83 relations: Acute liver failure, Acute pancreatitis, Acute-phase protein, Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alcoholic liver disease, Alkaline phosphatase, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, Amyloidosis, Anorexia nervosa, Appendicitis, Aspartate transaminase, Biliary tract, Bilirubin, Caffeine, Child–Pugh score, Cholestasis, Cirrhosis, Coagulation, Common bile duct, Crigler–Najjar syndrome, Dubin–Johnson syndrome, Elevated transaminases, Erythropoiesis, Factor VII, Fatty acid, Gamma-glutamyltransferase, Gilbert's syndrome, Globulin, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Glucuronosyltransferase, Glutathione, Glycoprotein, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Heart failure, HELLP syndrome, Hematoma, Heme, Hemoglobin, Hemolytic disease of the newborn, Hepatitis, Hepatitis C, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Hyperphosphatemia, Hyperthyroidism, Hypophosphatasia, Hypothyroidism, Infant, ..., Isozyme, Jaundice, Lactate dehydrogenase, Light therapy, Liver, Liver disease, Mayo Clinic, Metabolic syndrome, Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, Myocardial infarction, Myotonic dystrophy, Necrosis, Neonatal jaundice, Nephrotic syndrome, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Nucleotidase, Oncotic pressure, Peripheral artery disease, Pre-eclampsia, Prothrombin time, Proximal tubule, Reference ranges for blood tests, Rheumatoid arthritis, Steatohepatitis, Thromboelastography, Transaminase, Transamination, Triglyceride, Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, Vitamin K, Warfarin, Wilson's disease, Zinc deficiency. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
Acute liver failure is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice), and indicates that the liver has sustained severe damage (loss of function of 80–90% of liver cells).
Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).
Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
Alcoholic liver disease is a term that encompasses the liver manifestations of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.
The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) is a leading organization of scientists and health care professionals committed to preventing and curing liver disease.
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which abnormal protein, known as amyloid fibrils, builds up in tissue.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
Aspartate transaminase (AST) or aspartate aminotransferase, also known as AspAT/ASAT/AAT or serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaminase enzyme that was first described by Arthur Karmen and colleagues in 1954.
The biliary tract, (biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
In medicine, specifically gastroenterology, the Child–Pugh score (or the Child–Turcotte–Pugh score or Child Criteria) is used to assess the prognosis of chronic liver disease, mainly cirrhosis.
Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
The common bile duct, sometimes abbreviated CBD, is a duct in the gastrointestinal tract of organisms that have a gall bladder.
Crigler–Najjar syndrome or CNS is a rare inherited disorder affecting the metabolism of bilirubin, a chemical formed from the breakdown of the heme in red blood cells.
Dubin–Johnson syndrome (DJS) is a rare, autosomal recessive, benign disorder that causes an isolated increase of conjugated bilirubin in the serum.
In medicine, the presence of elevated transaminases, commonly the transaminases alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), may be an indicator of liver damage.
Erythropoiesis (from Greek 'erythro' meaning "red" and 'poiesis' meaning "to make") is the process which produces red blood cells (erythrocytes).
Factor VII (blood-coagulation factor VIIa, activated blood coagulation factor VII, formerly known as proconvertin) is one of the proteins that causes blood to clot in the coagulation cascade.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (also γ-glutamyltransferase, GGT, gamma-GT) is a transferase (a type of enzyme) that catalyzes the transfer of gamma-glutamyl functional groups from molecules such as glutathione to an acceptor that may be an amino acid, a peptide or water (forming glutamate).
Gilbert's syndrome (GS) is a mild liver disorder in which the liver does not properly process bilirubin.
The globulins are a family of globular proteins that have higher molecular weights than albumins and are insoluble in pure water but dissolve in dilute salt solutions.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD or G6PDH) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction This enzyme participates in the pentose phosphate pathway (see image), a metabolic pathway that supplies reducing energy to cells (such as erythrocytes) by maintaining the level of the co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH).
Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT) is a cytosolic glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of the glucuronic acid component of UDP-glucuronic acid to a small hydrophobic molecule.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
HELLP syndrome is a well-known variant of pre-eclampsia pregnancy complication.
A hematoma (US spelling) or haematoma (UK spelling) is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, HDN, HDFN, or erythroblastosis fetalis, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a peripartum fetus, when the IgG molecules (one of the five main types of antibodies) produced by the mother pass through the placenta.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly dehydration.
Hyperphosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of phosphate in the blood.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypophosphatasia (also called deficiency of alkaline phosphatase or phosphoethanolaminuria) is a rare, and sometimes fatal, metabolic bone disease.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes).
Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) also called canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1 (cMOAT) or ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 2 (ABCC2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC2 gene.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Myotonic dystrophy is a long term genetic disorder that affects muscle function.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Neonatal jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the white part of the eyes and skin in a newborn baby due to high bilirubin levels.
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the types of fatty liver which occurs when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol use.
A nucleotidase is a hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a nucleotide into a nucleoside and a phosphate.
Oncotic pressure, or colloid osmotic pressure, is a form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins, notably albumin, in a blood vessel's plasma (blood/liquid) that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.
The prothrombin time (PT)—along with its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR)—are assays evaluating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.
Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Steatohepatitis is a type of fatty liver disease, characterized by inflammation of the liver with concurrent fat accumulation in liver.
Thromboelastography (TEG) is a method of testing the efficiency of blood coagulation.
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
Transamination, a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a ketoacid to form new amino acids.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not enough red blood cells are produced due to a deficiency of vitamin B12.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.
Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range.
Hepatic function panel, Hepatic panel, LFTs, Liver biochemistry, Liver count, Liver damage test, Liver enzyme, Liver enzymes, Liver function, Liver function test, Liver functional capacity, Liver panel, Liver test, S-Alat, S-Gt.