes located partly in the northeastern part of Lithuania and partly in the Vitebsk Voblast, in Belarus.
Tauragnas is the deepest lake in Lithuania reaching 62.5 metres of depth.
Lake Vištytis is a lake on the border between Lithuania (Vilkaviškis district) and Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast), near the tripoint with Poland.
The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Latvian Song and Dance Festival (Latvian Vispārējie latviešu Dziesmu un Deju svētki) is one of the largest amateur choral events in the world and an important event in Latvian culture and social life.
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.
Latvians (latvieši; lețlizt) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to what is modern-day Latvia and the immediate geographical region.
Latvian: Lauma, Lithuanian: Laumė is a woodland fae, and guardian spirit of orphans in Eastern Baltic mythology.
Laurynas Gucevičius (Wawrzyniec Gucewicz; 1753–1798) was an 18th-century Lithuanian architect from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and most of his designs were built there.
The Law of Germany (Recht Deutschlands), that being the modern German legal system (Deutsches Rechtssystem), is a system of civil law which is founded on the principles laid out by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, though many of the most important laws, for example most regulations of the civil code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, or BGB) were developed prior to the 1949 constitution.
LCC International University is a nationally and internationally recognized liberal arts institution in the city of Klaipėda, Lithuania.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Legatum Prosperity Index is an annual ranking developed by the Legatum Institute, a division of the private investment firm Legatum.
Leičiai (singular: leitis) were a distinct social group of the Lithuanian society in the early Grand Duchy of Lithuania subordinate to the Lithuanian ruler or the state itself.
Leonas Bistras (20 October 1890 in Liepāja – 17 October 1971 in Kaunas) was one of the most prominent Lithuanian politicians of the interwar period.
Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.
There are 6 surviving transcripts of letters of Gediminas written in 1323–1324 by Grand Duke Gediminas.
Lew Sapieha (Леў Сапега or Leŭ Sapieha; Leonas Sapiega; 4 April 1557 – 7 July 1633) was a nobleman and statesman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The liberum veto (Latin for "free veto") was a parliamentary device in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Lietava, Lietauka or Letauka is a rivulet in Lithuania that is believed to have given Lithuania its name.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Polish Tatars, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century.
Most of Lithuania's early castles were wooden and have not survived.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries by 4G LTE penetration.
This is a list of countries by age at first marriage.
The average wage is a measure of total income after taxes divided by total number of employees employed.
This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2016 Human Development Report.
The following is a list of suicide rates by country according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other sources.
This is a list of extinct, endangered and threatened animals of Lithuania.
List of generals of the Lithuanian Army includes people that were awarded the rank of general by the independent Republic of Lithuania in 1918–40 or since 1990.
There are about 6,000 lakes in Lithuania, covering 950 km², or 1.5% of the territory of Lithuania.
Following is a list of notable architects from Lithuania.
The list of Lithuanian gods is reconstructed based on scarce written sources and late folklore.
This is a list of Lithuanians, both people of Lithuanian descent and people with the birthplace or citizenship of Lithuania.
This article contains a list of the oldest existing universities in continuous operation in the world.
This is the List of palaces and manor houses in Lithuania.
The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory.
This is a list of the 100 busiest airports in Europe, ranked by total passengers per year, including both terminal and transit passengers.
Polytheistic peoples of many cultures have postulated a thunder god, the personification or source of the forces of thunder and lightning; a lightning god does not have a typical depiction, and will vary based on the culture.
List of universities and colleges in Lithuania is a listing of higher education (third level education) institutions in Lithuania.
The following is a list of works that were published or distributed posthumously.
Lithuania, after declaring restoration of independence in 1918, sent its athletes to the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris for the first time.
The Lithuania men's national basketball team (Lithuanian: Lietuvos nacionalinė vyrų krepšinio rinktinė) participates in FIBA's competitions.
The Lithuanian national ice hockey team is the national ice hockey team of Lithuania, and a member of the International Ice Hockey Federation.
The Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre in Vilnius, Lithuania, is a state-supported conservatory that trains students in music, theatre, and multimedia arts.
Lithuanian Activist Front or LAF was a short-lived resistance organization established in 1940 after Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union.
The Lithuanian Air Force or LAF (Lietuvos karinės oro pajėgos (LK KOP)) is the military aviation branch of the Lithuanian armed forces.
Lithuanian Americans refers to American citizens and residents who are Lithuanian and were born in Lithuania, or are of Lithuanian descent.
The Lithuanian Armed Forces consist of 20 565 active personnel.
The Lithuanian Art Museum (Lietuvos dailės muziejus) is an art museum established in Vilnius in 1933 as the Vilnius City Museum.
Lithuanian book smugglers (knygnešys, plural: knygnešiai) transported Lithuanian language books printed in the Latin alphabet into Lithuanian-speaking areas of the Russian Empire, defying a ban on such materials in force from 1864 to 1904.
The 2001 Lithuania Census was carried out during April 6 - April 16 by the Lithuanian Department of Statistics.
The Lithuanian Crusade was a series of campaigns by the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order, two crusading military orders, to convert the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania into Roman Catholicism.
Lithuanian cuisine features products suited to the cool and moist northern climate of Lithuania: barley, potatoes, rye, beets, greens, berries, and mushrooms are locally grown, and dairy products are one of its specialties.
The Diplomatic Service of the Republic of Lithuania is part of the governmental service tasked with enforcing the foreign policy set by the President, the Parliament, and the Government of the Republic of Lithuania.
The Lithuanian Farmers and Greens Union (Lietuvos valstiečių ir žaliųjų sąjunga, LVŽS; also known as Lithuanian Peasant and Greens Union, formerly Lithuanian Peasant Popular Union, Lietuvos valstiečių liaudininkų sąjunga, LVLS) is a centre-right agrarian political party in Lithuania led by industrial farmer Ramūnas Karbauskis.
The Lithuanian Helsinki Group (full name: the Public Group to Promote the Implementation of the Helsinki Accords in Lithuania; Helsinkio susitarimų vykdymui remti Lietuvos visuomeninė grupė) was a dissident organization active in the Lithuanian SSR, one of the republics of the Soviet Union, in 1975–81.
Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, northeastern Suwałki and Białystok region of Poland and some border areas of Russia and Ukraine.
The Lithuanian Land Forces (LLF) form the backbone of the country's defence force, capable of acting as an integral part of NATO forces.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Lithuanian litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai (nominative) or litų (genitive)) was the currency of Lithuania, until 1 January 2015, when it was replaced by the euro.
The Lithuanian Military Police (Lietuvos karo policija) is a law enforcement agency operating within the national defence system of the Republic of Lithuania and is a part of the Lithuanian Armed Forces.
The Lithuanian Museum of Ethnocosmology (Lietuvos etnokosmologijos muziejus) is a sky observatory and ethnocosmology museum in Kulionys village located about north of Vilnius, Lithuania.
Lithuanian mythology is a type of Baltic mythology, developed by Lithuanians throughout the centuries.
The National Defence Volunteer Forces or NDVF (Krašto apsaugos savanorių pajėgos (KASP), previously Savanoriškoji krašto apsaugos tarnyba (SKAT)) is an important part of the Lithuanian Armed Forces.
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre (Lietuvos nacionalinis dramos teatras), located on Gediminas Avenue in Vilnius, is one of Lithuania’s most prominent publicly funded performing arts venues and cultural institutions.
Lithuanian National Radio and Television (Lithuanian) is the national public broadcasting company of Lithuania based in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.
Lithuanian National Revival, alternatively Lithuanian National Awakening (Lietuvių tautinis atgimimas), was a period of the history of Lithuania in the 19th century at the time when a major part of Lithuanian-inhabited areas belonged to the Russian Empire (the Russian partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth).
The Lithuanian Nationalist and Republican Union (Lietuvių tautininkų sąjunga, LTS), also known as the Nationalists (Tautininkai), is a nationalist, right-wing political party in Lithuania, founded in 1924 when the Party of National Progress merged with the Lithuanian Farmers' Association.
The Lithuanian Navy (Lietuvos Karinės jūrų pajėgos) is the naval arm of the Lithuanian Armed Forces.
The Lithuanian nobility was historically a legally privileged class in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania consisting of Lithuanians, from the historical regions of Lithuania Proper and Samogitia, and, following Lithuania's eastern expansion, many Ruthenian noble families (boyars).
The Lithuanian partisans were partisans who waged a guerrilla warfare in Lithuania against the Soviet Union in 1944–1953.
The Lithuanian Popular Peasants' Union (Lietuvos valstiečių liaudininkų sajunga, LVLS) was a centre-left political party in Lithuania between 1922 and 1936.
A referendum on the presidency was held in Lithuania on 23 May 1992.
A presidential election was held in Lithuania on 17 May 2009.
Presidential elections were held in Lithuania on 11 May 2014, with a second round held on 25 May between the top two candidates from the first round.
The Lithuanian press ban (spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet in force from 1865 to 1904 within the Russian Empire, which controlled Lithuania at the time.
Lithuanian Railways (Lietuvos geležinkeliai) is the national, state-owned railway company of Lithuania.
The Lithuanian Riflemen's Union or LRU (Lietuvos šaulių sąjunga), also referred to as šauliai (šaulys for rifleman), is a paramilitary non-profit organisation supported by the State.
The Lithuania Song Festival (also called Song Celebration) is a massive traditional song and dance festival.
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lithuanian SSR; Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika; Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Litovskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), one of the USSR republics that existed in 1940–1941 and 1944–1990, was formed on the basis of the Soviet occupation rule.
The Lithuanian Space Association or LSA (Lietuvos kosmoso asociacija or LKA) is a space organisation based in Vilnius, Lithuania.
The Lithuanian Special Operations Force (LITHSOF) (Lietuvos Specialiųjų Operacijų Pajėgos) is a special operation unit of the Lithuanian Armed Forces, formed exclusively of carefully selected, motivated and specially trained professionals.
Lithuanian Sports University or LSU is a university in Kaunas, Lithuania, specializing in sports, physical activities, and physiology.
The State Border Guard Service or SBGS (Valstybės sienos apsaugos tarnyba) is the organisation under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior charged with controlling and maintaining the security of Lithuanian borders on land, in the Baltic Sea and the Curonian Lagoon.
Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences (Lietuvos edukologijos universitetas or LEU) is a university in Vilnius, Lithuania, which specializes in preparing school teachers and other educators.
Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (Lietuvos sveikatos mokslų universitetas, LSMU) is a medical school in Kaunas, Lithuania.
Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.
The Lithuania–Poland interconnection LitPol Link represents electricity link between the Baltic transmission system (part of the IPS/UPS system) and the synchronous grid of Continental Europe.
LitSat-1 is one of the two first Lithuanian satellites.
LituanicaSAT-1 is one of the two first Lithuanian satellites.
LituanicaSAT-2 is the 3U Lithuanian satellite to be launched on a PSLV launch vehicle.
Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.
The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.
The Logistics Performance Index (LPI) is an interactive benchmarking tool created by the World Bank to help countries identify the challenges and opportunities they face in their performance on trade logistics and what they can do to improve their performance.
Louis Trolle Hjelmslev (3 October 1899, Copenhagen – 30 May 1965, Copenhagen) was a Danish linguist whose ideas formed the basis of the Copenhagen School of linguistics.
Lrytas.lt is one of the largest Lithuanian news portals with audience of 1 million visitors per month on the Internet and more than 300,000 visitors on mobile.
Lucjan Żeligowski (1865–1947) was a Polish general, politician, military commander and veteran of World War I, the Polish-Soviet War and World War II.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
A lynx (plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, Bobcat) within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx.
The M. K. Čiurlionis National Art Museum is a group of museums based in Kaunas, Lithuania.
Mažeikiai (Samogitian: Mažeikē) is a city in the north-western Lithuania, on the Venta River.
Mažeikiai District Municipality (Mažeikių rajono savivaldybė, Samogitian: Mažėikiu rajuona savivaldībė) is located in the north-west of Lithuania, on the River Venta in Telšiai County.
Mados infekcija (Fashion Infection) is the biggest Lithuanian fashion show.
Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus, 'great', designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities.
The magnates of Poland and Lithuania were an aristocracy of nobility (szlachta) that existed in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, from the 1569 Union of Lublin, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, until the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
Maironis (born Jonas Mačiulis, – 28 June 1932) is one of the most famous Lithuanian poets.
A manor in English law is an estate in land to which is incident the right to hold a court termed court baron, that is to say a manorial court.
Marcin Knackfus (c. 1742 – c. 1821) was a Polish–Lithuanian Neoclassical architect of German descent.
Marija Gimbutas (Marija Gimbutienė; January 23, 1921 – February 2, 1994) was a Lithuanian-American archaeologist and anthropologist known for her research into the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of "Old Europe" and for her Kurgan hypothesis, which located the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the Pontic Steppe.
Marijampolė (also known by several other names) is an industrial city and the capital of the Marijampolė County in the south of Lithuania, bordering Poland and Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, and Lake Vištytis.
Marijampolė County (Marijampolės apskritis; Okręg mariampolski) is one of the ten counties in Lithuania.
Marijonas Mikutavičius (born 19 April 1971) is a Lithuanian singer, musician and songwriter, a television journalist, a comedian and a talk show host from Vilnius.
Martynas Mažvydas (1510 – 21 May 1563) was the author and the editor of the first printed book in the Lithuanian language.
The Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was made by the Director-General of UNESCO starting in 2001 to raise awareness of intangible cultural heritage and encourage local communities to protect them and the local people who sustain these forms of cultural expressions.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
Mead (archaic and dialectal meath or meathe, from Old English medu) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.
Medeina or Medeinė (derived from medis (tree) and medė (forest)), often treated as synonymous to Žvorūnė or Žvorūna (derived from žvėris (beast)), is one of the main deities in the Lithuanian mythology, and is similar to Latvian Meža Māte.
Medieval studies is the academic interdisciplinary study of the Middle Ages.
Medvėgalis was a 14th-century hill fort in Samogitia, located in present-day Šilalė District Municipality, Lithuania.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
Michał Pius Römer (originally Michael von Römer, later using the Lithuanian form Mykolas Römeris) (1880 in Bagdoniškis – 1945 in Vilnius) was a Lithuanian lawyer, scientist and politician.
Midus is a type of Lithuanian mead, an alcoholic beverage made of grain, honey and water.
Mikalojus Daukša (other possible spellings include Mikalojus Daugsza, Mikołaj Dauksza and Mikolay Dowksza; after 1527 – February 16, 1613 in Medininkai) was a Lithuanian and Latin religious writer, translator and a Catholic church official.
Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (Mikołaj Konstanty Czurlanis; –) was a Lithuanian painter, composer and writer.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
Mindaugas (Myndowen, Mindowe, Мендог, Міндоўг, c. 1203 – autumn 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania and the only King of Lithuania.
Mindaugas Kuzminskas (born 19 October 1989) is a Lithuanian professional basketball player for Olimpia Milano of the Lega Basket Serie A (LBA) and the EuroLeague.
The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublikos švietimo ir mokslo ministerija) is a government department of the Republic of Lithuania.
The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublikos sveikatos apsaugos ministerija) is a government department of the Republic of Lithuania.
The Ministry of National Defence of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublikos krašto apsaugos ministerija) was established in 1990.
The Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublikos vidaus reikalų ministerija) is charged with the oversight of public safety, border protection, migration control, emergency response, public administration and governance, the civil service, and local and regional development initiatives.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from other combat sports and martial arts.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
The modern pentathlon is an Olympic sport that comprises five different events; fencing (one-touch épée), freestyle swimming (200m), equestrian show jumping (15 jumps), and a final combined event of pistol shooting and cross country running (3200m).
The Molėtai Astronomical Observatory (MAO; Molėtų astronomijos observatorija in Lithuanian) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Vilnius University Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
In music, monophony is the simplest of musical textures, consisting of a melody (or "tune"), typically sung by a single singer or played by a single instrument player (e.g., a flute player) without accompanying harmony or chords.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
Morė is one of the main attributes of the traditional Lithuanian folk festival Užgavėnės.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.
A municipal council is the local government of a municipality such as city councils and town councils.
Lithuania is divided into three layers of administrative divisions.
The Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars)The conflicts are referred to as 'Muscovite wars' (wojny moskiewskie) in Polish historiography and as 'Lithuanian wars' in Russian one; English historiography uses both, ex.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
Music Information Centre Lithuania (MICL) is a non-governmental and non-profit public institution devoted to the promotion of Lithuanian music culture at home and abroad.
The mute swan (Cygnus olor) is a species of swan and a member of the waterfowl family Anatidae.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Mykolas Biržiška (24 August 1882 in Viekšniai – 24 August 1962 in Los Angeles), a Lithuanian editor, historian, professor of literature, diplomat, and politician, was one of the twenty signatories of the Act of Independence of Lithuania.
Mykolas Romeris University (Mykolo Romerio universitetas) is one of Lithuania's largest universities, bearing the name of the Lithuanian legal scholar, judge and father of Lithuania's Constitutional Law Mykolas Römeris.
The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame is an American history museum and hall of fame, located at 1000 Hall of Fame Avenue in Springfield, Massachusetts.
The first known record of the name of Lithuania (Lietuva) is in a 9 March 1009 story of Saint Bruno recorded in the Quedlinburg Chronicle (Annales Quedlinburgenses).
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
Narva culture or eastern Baltic (c. 5300 to 1750 BC) was a European Neolithic archaeological culture found in present-day Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kaliningrad Oblast (former East Prussia), and adjacent portions of Poland, Belarus and Russia.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Cyber Security Centre of Lithuania is a government internet security organization in Vilnius, Lithuania.
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.
The National Museum of Lithuania (Lietuvos nacionalinis muziejus), established in 1952, is a state-sponsored historical museum that encompasses several significant structures and a wide collection of written materials and artifacts.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
A national sport is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
Archaeologists use the name Neman culture to refer to two archaeological cultures (7th to 3rd millennium BC) which existed in the Mesolithic and continued into the middle Neolithic.
Nemunas Delta Regional Park, established in 1994, is located in Lithuania within the Nemunas Delta where the Nemunas flows into the Baltic Sea.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Neringa or Neringa Municipality (Neringos savivaldybė) is a municipality of Klaipėda County in westernmost Lithuania, comprising several villages in the Curonian Spit.
The World Economic Forum's Networked Readiness Index (NRI), also referred to as Technology Readiness, measures the propensity for countries to exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology (ICT).
The neutral powers were countries that remained neutral during World War II.
Nida (Nidden) is a resort town in Lithuania, the administrative centre of Neringa municipality.
Nijolė Sadūnaitė (born 22 July 1938 in Kaunas) was a clandestine Lithuanian Catholic nun of the Soviet period who worked with the Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
NordBalt (also formerly known as SwedLit) is a submarine power cable between Klaipėda in Lithuania and Nybro in Sweden.
The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
The Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) is an international financial institution founded in the mid-1970s by the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.
Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB8) is a regional co-operation format that includes Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden.
The North European Plain (Norddeutsches Tiefland or Norddeutsche Tiefebene, North German Plain; Nizina Środkowoeuropejska, Middle European Plain) is a geomorphological region in Europe, mostly in Poland, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands (Low Countries), and a small part of northern France and Czech republic.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Northern Wars is a term used for a series of wars fought in northern and northeastern Europe in the 16th and 17th century.
Northwestern Krai (Северо-Западный край) was a subdivision (krai) of the Russian Empire in the territories of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania (present-day Belarus and Lithuania).
Notes on Muscovite Affairs (Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii) (1549) was a Latin book by Baron Sigismund von Herberstein on the geography, history and customs of Muscovy (the 16th century Russian state).
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Ober Ost is short for Oberbefehlshaber der gesamten Deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten, German for "Supreme Commander of All German Forces in the East" during World War I. It also has an implied double meaning, as in its own right, "Ober Ost" translates into "Upper East," which describes its geographic region in reference to the German Empire.
The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics in August 1940 - most Western powers never recognised this incorporation.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Oeselians, Osilians, Esths, or Ests were a historical subdivision of Estonians inhabiting Saaremaa (Oesel or Osilia), an Estonian island in the Baltic Sea.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
Old Prussians or Baltic Prussians (Old Prussian: Prūsai; Pruzzen or Prußen; Pruteni; Prūši; Prūsai; Prusowie; Prësowié) refers to the indigenous peoples from a cluster of Baltic tribes that inhabited the region of Prussia.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Onutė Narbutaitė (born June 12, 1956, Vilnius) is a Lithuanian composer.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Order of the Polar Star (Swedish: Nordstjärneorden) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Seraphim.
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Oskaras Koršunovas (born March 6, 1969 in Vilnius, Lithuania) is a Lithuanian theatre director.
Osvaldas Jonas Balakauskas (born December 19, 1937 in Miliūnai) is a Lithuanian composer of classical music and diplomat.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Lithuania: Lithuania – sovereign country located in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Pažaislis Monastery and the Church of the Visitation (Pažaislio vienuolynas ir Švenčiausios Mergelės Marijos apsilankymo pas Elžbieta bažnyčia, Klasztor w Pożajściu) form the largest monastery complex in Lithuania, and the most magnificent example of Italian Baroque architecture in the country.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės valdovų rūmai Vilniaus žemutinėje pilyje; Zamek Dolny w Wilnie) is a palace in Vilnius, Lithuania.
Palanga (Palanga (also till 1934)) is a seaside resort town in western Lithuania, on the shore of the Baltic Sea.
The Palanga Amber Museum (Palangos gintaro muziejus), near the Baltic Sea in Palanga, Lithuania, is a branch of the Lithuanian Art Museum.
Palanga International Airport is a regional international airport located near the resort town Palanga at the Baltic Sea.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Panemunė Castle is a castle on the right bank of the Nemunas river, in Vytėnai, Jurbarkas district, Lithuania.
Panevėžys (Latin: Panevezen, Poniewież, פּאָנעװעזש Ponevezh) see also other names, is the fifth largest city in Lithuania. As of 2011, it occupied with 113,653 inhabitants. The largest multifunctional arena in Panevėžys, Cido Arena, hosted the Eurobasket 2011 group matches.
Panevėžys County (Panevėžio apskritis) is one of ten counties in Lithuania.
The Panzerhaubitze 2000 ("armoured howitzer 2000"), abbreviated PzH 2000, is a German 155 mm self-propelled howitzer developed by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) and Rheinmetall for the German Army.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
The Pedagogical University of Kraków (Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im., often shortened to Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny), was named after the Commission of National Education created by King Stanisław August Poniatowski.
The People's Government of Lithuania (Liaudies vyriausybė) was a puppet cabinet installed by the Soviet Union in Lithuania immediately after Lithuania's acceptance of the Soviet ultimatum of June 14, 1940.
The People's Seimas (Liaudies Seimas) was a puppet legislature organized in order to give legal sanction the occupation and annexation of Lithuania by the Soviet Union.
Perkūnas (Perkūnas, Pērkons, Old Prussian: Perkūns, Yotvingian: Parkuns) was the common Baltic god of thunder, one of the most important deities in the Baltic pantheon.
The Permanent Court of International Justice, often called the World Court, existed from 1922 to 1946.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Petras Kalpokas (31 March 1880 in Miškinė – 5 December 1945) was a well-known Lithuanian painter and professor.
Petras Klimas (February 23, 1891 - January 16, 1969) was a Lithuanian diplomat, author, historian, and one of the twenty signatories of the Act of Independence of Lithuania.
Petras Rimša (3 November 1881 in Naudžiai, Vilkaviškis district – 2 October 1961 in Kaunas) was one of the first professional Lithuanian sculptors and medalists.
Petras Vileišis (January 25, 1851 – August 12, 1926) was a prominent Lithuanian engineer, political activist, and philanthropist.
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.
Pierogi (singular pieróg), also known as varenyky, are filled dumplings of Eastern European origin made by wrapping unleavened dough around a savory or sweet filling and cooking in boiling water.
Pilėnai (also Pillenen in German) was a hill fort in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Plungė is a city in Lithuania with 23,246 inhabitants.
Plungė Manor is a former Ogiński residential manor in Plungė.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Polish minority in Lithuania numbered 200,317 persons, according to the Lithuanian census of 2011, or 6.6% of the total population of Lithuania.
The Polish Golden Age refers to the period from the late 15th century Jagiellon Poland to the death of the last of the Jagiellons, Sigismund August in 1572.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Lithuanian War was an armed conflict between newly independent Lithuania and Poland in the aftermath of World War I. The conflict primarily concerned territorial control of the Vilnius Region, including Vilnius, and the Suwałki Region, including the towns of Suwałki, Augustów, and Sejny.
The Polish–Muscovite War or the Polish–Russian War (1605–1618), also known as the Dimitriads, was a sequence of military conflicts and eastward invasions carried out by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, or the private armies and mercenaries led by the magnates (the Commonwealth aristocracy).
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Port of Klaipėda is a seaport located in Klaipėda, Lithuania.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
Pranas Dovydaitis (2 December 1886 in Runkiai – 4 November 1942 in Sverdlovsk, RSFSR) was a Lithuanian politician, Prime Minister of Lithuania, teacher, encyclopedist, editor, and professor.
The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
Prienai is a city in Lithuania situated on the Nemunas River, south of Kaunas.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
The Prime Minister of Lithuania (Ministras Pirmininkas., literally translated as Minister-Chairman) is the head of the Government of Lithuania.
The Principality of Chernigov (Чєрниговскоє кънѧжьство, Чернігівське князівство) was one of the largest states within Kievan Rus'.
The Principality of Pereyaslavl (Переяславське князівство) was a regional principality of Kievan Rus' from the end of 9th century until 1323, based in the city of Pereyaslavl (now Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi) on the Trubizh River.
Probabilistic number theory is a subfield of number theory, which explicitly uses probability to answer questions of number theory.
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.
Communist propaganda in the Soviet Union was extensively based on the Marxism-Leninism ideology to promote the Communist Party line.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Indo-European society is the hypothesized culture of the ancient speakers of Proto-Indo-European, ancestors of all modern Indo–European ethnic groups who are speakers of Indo-European languages.
A Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) was a unit introduced by the United States government, consisting of military officers, diplomats, and reconstruction subject matter experts, working to support reconstruction efforts in unstable states.
The Provisional Government of Lithuania (Laikinoji Vyriausybė) was a temporary government aiming for independent Lithuania during the last days of the Soviet occupation and the first weeks of German Nazi occupation in 1941.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Pskov (p; see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
In the mathematics of chaotic dynamical systems, in the Pyragas method of stabilizing a periodic orbit, an appropriate continuous controlling signal is injected into the system, whose intensity is nearly zero as the system evolves close to the desired periodic orbit but increases when it drifts away from the desired orbit.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
Radviliškis (Radziwiliszki, ראדווילישאָק, Radvilishok) is a city in the Radviliškis district municipality, Šiauliai County, Lithuania.
Rail Baltica (in Estonia also known as Rail Baltic and the Baltic part referred to as the Rail Baltica Global Project) is a greenfield railway infrastructure project to link Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland with a European standard gauge rail line, providing passenger and freight service between the countries and improving rail connections between Central and Northern Europe as well as acting as a catalyst for building the economic corridor in the Northeastern Europe.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.
Within the study of demography, the rate of natural increase (RNI) is classified as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Rūta Meilutytė (born 19 March 1997) is a Lithuanian swimmer, Olympic gold medalist, and world record-holder.
Real wages are wages adjusted for inflation, or, equivalently, wages in terms of the amount of goods and services that can be bought.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The red squirrel or Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is a species of tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus common throughout Eurasia.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
A regional park is an area of land preserved on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, recreational use or other reason, and under the administration of a form of local government.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
A religious image, sometimes called a votive image, is a work of visual art that is representational and has a religious purpose, subject or connection.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Central Lithuania or Middle Lithuania (Republika Litwy Środkowej, Vidurio Lietuvos Respublika, Рэспубліка Сярэдняе Літвы / Respublika Siaredniaje Litvy), or Central Lithuania (Litwa Środkowa, Vidurio Lietuva or Vidurinė Lietuva, Сярэдняя Літва / Siaredniaja Litva), was a short-lived political entity, which did not gain international recognition.
The general election in the Republic of Central Lithuania was an election to the Vilnius Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-dominated Republic of Central Lithuania on 8 January 1922.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
During World War II, Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union (1940–1941), Nazi Germany (1941–1944), and the Soviet Union again in 1944.
Respublika is a Lithuanian newspaper, published since September 16, 1989.
The ribbon of Saint George (also known as Saint George's ribbon and the Georgian ribbon; Георгиевская ленточка, Georgiyevskaya lentochka, not to be confused with the Guards Tape) is a widely recognized symbol of remembrance of the Soviet people who fought in the Great Patriotic War, WWII.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Rimantas Dichavičius (born 1 March 1937, Kelmė volost) is a Lithuanian photographer.
Rimantas Antanas Stankevičius (26 July 1944 in Marijampolė, Lithuania – 9 September 1990 in Salgareda, Italy) was a Lithuanian cosmonaut who test flew Soviet space shuttle Buran and its test vehicles.
Rimas Tuminas (born January 20, 1952, in Kelmė, Lithuania) is lithuanian theatre director.
Ritinis (also ritinys, rypka, rifle, katilka) is a team sport originating in Lithuania.
Road cycling is the most widespread form of cycling.
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
Roko maršas (March of the Rock Music) was a rock music festival, organized in various cities of Lithuania.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Romas Kalanta (February 22, 1953 – May 15, 1972) was a 19-year-old Lithuanian high school student known for his public self-immolation protesting Soviet regime in Lithuania.
Romuva is a modern reinstitution of the traditional ethnic religion of the Baltic peoples, reviving the ancient religious practices of the Lithuanians before their Christianization in 1387.
Romuva or Romowe (known as Rickoyoto in the writings of Simon Grunau) was an alleged pagan worship place (a temple or a sacred area) in the western part of Sambia, one of the regions of pagan Prussia.
Romuva Cinema (Romuvos kino teatras) is the oldest still operational movie theater in Lithuania.
Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water, displacing water, and propelling the boat forward.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Royal elections in Poland (wolna elekcja, lit. free election) was the election of individual kings, rather than of dynasties, to the Polish throne.
Rumšiškės (רומשישאָק, Rumshishok, Rumszyszki) is a Lithuanian town (population 1,700), situated east of Kaunas on the northern bank of Kaunas Reservoir.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian Drama Theatre of Lithuania (Lietuvos rusų dramos teatras) is a Russian-language theater in Vilnius, the capital city of Lithuania.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russians in Lithuania numbered 176,913 people, according to the Lithuanian census of 2011, or 5.8% of the total population of Lithuania.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Ryngold or Rimgaudas was a mythological Grand Duke of Lithuania from the Palemonids legends and supposed father of Mindaugas, the first King of Lithuania (1251–1263).
Saint Casimir Jagiellon (Kazimierz, Kazimieras; October 3, 1458 – March 4, 1484) was a prince of the Kingdom of Poland and of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Saint Jonas' Festival, also known as Rasos (Dew Holiday), Joninės, Kupolė, Midsummer Day or Saint John's Day) is a midsummer folk festival celebrated on June 24 all around Lithuania. While midsummer day is celebrated throughout Europe, many Lithuanians have a particularly lively agenda on this day. The traditions include singing songs and dancing until the sun sets, telling tales, searching to find the magic fern blossom at midnight, jumping over bonfires, greeting the rising midsummer sun and washing the face with a morning dew, young girls float flower wreaths on the water of river or lake. These are customs brought from pagan culture and beliefs. Once upon a time the Balts, the ancestors of the Lithuanians, celebrated the feast of Rasos by offering sacrifices to the pagan gods, and priestesses incited the altar fire. Only when Christianity came to Lithuania, this festival was identified with St. John name-day and since then was called Joninės (St.
The Saint Petersburg–Warsaw Railway, Russian "Санкт-Петербурго-Варшавская железная дорога" (transcription: Sankt-Peterburgo–Varshavskaya zheleznaya doroga) is a long railway, built in the 19th century by the Russian Empire to connect Russia with Central Europe.
Sambia (Самбийский полуостров, Sambiysky poluostrov, literally the Sambiysky Peninsula;Sembos pusiasalis) or Samland (Земландский полуостров, Zemlandsky poluostrov, literally the Zemlandsky Peninsula) or Kaliningrad Peninsula (official name, Калининградский полуостров, Kaliningradsky poluostrov) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea.
Samogitia or Žemaitija (Samogitian: Žemaitėjė; Žemaitija; see below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is Šiauliai. Žemaitija has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect.
Samogitian (Samogitian: žemaitiu ruoda, žemaitiu kalba, žemaitiu rokunda, žemaičių tarmė) is a dialect of the Lithuanian language, considered a separate language by most linguists outside Lithuania, however, recognition as such is increasing in recent years, spoken mostly in Samogitia (in the western part of Lithuania), in Northern Europe.
Samogitians (Samogitian: Žemaitē, Žemaičiai, Latvian: Žemaiši, Sl. Zhmud) are a subgroup of Lithuanians that inhabit the region of Samogitia in Lithuania.
Sarai (also transcribed as Saraj or Saray, from Persian sarāi, "palace" or "court") was the name of two cities, which were successively capital cities of the Golden Horde, the Mongol kingdom which ruled much of Central Asia and Eastern Europe, in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Saulė (Saulė, Saule) is a solar goddess, the common Baltic solar deity in the Lithuanian and Latvian mythologies.
Saulius Skvernelis (born 23 July 1970) is a Lithuanian politician who has been Prime Minister of Lithuania since 2016.
Sąjūdis ("Movement"), initially known as the Reform Movement of Lithuania (Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdis), is the political organisation which led the struggle for Lithuanian independence in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
The Science and Encyclopaedia Publishing Centre (previously: Science and Encyclopaedia Publishing Institute, Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos centras (MELC)) is a Lithuanian publishing house that issues encyclopedias, reference works, books, monographs, and dictionaries.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), previously Science, Math, Engineering, and Technology (SMET), is a term used to group together these academic disciplines.
Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas), or simply the Seimas, is the unicameral parliament of Lithuania.
Seimas Palace (Seimo rūmai) is the seat of the Seimas, the Lithuanian parliament.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
This article is about the Baltic ethnicity.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
Semigallians (Latvian Zemgaļi; Žiemgaliai, also Zemgalians, Semigalls, Semigalians) were the Baltic tribe that lived in the southcentral part of contemporary Latvia and northern Lithuania.
Sentimentalism is a practice of being sentimental, and thus tending toward basing actions and reactions upon emotions and feelings, in preference to reason.
The Separate Operational Purpose Division or ODON, formerly called OMSDON (a.k.a. Dzerzhinsky Division) is a rapid deployment internal security division of the Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR and then the Russian Federation, today of the National Guard Forces Command of the Russian Federation.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.
Siegmund (Sigismund) Freiherr von Herberstein (or Baron Sigismund von Herberstein), (23 August 1486 – 28 March 1566) was a Carniolan diplomat, writer, historian and member of the Holy Roman Empire Imperial Council.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Sigitas Tamkevičius (born November 7, 1938 in Gudonys, in Lazdijai district) is a Lithuanian archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
Simonas Daukantas or Szymon Dowkont (28 October 1793 – 6 December 1864) was a Lithuanian/Samogitian writer, ethnographer and prose historian.
Simonas Stanevičius (October 26, 1799 in Kanopėnai near Viduklė – March 10, 1848 in Stemplės near Švėkšna) was a Lithuanian writer and an activist of the "Samogitian Revival", an early stage of the Lithuanian National Revival.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
Skilandis or Kindziukas is a Lithuanian matured sausage made of meat, fat, salt, pepper and garlic.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát), was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.
The Snow Arena is an indoor ski slope in Druskininkai, Lithuania.
The Social Democratic Party of Lithuania (Lietuvos socialdemokratų partija, LSDP) is a social-democratic political party in Lithuania.
A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
The Southern Bug, also called Southern Buh (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh; Южный Буг, Yuzhny Bug), and sometimes Boh River, is a navigable river located in Ukraine.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
Soviet deportations from Lithuania were a series of 35 mass deportations carried out in Lithuania, a country that was occupied as a constituent socialist republic of the Soviet Union, in 1941 and 1945–1952.
The Soviet occupation of the Baltic states covers the period from the Soviet–Baltic mutual assistance pacts in 1939, to their invasion and annexation in 1940, to the mass deportations of 1941.
The Soviet Union occupied most of the territory of the Baltic states in its 1944 Baltic Offensive during World War II.
Several Soviet OMON assaults on Lithuanian border posts occurred in 1991, after Lithuania declared its independence from the Soviet Union on 11 March 1990.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty (Lietuvos-Sovietų Sąjungos savitarpio pagalbos sutartis) was a bilateral treaty signed between the Soviet Union and Lithuania on October 10, 1939.
The Sovietization of the Baltic states refers to the sovietization of all spheres of life in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania when they were under control of the Soviet Union.
A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa (a developed mineral spring).
Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.
A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.
A spit cake is a European cake made with layers of dough or batter deposited, one at a time, onto a tapered cylindrical rotating spit.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
Spring is one of the four conventional temperate seasons, following winter and preceding summer.
An aircraft stabilizer is an aerodynamic surface, typically including one or more movable control surfaces, that provides longitudinal (pitch) and/or directional (yaw) stability and control.
A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.
Stanisław Narutowicz (Stanislovas Narutavičius) (2 September 1862, Brewiki, Kovno Governorate – 31 December 1932, Kaunas, Lithuania) was a lawyer and politician, one of the twenty signatories of the Act of Independence of Lithuania and brother to the first president of Poland Gabriel Narutowicz.
Stanislovas Svetkus Rapolionis (Stanislaus Rapagel(l)anus, Stanislaus Lituanus, Stanisław Rafajłowicz; – May 13, 1545) was a Lutheran activist and Protestant reformer from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Stasys Raštikis (September 13, 1896 – May 3, 1985) was a Lithuanian military officer, ultimately obtaining the rank of divisional general.
Stasys Ušinskas, (1905-1974) was a Lithuanian stained-glass artist.
Following the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, the State Council of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Государственный Совет СССР), but also known as the State Soviet, was formed on 5 September 1991 and was designed to be one of the most important government offices in Mikhail Gorbachev's Soviet Union.
Statehood Day is an annual public holiday in Lithuania celebrated on July 6 to commemorate the coronation in 1253 of Mindaugas as the only King of Lithuania.
The Stelmužė Oak (Stelmužės ąžuolas) is an English (Pedunculate) oak tree which grows in the former Stelmužė Manor park by Stelmužė village, Lithuania.
Steponas Kairys (December 20, 1878 Old Style/January 3, 1879 New Style in Užnevėžiai, near Ukmergė – December 16, 1964 in Brooklyn) was a Lithuanian engineer, nationalist, and social democrat.
A stove is an enclosed space in which fuel is burned to heat either the space in which the stove is situated, or items placed on the heated stove itself.
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn.
The Supreme Council – Restoration Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania (officially known as Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania), was the supreme governing body, elected in 1990.
Suvalkija or Sudovia (Sūduva or Suvalkija or Užnemunė) is the smallest of the five cultural regions of Lithuania.
The Suwałki Agreement, Treaty of Suvalkai, or Suwalki Treaty (Umowa suwalska, Suvalkų sutartis) was an agreement signed in the town of Suwałki between Poland and Lithuania on October 7, 1920.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of ones arms and legs to move the body through water.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, usually in a single continuous movement, which illustrates or evokes the content of a poem, short story, novel, painting, landscape, or other (non-musical) source.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Tauragė County (Lithuanian: Tauragės apskritis) is one of ten counties in Lithuania.
Tautiška giesmė (The National Hymn) is the national anthem of Lithuania, also known by its opening words "Lietuva, Tėvyne mūsų" (official translation of the lyrics: "Lithuania, Our Homeland", literally: "Lithuania, Our Fatherland") and as "Lietuvos himnas" (Hymn of Lithuania).
The tawny owl or brown owl (Strix aluco) is a stocky, medium-sized owl commonly found in woodlands across much of Eurasia.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Telšiai County (Telšių apskritis) is one of ten counties in Lithuania.
In Lithuania, area codes consist of 2 digits for the towns with 6-digit numbering.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Holocaust in German occupied Lithuania resulted in the near total destruction of Lithuanian (Litvaks) and Polish Jews, living in Generalbezirk Litauen of Reichskommissariat Ostland within the Nazi-controlled Lithuanian SSR.
The Seasons (Metai) is the first Lithuanian poem written by Kristijonas Donelaitis around 1765–1775.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.
The Tiškevičiai Palace, Tiskevičius Palace, or Tyszkiewicz Palace (Tiškevičių rūmai; Pałac Tyszkiewiczów) is a Neo-Renaissance style building in Palanga, Lithuania, built for the Tyszkiewicz (Tiškevičiai) family.
Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, or bushes, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere.
The Time of Troubles (Смутное время, Smutnoe vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.
Tokhtamysh (tat. Tuqtamış) The spelling of Tokhtamysh varies, but the most common spelling is Tokhtamysh.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes (but many events are held at older velodromes where the track banking is relatively shallow) using track bicycles.
The trade-to-GDP ratio is an indicator of the relative importance of international trade in the economy of a country.
Trakai (see names section for alternate and historic names) is a historic city and lake resort in Lithuania.
Trakai Historical National Park is a national park in Lithuania.
Trakai Island Castle (Trakų salos pilis) is an island castle located in Trakai, Lithuania on an island in Lake Galvė.
Trakai Voivodeship, Trakai Palatinate, or Troki Voivodeship (Trakų vaivadija, Palatinatus Trocensis, Województwo trockie), was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1413 until 1795.
The Truce or Treaty of Yam-Zapolsky (Ям-Запольский) or Jam Zapolski, signed on 15 January 1582 between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Tsardom of Russia, was one of the treaties that ended the Livonian War.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
The Turán–Kubilius inequality is a mathematical theorem in probabilistic number theory.
Užgavėnės is a Lithuanian festival that takes place during the seventh week before Easter (Ash Wednesday).
Ukmergė ((Vilkomiria, Wiłkomierz, Вилькомир, ווילקאמיר Vilkomir) is a city in Vilnius County, Lithuania, located northwest of Vilnius, with a population of about 21,000 (2017).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
In a strict sense, the Union of Krewo or "Act of Krėva" (also spelled "Union of Krevo", "Act of Kreva"; Krėvos sutartis) was a set of prenuptial promises made in the Kreva Castle on 14 August 1385 by Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in exchange for marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland.
The Union of Lithuanian Freedom Fighters (Lietuvos laisvės kovotojų sąjunga or LLKS) or Movement for the Struggle for Lithuanian Freedom (Lietuvos laisvės kovos sąjūdis or LLKS) was a resistance organization of the Lithuanian partisans, waging a guerrilla war against the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council resolution 711, adopted without a vote on 12 September 1991, after examining the application of the Republic of Lithuania for membership in the United Nations, the Council recommended to the General Assembly that Lithuania be admitted.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is a university in Cologne, Germany.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Utena is a city in north-east Lithuania.
Utena County (Utenos Apskritis) is one of ten counties in Lithuania.
Valdas Adamkus (born Voldemaras Adamkavičius; 3 November 1926) is a Lithuanian politician.
Vasily Seseman (several other latinizations of his name exist, Vosylius Sezemanas, Василий Эмильевич Сеземан) (June 11, 1884, Vyborg — March 23, 1963, Vilnius) was a Russian and Lithuanian philosopher, a representative of Marburg school of Neo-Kantianism.
Veidas (Lith. for 'face') is a weekly news magazine published in Lithuania.
Velikiye Luki (p; lit. great meanders).
Velizh (Ве́лиж; Веліж; Wieliż; Veližas) is a town and the administrative center of Velizhsky District in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the bank of the Western Dvina, from Smolensk, the administrative center of the oblast.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Vidmantas Bartulis (born 3 April 1954 in Kaunas, Lithuanian SSR) is a Lithuanian composer, Recipient of the Lithuanian National Prize (1998).
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Viktoras Pranckietis (born 26 July 1958) is a Lithuanian agronomist and politician.
The Vilnia (also Vilnelė;, Vilnia) is a river in Lithuania.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
The Vilnius Academy of Arts (Vilniaus dailės akademija, previously State Art Institute of Lithuania) in Vilnius, Lithuania, grants a variety of degrees in the arts.
Vilnius Airport (Vilniaus oro uostas) is the international airport of Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.
Vilnius book fair is the largest annual book fair in the Baltic states, held in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.
The Vilnius Castle Complex (Vilniaus pilių kompleksas or Vilniaus pilys) is a group of cultural, and historic structures on the left bank of the Neris River, near its confluence with the Vilnia River, in Vilnius, Lithuania.
The Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus and St Ladislaus of Vilnius (Vilniaus Šv., Bazylika archikatedralna św.) is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania.
The Vilnius Conference or Vilnius National Conference (Vilniaus konferencija) met between September 18, 1917 and September 22, 1917, and began the process of establishing a Lithuanian state based on ethnic identity and language that would be independent of the Russian Empire, Poland, and the German Empire.
Vilnius County (Vilniaus apskritis) is the largest of the 10 counties of Lithuania, located in the east of the country around the city Vilnius.
Vilnius District Municipality (Vilniaus rajono savivaldybė) is one of 60 municipalities in Lithuania.
Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University), also known as VGTU, is a public university in Vilnius, Lithuania.
The Vilnius International Film Festival (VIFF) Kino pavasaris is a film festival held annually in March in Vilnius, Lithuania since 1995, and is the largest film festival in the nation in number of films and audience.
The Vilnius Jazz Festival is a jazz festival held in Vilnius, Lithuania.
The Danske Bank Vilnius Marathon is an annual road marathon, held in Vilnius, Lithuania.
The Old Town of Vilnius (Vilniaus senamiestis, Stare Miasto w Wilnie, Стары горад Вільні, Старый город в Вильнe), one of the largest surviving medieval old towns in Northern Europe, has an area of 3.59 square kilometres (887 acres).
The Vilnius photometric system is a medium-band seven-colour photometric system (UPXYZVS), created in 1963 by Vytautas Straižys and his coworkers.
Vilnius Region (Vilniaus kraštas, Wileńszczyzna, Віленшчына, also formerly known in English: as Wilno Region or Vilna Region) is the territory in the present-day Lithuania and Belarus that was originally inhabited by ethnic Baltic tribes and was a part of Lithuania proper, but came under East Slavic and Polish cultural influences over time.
Vilnius University (Vilniaus universitetas; former names exist) is the oldest university in the Baltic states and one of the oldest in Northern Europe.
The Vilnius Voivodeship (Palatinatus Vilnensis, Vilniaus vaivadija, województwo wileńskie) was one of voivodeships in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, created in 1413, from the Duchy of Lithuania and neighbouring lands and later incorporated into the newly established Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Vincas Grybas (3 October 1890 – 3 July 1941) was a Lithuanian sculptor.
Vincas Vitkauskas (4 October 1890 – 3 March 1965) was a Lithuanian general.
Vincentas Sladkevičius, MIC (August 20, 1920 – May 28, 2000) was a Lithuanian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Vingis Park is the largest park in Vilnius, Lithuania.
Virgilijus Alekna (13 February 1972) is a Lithuanian former discus thrower and politician.
Virginijus Šikšnys (born January 26, 1956) is a Lithuanian biochemist.
Visaginas is the centre of Lithuania's youngest municipality, located on the north-eastern edge of the country.
The Visaginas Municipality (Visagino savivaldybė) is one of the 60 municipalities of Lithuania, situated in the north-east of the country.
Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant is a planned nuclear power plant project in Lithuania.
Vladimir Olgerdovich (Уладзімер Альгердавіч, Vladimiras Algirdaitis, Włodzimierz Olgierdowic, Володимир Ольгердович; died after 1398) was a son of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his first wife Maria of Vitebsk.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Toporov (Влади́мир Никола́евич Топоро́в; 5 July 1928 in Moscow5 December 2005 in Moscow) was a leading Russian philologist associated with the Tartu-Moscow semiotic school.
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
Vytautas Andrius Graičiūnas (August 17, 1898 in Chicago – January 9, 1952 in Olzheras, Siberia) was a Lithuanian management theorist, management consultant, and engineer and was a known expert in his field.
Vytautas Kairiūkštis (1890 in Sejny – 1961 in Vilnius) was a Lithuanian constructivist artist.
Vytautas Kernagis (May 19, 1951 – March 15, 2008) was a Lithuanian singer-songwriter, bard, actor, director, and television announcer.
Vytautas Landsbergis (born 18 October 1932) is a Lithuanian conservative politician and Member of the European Parliament.
Vytautas Mačernis (1921 – 1944) was a Lithuanian poet.
Vytautas Magnus University (VMU) (Vytauto Didžiojo Universitetas (VDU)) is a public university in Kaunas, Lithuania.
Vytautas Petrulis (born February 3, 1890 in Katelišės, near Vabalninkas; executed in 1942, near Uchta, RSFSR) was a Lithuanian politician, one of the main figures in the Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party, and an accountant.
Vytautas Straižys (born August 20, 1936) is a Lithuanian astronomer.
The Vytautas the Great War Museum (Vytauto Didžiojo karo muziejus) is a museum in Kaunas, Lithuania.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
Władysław IV Vasa (Władysław IV Waza; Vladislovas Vaza; r; Vladislaus IV Vasa or Ladislaus IV Vasa; 9 June 1595 – 20 May 1648) was a Polish prince from the Royal House of Vasa.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The West Russian Volunteer Army or Bermontians was an army in the Baltic provinces of the former Russian Empire during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1920.
The western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), also known as the wood grouse, heather cock, or just capercaillie, is the largest member of the grouse family.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The Wild Fields (Дике Поле Dyke Pole, Дикое Поле, Dikoye Polye, Dzikie pola, Dykra, Loca deserta, sive campi deserti inhabitati, also translated as "the Wilderness") is a historical term used in the Polish–Lithuanian documents of the 16th to 18th centuries to refer to the Pontic steppe of Ukraine, located north of the Black Sea and Azov Sea.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
Prince Wilhelm of Urach, Count of Württemberg, 2nd Duke of Urach (Wilhelm Karl Florestan Gero Crescentius; German Fürst Wilhelm von Urach, Graf von Württemberg, 2. Herzog von Urach; 30 May 1864 – 24 March 1928), was a German prince who was elected in June 1918 as King of Lithuania, with the regnal name of Mindaugas II.
A window shutter is a solid and stable window covering usually consisting of a frame of vertical stiles and horizontal rails (top, centre and bottom).
Winfred Philip Lehmann (23 June 1916, Surprise, Nebraska – 1 August 2007, Austin, Texas) was an American linguist noted for his work in historical linguistics, particularly Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Germanic, as well as for pioneering work in machine translation.
Winter is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate zones (winter does not occur in the tropical zone).
A winter sport or winter activity is a recreational activity or sport which is played on snow or ice.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World's Strongest Man is a strongman competition.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (tr; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;; Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yotvingians, or Sudovians (also called Suduvians, Jatvians, or Jatvingians in English; Jotvingiai, Sūduviai; Jātvingi; Jaćwingowie, Яцвягі, Ятвяги Sudauer), were a Baltic people with close cultural ties in the 13th century to the Lithuanians and Prussians.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Zervynos is an ethnographic village in the Varėna district, Lithuania.
.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
.LT is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Lithuania.
15min (Lithuanian: Penkiolika minučių) is one of the largest news websites in Lithuania, owned by an Estonian media company "Eesti media".
The 1926 Lithuanian coup d'état (Lithuanian: 1926-ųjų perversmas) was a military coup d'état in Lithuania that resulted in the replacement of the democratically elected government with a conservative authoritarian government led by Antanas Smetona.
The Soviet Union issued an ultimatum to Lithuania before midnight of June 14, 1940.
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
The 2018 IIHF World Championship Division I was an international ice hockey tournament run by the International Ice Hockey Federation.
The meridian 21° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
2420 Čiurlionis, provisionally designated, is a stony Eunomian asteroid from the central regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 9 kilometers in diameter.
The meridian 27° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 29th Rifle Corps can refer to multiple different corps of the Soviet Red Army, each of which primarily saw combat on the Eastern Front during World War II.
Railways with a railway track gauge of were first constructed in the United Kingdom and the United States.
The 53rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 53 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 57th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 57 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
First Republic of Lithuania, ISO 3166-1:LT, Largest cities of Lithuania, Lietova, Lietuva, Lietuvos Respublika, Litauen, Lithuenia, Littaw, Lituania, Lituanie, Republic of Lithuania, Republic of Lithuania (1918-1940), Republic of Lithuania (1918–1940), Second Republic of Lithuania, State of Lithuania.