84 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Acheulean, Akkadian language, Al Zab, Alexander the Great, Ancient Greek, Arch dam, Barda Balka, Battle of Gaugamela, Biogeographic realm, Citadel of Erbil, Clay tablet, Conglomerate (geology), Darius III, Dibis Dam, Discharge (hydrology), Diyala River, Domestication, Drainage basin, Dukan Dam, Embankment dam, Epipalaeolithic, Erbil, Erbil Governorate, Excavation (archaeology), ʿAdhaim, Fold (geology), Foothills, Gravel, Great Zab, Homo sapiens, Hunter-gatherer, Hydroelectricity, Iran, Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan, Irrigation, Jarmo, Kirkuk, Kirkuk Governorate, Lake Dukan, Limestone, Lower Paleolithic, Malaria, Medes, Medieval Greek, Metres above sea level, Middle Paleolithic, Mitanni, Mousterian, ..., Neanderthal, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neolithic, Nuzi, Phlomis, Qaladiza, Quercus macrolepis, Ranya, Rescue archaeology, Reservoir, Sandstone, Sardasht Dam, Seleucid Empire, Shahrizor, Shamshi-Adad I, Shanidar Cave, Shulgi, Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Survey (archaeology), Tell (archaeology), Tell al-Fakhar, Tell Bazmusian, Tell Hassuna, Tell Shemshara, Third Dynasty of Ur, Tigris, Tigris–Euphrates river system, Tree line, Ubaid period, University of Chicago Oriental Institute, Upper Paleolithic, Uruk period, Zagros Mountains, Zarzian culture. Expand index (34 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Acheulean (also Acheulian and Mode II), from the French acheuléen, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Al Zab, Al-Zab, or Az-Zab is a town in Iraq administered as part of the Kirkuk Governorate's Hawija District.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An arch dam is a concrete dam that is curved upstream in plan.
Barda Balka is an archeological site near the Little Zab and Chamchamal in the north of modern-day Iraq.
The Battle of Gaugamela (Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela (Ἄρβηλα), was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeographic division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms.
The Erbil Citadel, locally called Qalat Erbil (قەڵای ھەولێر Qelay Hewlêr; قلعة أربيل) Assyrian (arbailo)is a tell or occupied mound, and the historical city centre of Erbil in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
Conglomerate is a coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rock that is composed of a substantial fraction of rounded to subangular gravel-size clasts, e.g., granules, pebbles, cobbles, and boulders, larger than in diameter.
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
The Dibis (Dibbis) Dam or Dibis Regulator is a gravel-alluvial fill embankment dam located on Lesser Zab River approximately 130 km upstream from its confluence with the Tigris River.
In hydrology, discharge is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given cross-sectional area.
The Diyala River, is a river and tributary of the Tigris.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
The Dukan Dam (Arabic سد دوكان) is a multi-purpose concrete arch dam in As Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Northern Iraq.
An embankment dam is a large artificial dam.
In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic, Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc) is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic in the Stone Age.
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
Erbil Governorate (Parêzgeha Hewlêr - پارێزگای ھەولێر, ܗܘܦܲܪܟܝܵܐ ܕܐܲܪܒܝܠ, محافظة أربيل Muḥāfaẓat Arbīl), sometimes referred to by the alternative spelling Arbil Governorate, is a governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan.
In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains.
The ʿAdhaim (العظيم) is a river that originates in the Zagros Mountains in Sulaymaniyah Governorate and joins the Tigris river after at, some downstream (east-to-southeast) of Samarra.
A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation.
Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increase in elevation at the base of a mountain range, higher hill range or an upland area.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.
The Great Zab or Upper Zab ((al-Zāb al-Kabīr),,, (zāba ʻalya)) is an approximately long river flowing through Turkey and Iraq.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Ancient Assyria Jarmo Ancient Assyria (Qal'at Jarmo) is a prehistoric archeological site located in Iraq on the foothills of the Zagros Mountains.
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
Kirkuk Governorate (محافظة كركوك, پارێزگای کەرکووک Parêzgay Kerkûk, ܟܪܟ ܣܠܘܟ, Kerkük ili) or Kirkuk Province is a governorate in northern Iraq.
Lake Dukan (or Lake Dokan) (دەریاچەی دووکان) is the largest lake in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
The Mousterian (or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nuzi (or Nuzu; Akkadian Gasur; modern Yorghan Tepe, Iraq) was an ancient Assyrian Mesopotamian city southwest of the major Assyrian city of Arrapha (Karka modern Kirkuk in modern Al Ta'amim Governorate of Iraq), located near the Tigris river.
Phlomis is a genus of over 100 species Flora of China.
Qalladze or Qeladizê is a City of 140,000 inhabitants in the Kurdistan Regional Government region in Iraqi Kurdistan, north of Sulaymaniyah, near the Iranian border.
Quercus macrolepis, the Valonia oak, the old name for Quercus ithaburensis sub.
Ranya (ڕانیە) is a town in the Kurdistan region of Iraq, and is a part of the Sulaymaniyah Governance.
Rescue archaeology, sometimes called preventive archaeology, salvage archaeology, commercial archaeology, contract archaeology, or compliance archaeology, is state-sanctioned, for-profit archaeological survey and excavation carried out in advance of construction or other land development.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
The Sardasht Dam is an embankment dam currently under construction on the Little Zab southeast of Sardasht in the Iranian province of West Azerbaijan.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Shahrizor is a plain between Suleimania and Darbandikhan, situated in the southeastern part of Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq.
Shamshi-Adad I (Šamši-Adad I; Amorite: Shamshi-Addu I; fl. c. 1809 BC – c. 1776 BC by the middle chronology) was an Amorite who had conquered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper Mesopotamia for the Old Assyrian Empire.
Shanidar Cave (Kurdish: Şaneder or Zewî Çemî Şaneder) is an archaeological site located on Bradost Mountain in the Erbil Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan.
Shulgi (dŠulgi, formerly read as Dungi) of Ur was the second king of the Sumerian Renaissance in the Third Dynasty of Ur.
Sulaymaniyah Governorate (پارێزگای سلێمانی., محافظة السليمانية.) or Sulaymaniyah Province is a mountainous governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan.
In archaeology, survey or field survey is a type of field research by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) search for archaeological sites and collect information about the location, distribution and organization of past human cultures across a large area (e.g. typically in excess of one hectare, and often in excess of many km2).
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
Tell al-Fakhar (تل الفخار "Pottery Mound") is a tell, or archaeological settlement mound, in Kirkuk Governorate, northeastern Iraq.
Tell Bazmusian is an archaeological site on the right bank of the Little Zab in the Ranya Plain (Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Iraq).
Tell Hassuna is a tell, or settlement mound, in the Nineveh Province (Iraq), about 35km south-west of Nineveh.
Tell Shemshara is an archaeological site located along the Little Zab in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, northeastern Iraq.
The terms "Third Dynasty of Ur" and "Neo-Sumerian Empire" refer to both a 22nd to 21st century BC (middle chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
The Tigris and Euphrates, with their tributaries, form a major river system in Western Asia.
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing.
The Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.
The Oriental Institute (OI), established in 1919, is the University of Chicago's interdisciplinary research center for ancient Near Eastern ("Orient") studies, and archaeology museum.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.
The Zagros Mountains (کوههای زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.
Zarzian culture is an archaeological culture of late Paleolithic and Mesolithic in Southwest Asia.