337 relations: ABCB11, Abdomen, Abdominal cavity, Acute liver failure, Acute-phase protein, Adrenal gland, Alagille syndrome, Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alcoholic hepatitis, Alcoholic liver disease, Alcoholism, Alkali, Allotransplantation, Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, Amino acid, Amino acid synthesis, Ammonia, Ampulla of Vater, Anabolism, Anatomical terms of location, Ancient Greece, Anger, Angiotensin, Antithrombin, APOA2, Artificial organ, Ascites, Autoimmune disease, BAAT, Bare area of the liver, Battle of Uhud, Beef, Benign tumor, Benzodiazepine, Bile, Bile canaliculus, Bile duct, Biliary atresia, Biliary tract, Bilirubin, Biochemistry, Biosynthesis, Blood, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Blood test, Blood vessel, Bone marrow, Braunschweiger (sausage), ..., Bruise, Budd–Chiari syndrome, Calf, Cambridge, Canals of Hering, Cantlie line, Carbohydrate metabolism, Caucasus, Cavernous liver haemangioma, Celiac ganglia, Cell cycle, Cell potency, Central veins of liver, Chicken, Cholangiocyte, Cholestasis, Cholesterol, Chopped liver, Cirrhosis, Claude Couinaud, Coagulation, Cod liver oil, Colic flexures, Common bile duct, Common hepatic artery, Common hepatic duct, Common stingray, Compensatory growth (organ), Complement system, Copper, CT scan, Cystic duct, Detoxification, Dietary supplement, Digestion, Disease, Divination, Domestic pig, Drug metabolism, Ductus venosus, Duodenum, Eagle, Embryo, Emulsion, Endoderm, England, Epithelium, Factor IX, Factor V, Factor VII, Factor VIII, Factor X, Factor XI, Factor XIII, Falciform ligament, Fatty acid, Fatty acid degradation, Fatty liver, Ferrol, Galicia, Fetus, Fibrinogen, Fibrinogen beta chain, Fibroblast growth factor, Fibrosis, Foie gras, Food, Foregut, Fossa (anatomy), Fowl, Francis Glisson, French cuisine, Friction, G0 phase, G1 phase, Gallbladder, Gastrointestinal tract, Germ layer, Gestation, Gland, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glucuronidation, GLUT2, Glycerol, Glycogen, Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, Glycoprotein, Goose, Greek language, Greek mythology, Gross anatomy, Half-life, Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Haruspex, Heart development, Hematopoietic stem cell, Hemodynamics, Hemoglobin, Hepatectomy, Hepatic artery proper, Hepatic diverticulum, Hepatic encephalopathy, Hepatic portal system, Hepatic stellate cell, Hepatic veins, Hepatitis, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, Hepatitis E, Hepatocyte, Hepatomegaly, Hepatotoxicity, Herpes simplex virus, Herpesviridae, Hilum (anatomy), Hind bint Utbah, Hindi, Histology, Homology (biology), Hormone, Human, Human digestive system, Human embryogenesis, Human serum albumin, Hydroxyacid oxidase (glycolate oxidase) 1, Hypotension, Infection, Inferior vena cava, Insulin, Insulin-like growth factor, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Iron, Itch, James Hillman, Japanese cuisine, Jaundice, Jerusalem mixed grill, Joint, Juxtaglomerular apparatus, Kupffer cell, Lactic acid, Lamb and mutton, Lancelet, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Lateral 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ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B member 11 also known as ABCB11 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ABCB11 gene.
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
The abdominal cavity is a large body cavity in humans and many other animals that contains many organs.
Acute liver failure is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice), and indicates that the liver has sustained severe damage (loss of function of 80–90% of liver cells).
Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Alagille syndrome, Alagille-Watson syndrome or ALGS, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that affects the liver, heart, kidney, and other systems of the body.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
Alcoholic hepatitis is hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) due to excessive intake of alcohol.
Alcoholic liver disease is a term that encompasses the liver manifestations of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Allotransplant (allo- meaning "other" in Greek) is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD or AATD) is a genetic disorder that may result in lung disease or liver disease.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) by which the various amino acids are produced from other compounds.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ampulla of Vater, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla or the hepatopancreatic duct, is formed by the union of the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system.
Apolipoprotein A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA2 gene.
An artificial organ is an engineered device or tissue that is implanted or integrated into a human — interfacing with living tissue — to replace a natural organ, to duplicate or augment a specific function or functions so the patient may return to a normal life as soon as possible.
Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BAAT gene.
The bare area of the liver (nonperitoneal area) is a large triangular area on the diaphragmatic surface of the liver, devoid of peritoneal covering.
The Battle of Uhud (غزوة أحد) was a battle between the early Muslims and their Quraish Meccan enemies in AD 624 in the northwest of the Arabian peninsula.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
Bile canaliculus (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by hepatocytes.
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates.
Biliary atresia, also known as extrahepatic ductopenia and progressive obliterative cholangiopathy, is a childhood disease of the liver in which one or more bile ducts are abnormally narrow, blocked, or absent.
The biliary tract, (biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Braunschweiger (named after Braunschweig, Germany) is the name for several types of sausages in different regions.
A contusion, commonly known as a bruise, is a type of hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues.
Budd–Chiari syndrome is a very rare condition, affecting one in a million adults.
A calf (plural, calves) is the young of domestic cattle.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
The Canals of Hering, or intrahepatic bile ductules, are part of the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver.
In medicine, the Cantlie line or Cantlie's line is an imaginary division of the liver used when performing a hepatectomies.
Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
A cavernous liver haemangioma or hepatic haemangioma is a benign tumour of the liver composed of hepatic endothelial cells.
The celiac ganglia or coeliac ganglia are two large irregularly shaped masses of nerve tissue in the upper abdomen.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency.
The central veins of liver (or central venules) are veins found at the center of hepatic lobules (one vein at each lobule center).
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
Cholangiocytes are the epithelial cells of the bile duct.
Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Chopped liver is a liver pâté popular in Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Claude Couinaud (16 February 1922, Neuilly-sur-Seine - 4 May 2008, Paris) was a French surgeon and anatomist who made significant contributions in the field of hepatobiliary surgery.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Cod liver oil is a dietary supplement derived from liver of cod fish (Gadidae).
There are two colic flexures, or curvatures in the transverse colon.
The common bile duct, sometimes abbreviated CBD, is a duct in the gastrointestinal tract of organisms that have a gall bladder.
The common hepatic artery is a short blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, pylorus of the stomach, duodenum and pancreas.
The common hepatic duct is the duct formed by the convergence of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver) and the left hepatic duct (which drains bile from the left functional lobe of the liver).
The common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) is a species of stingray in the family Dasyatidae, found in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean and Black Seas.
Compensatory growth is a type of regenerative growth that can take place in a number of human organs after the organs are either damaged, removed, or cease to function.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
The cystic duct is the short duct that joins the gallbladder to the common bile duct.
Detoxification or detoxication (detox for short) is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus or only Sus domesticus), often called swine, hog, or simply pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a large, even-toed ungulate.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
In the fetus, the ductus venosus (Arantius' duct after Julius Caesar Aranzi) shunts a portion of the left umbilical vein blood flow directly to the inferior vena cava.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Factor IX (or Christmas factor) is one of the serine proteases of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1.
Factor V (pronounced factor five) is a protein of the coagulation system, rarely referred to as proaccelerin or labile factor.
Factor VII (blood-coagulation factor VIIa, activated blood coagulation factor VII, formerly known as proconvertin) is one of the proteins that causes blood to clot in the coagulation cascade.
Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor (AHF).
Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart–Prower factor, is an enzyme of the coagulation cascade.
Factor XI or plasma thromboplastin antecedent is the zymogen form of factor XIa, one of the enzymes of the coagulation cascade.
Factor XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor is an enzyme of the blood coagulation system that crosslinks fibrin.
The falciform ligament is a ligament that attaches the liver to the anterior (ventral) body wall, and separates the left lobe into lateral and medial segments.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fatty acid degradation is the process in which fatty acids are broken down into their metabolites, in the end generating acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the citric acid cycle, the main energy supply of animals.
Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis (i.e., abnormal retention of lipids within a cell).
Ferrol (In the neighbourhood of Strabo's Cape Nerium, modern day Cape Prior), is a city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia, on the Atlantic coast in north-western Spain.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fibrinogen (factor I) is a glycoprotein that in vertebrates circulates in the blood.
Fibrinogen beta chain, also known as FGB, is a gene found in humans and most other vertebrates with a similar system of blood coagulation.
The fibroblast growth factors are a family of cell signalling proteins that are involved in a wide variety of processes, most notably as crucial elements for normal development.
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.
Foie gras (French for "fat liver") is a luxury food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct, and is attached to the abdominal walls by mesentery.
In anatomy, a fossa (plural fossae; from the Latin "fossa", ditch or trench) is a depression or hollow, usually in a bone, such as the hypophyseal fossa (the depression in the sphenoid bone).
Fowl are birds belonging to one of two biological orders, namely the gamefowl or landfowl (Galliformes) and the waterfowl (Anseriformes).
Francis Glisson (1597 – 14 October 1677) was a British physician, anatomist, and writer on medical subjects.
French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
The G0 phase describes a cellular state outside of the replicative cell cycle.
The g1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first of four phases of the cell cycle that takes place in eukaryotic cell division.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.
Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) also known as solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2 (SLC2A2) is a transmembrane carrier protein that enables protein facilitated glucose movement across cell membranes.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy) is the study of anatomy at the visible (macroscopic) level.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib (حمزة ابن عبد المطّلب) (c.570–625)Muhammad ibn Saad.
In the religion of Ancient Rome, a haruspex (plural haruspices; also called aruspex) was a person trained to practice a form of divination called haruspicy (haruspicina), the inspection of the entrails (exta—hence also extispicy (extispicium)) of sacrificed animals, especially the livers of sacrificed sheep and poultry.
Heart development refers to the prenatal development of the human heart.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hepatectomy is the surgical resection (removal of all or part) of the liver.
The hepatic artery proper (also proper hepatic artery), arises from the common hepatic artery and runs alongside the portal vein and the common bile duct to form the portal triad.
For use of the term in molluscs refer to Diverticulum (mollusc) The hepatic diverticulum (or liver bud) is a primordial cellular extension of the embryonic foregut endoderm that gives rise to the parenchyma of the liver.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure.
In human anatomy, the hepatic portal system is the system of veins comprising the hepatic portal vein and its tributaries.
Hepatic stellate cells (here HSC), also known as perisinusoidal cells or Ito cells (earlier lipocytes or fat-storing cells), are pericytes found in the perisinusoidal space of the liver, also known as the space of Disse (a small area between the sinusoids and hepatocytes).
In human anatomy, the hepatic veins are the veins that drain de-oxygenated blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
Hepatitis D (hepatitis delta) is a disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), a small spherical enveloped virusoid.
Hepatitis E is a viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.
In human anatomy, the hilum (plural hila), sometimes formerly called a hilus (plural hili), is a depression or fissure where structures such as blood vessels and nerves enter an organ.
Hind bint ‘Utbah (هند بنت عتبة) was an Arab woman who lived in the late 6th and early 7th centuries CE; she was the wife of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, a powerful man of Mecca, in western Arabia.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
Hydroxyacid oxidase (glycolate oxidase) 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAO1 gene.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
James Hillman (April 12, 1926 – October 27, 2011) was an American psychologist.
Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of social and economic changes.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Jerusalem mixed grill (מעורב ירושלמי) (me'orav Yerushalmi) is a grilled meat dish considered a specialty of Jerusalem.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus (also known as the juxtaglomerular complex) is a structure in the kidney that regulates the function of each nephron, the functional units of the kidney.
Kupffer cells, also known as stellate macrophages and Kupffer-Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages located in the liver, lining the walls of the sinusoids.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
The lancelets — also known as amphioxi (singular, amphioxus) consist of about 32 species of fish-like marine chordates in the order Amphioxiformes.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease involving clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells, abnormal cells deriving from bone marrow and capable of migrating from skin to lymph nodes.
Lateral plate mesoderm is a type of mesoderm that is found at the periphery of the embryo.
Lebanese cuisine is a Levantine style of cooking that includes an abundance of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, starches, fresh fish and seafood; animal fats are consumed sparingly.
The left triangular ligament is a fold of some considerable size, which connects the posterior part of the upper surface of the left lobe of the liver to the diaphragm; its anterior layer is continuous with the left layer of the falciform ligament.
The lesser omentum (small omentum or gastrohepatic omentum) is the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach (hepatogastric ligament) and the first part of the duodenum (hepatoduodenal ligament).
A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones.
The ligamentum venosum is the fibrous remnant of the ductus venosus of the fetal circulation.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lipogenesis is the process by which acetyl-CoA is converted to fatty acids.
Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver biopsy is the biopsy (removal of a small sample of tissue) from the liver.
Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer and primary hepatic cancer, is cancer that starts in the liver.
Liver dialysis is a detoxification treatment for liver failure and has shown promise for patients with hepatorenal syndrome.
Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
Liver pâté is a meat spread popular in northern and eastern Europe.
In the widely used Couinaud (or "French") system of anatomy of the liver, the functional lobes are further divided into a total of eight subsegments based on a transverse plane through the bifurcation of the main portal vein.
A liver shot or liver punch is a punch, kick, or knee strike to the right side of the ribcage that damages the liver.
A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for mixing of the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.
The liver span is a measurement performed during physical examination to determine the size of the liver and identify possible hepatomegaly.
Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another person (allograft).
John "Liver-Eating" Johnson born John Jeremiah Garrison Johnston (c.1824 – January 21, 1900) was a mountain man of the American Old West.
Liverwurst, leberwurst, or liver sausage is a kind of sausage made from liver.
In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension of an organ (as seen for example in the brain, the lung, liver or the kidney) that can be determined without the use of a microscope at the gross anatomy level.
The liver is grossly divided into two portions – a right and a left lobe, as viewed from the front (diaphragmatic) surface; but the underside (the visceral surface) shows it to be divided into four lobes and includes the caudate and quadrate lobes.
A hepatic lobule is a small division of the liver defined at the microscopic (histological scale).
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
The low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (nerve growth factor receptor (TNFR superfamily, member 16), also called the LNGFR or p75 neurotrophin receptor) is one of the two receptor types for the neurotrophins, a family of protein growth factors that stimulate neuronal cells to survive and differentiate.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Mesenchyme, in vertebrate embryology, is a type of connective tissue found mostly during the development of the embryo.
The mesothelium is a membrane composed of simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura (thoracic cavity), peritoneum (abdominal cavity including the mesentery), mediastinum and pericardium (heart sac).
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Many regional cuisines feature a mixed grill, a meal consisting of a traditional assortment of grilled meats.
In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or macrophage system) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue.
Oncotic pressure, or colloid osmotic pressure, is a form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins, notably albumin, in a blood vessel's plasma (blood/liquid) that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
In animal development, organogenesis is the phase of embryonic development that starts at the end of gastrulation and goes until birth.
Oxazepam is a short-to-intermediate-acting benzodiazepine.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palpation is the process of using one's hands to check the body, especially while perceiving/diagnosing a disease or illness.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The pancreatic duct, or duct of Wirsung (also, the major pancreatic duct due to the existence of an accessory pancreatic duct), is a duct joining the pancreas to the common bile duct to supply pancreatic juice provided from the exocrine pancreas which aids in digestion.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
The perisinusoidal space (or space of Disse) is a location in the liver between a hepatocyte and a sinusoid.
Peritoneal ligaments are folds of peritoneum that are used to connect viscera to viscera or the abdominal wall.
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plasmin is an important enzyme present in blood that degrades many blood plasma proteins, including fibrin clots.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Polycystic liver disease (PLD) usually describes the presence of multiple cysts scattered throughout normal liver tissue.
The porta hepatis or transverse fissure of the liver is a short but deep fissure, about 5 cm long, extending transversely beneath the left portion of the right lobe of the liver, nearer its posterior surface than its anterior border.
A portacaval anastomosis (also known as porto-systemic anastomosis or portal caval system) is a specific type of anastomosis that occurs between the veins of the portal circulation and those of the systemic circulation.
Portal hypertension is hypertension (high blood pressure) in the hepatic portal system – made up of the portal vein and its branches, that drain from most of the intestine to the liver.
A portal triad (also known as portal canal, portal field, portal area, or portal tract) is a distinctive arrangement in the liver.
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.
In the circulatory system of animals, a portal venous system occurs when a capillary bed pools into another capillary bed through veins, without first going through the heart.
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disease of the liver.
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a group of familial cholestatic conditions caused by defects in biliary epithelial transporters.
In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Προμηθεύς,, meaning "forethought") is a Titan, culture hero, and trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay, and who defies the gods by stealing fire and giving it to humanity, an act that enabled progress and civilization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein C, also known as autoprothrombin IIA and blood coagulation factor XIV, is a zymogen, the activated form of which plays an important role in regulating anticoagulation, inflammation, cell death, and maintaining the permeability of blood vessel walls in humans and other animals.
Protein S (also known as S-Protein) is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein synthesized in the liver.
The human abdomen is divided into regions by anatomists and physicians for purposes of study, diagnosis, and therapy.
Retinol dehydrogenase 16 (all-trans) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RDH16 gene.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.
Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development.
Retinol, also known as Vitamin A1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
The rib cage is an arrangement of bones in the thorax of most vertebrates.
The right triangular ligament is situated at the right extremity of the bare area, and is a small fold which passes to the diaphragm, being formed by the apposition of the upper and lower layers of the coronary ligament.
The round ligament of the liver (or ligamentum teres, or ligamentum teres hepatis) is a degenerative string of tissue that exists in the free edge of the falciform ligament of the liver.
Sir Roy Yorke Calne, FRCP, FRCS, FRS, is a British surgeon and pioneer in organ transplantation.
Sashimi (刺身) is a Japanese delicacy consisting of very fresh raw meat or fish sliced into thin pieces.
A sausage is a cylindrical meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or veal, along with salt, spices and other flavourings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin.
The septum transversum is a thick mass of cranial mesenchyme, formed in the embryo, that gives rise to parts of the thoracic diaphragm and the ventral mesentery of the foregut in the developed human being.
Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids.
In physiology, the term serous fluid or serosal fluid (originating from the Medieval Latin word serosus, from Latin serum) is any of various body fluids resembling serum, that are typically pale yellow and transparent and of a benign nature.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
A sinusoid is a small blood vessel that is a type of capillary similar to a fenestrated endothelium.
Skilpadjies is a traditional South African food, also known by other names such as muise, vlermuise and pofadder.
Bile acyl-CoA synthetase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SLC27A5 gene.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Southeast Asian ovalocytosis is a blood disorder that is similar to, but distinct from hereditary elliptocytosis.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Stercobilin is a tetrapyrrolic bile pigment and is one end-product of heme catabolism.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Stir frying is a Chinese cooking technique in which ingredients are fried in a small amount of very hot oil while being stirred in a wok.
In medical parlance, swelling, turgescence or tumefaction is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Message (الرسالة Ar-Risālah; originally known as Mohammad, Messenger of God) is a 1976 epic historical drama film directed by Moustapha Akkad, chronicling the life and times of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Thomas Earl Starzl (March 11, 1926 – March 4, 2017) was an American physician, researcher, and expert on organ transplants.
The thoracic cavity (or chest cavity) is the chamber of the body of vertebrates that is protected by the thoracic wall (rib cage and associated skin, muscle, and fascia).
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
Thrombin (fibrinogenase, thrombase, thrombofort, topical, thrombin-C, tropostasin, activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.
Thrombopoietin (THPO) also known as megakaryocyte growth and development factor (MGDF) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THPO gene.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
Toxication or toxification is the conversion of a chemical compound into a more toxic form in living organisms or in substrates such as soil or water.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
The umbilical vein is a vein present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta into the growing fetus.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions that produces urea ((NH2)2CO) from ammonia (NH3).
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
Vascular occlusion is a blockage of a blood vessel, usually with a clot.
Venous blood is deoxygenated blood which travels from the peripheral vessels, through the venous system into the right atrium of the heart.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
The vitelline veins are veins which drain blood from the yolk sac.
Vitellogenin (VTG or less popularly known as VG) (from Latin vitellus, yolk, and gener, to produce) is a precursor protein of egg yolk normally in the blood or hemolymph only of females that is used as a biomarker in vertebrates of exposure to environmental estrogens which stimulate elevated levels in males as well as females.
A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey.
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
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