214 relations: Addax, African wild ass, Agribusiness, Agricultural show, Agriculture, Agroecology, Alaska, Alpaca, Alpaca fiber, Amenable species, American bison, Andes, Animal, Animal husbandry, Animal transporter, Animal welfare, Antimicrobial resistance, Antler, Aquaculture, Asia, Asian black bear, Auction, Aurochs, Bali, Bali cattle, Banteng, Bazaar, Beef, Beefalo, Beekeeping, Biogas, Biological life cycle, Bombyx mori, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Brazil, Butcher, California Proposition 2 (2008), Camel, Camel hair, Canada, Captivity (animal), Capybara, Carnivore, Cattle, Cattle raiding, Central Asia, China, Classical swine fever, Cloven hoof, Collared peccary, ..., Colombia, Commodity, Commodity market, Common eland, Common ostrich, Cougar, Coyote, Crocodile, Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources, Cultural heritage, Cuniculture, Deer, Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest, Desertification, Dhole, Dingo, Domestic pig, Domestic rabbit, Domestic yak, Domestication, Domestication of the horse, Donkey, Dromedary, Droving, Eastern Anatolia Region, Economic security, Egg as food, Egypt, Elk, Emu, Environmental degradation, Environmental impact of meat production, Eurasian Steppe, Extinction, Fallow deer, Feedlot, Finland, Florida, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food security, Foodservice, Foot-and-mouth disease, France, Fur, Fur farming, Gaur, Gayal, Giant eland, Goat, Gray wolf, Greater cane rat, Greater kudu, Green anaconda, Greenhouse gas, Grizzly bear, Guanaco, Guinea pig, Habitat destruction, Herbivore, History of the domestic sheep, Horse, Hunter-gatherer, Hygiene, India, Intensive animal farming, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Jaguar, Japan, Kenya, Lamb and mutton, Leather, Leave the gate as you found it, Leopard, Lion, List of domesticated animals, Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999, Livestock's Long Shadow, Llama, Maasai people, Mammal, Mare, Meat, Mediterranean Basin, Milk, Montane ecosystems, Montane guinea pig, Moose, Mouflon, Mule, Muskox, Near East, Nepal, Nitrous oxide, Nomad, North Africa, North America, Orders of magnitude (currency), Origin of the domestic dog, Pack animal, Pariah dog, Pen (enclosure), Physiology, Pig, Pork, Poultry, Predation, Quarantine, Ranch, Rare breed (agriculture), Reindeer, Research, Ruminant, Russia, Scimitar oryx, Scrapie, Sea louse, Seed company, Sericulture, Sheep, Sheep farming, Sika deer, Slaughterhouse, Small-scale agriculture, South Africa, South America, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Spectacled bear, Spotted hyena, Subsistence agriculture, Sweden, Taurotragus, Thorold's deer, Tibet, Tiger, Tillage, Transhumance, United Kingdom, Vaccine, Veal, Venison, Veterinary medicine, Veterinary physician, Vicuña, Water buffalo, Wedge-tailed eagle, West Africa, West Virginia, Western Asia, Western Fair, Western United States, White-tailed deer, Wild Bactrian camel, Wild boar, Wild goat, Wild horse, Wild water buffalo, Wild yak, Wildlife, Wildlife farming, Wool, Working animal, Zebu, Zimbabwe. Expand index (164 more) » « Shrink index
The addax (Addax nasomaculatus), also known as the white antelope and the screwhorn antelope, is an antelope of the genus Addax, that lives in the Sahara desert.
The African wild ass or African wild donkey (Equus africanus) is a wild member of the horse family, Equidae.
Agribusiness is the business of agricultural production.
An agricultural show is a public event exhibiting the equipment, animals, sports and recreation associated with agriculture and animal husbandry.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agroecology is the study of ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a species of South American camelid, similar to, and often confused with the llama.
Alpaca fleece is the natural fiber harvested from an alpaca.
Amenable species is a term used within the context of USDA’s meat and poultry inspection program to signify exotic species (livestock and fowl not covered by the statutes) that might be added to the laws and thus be eligible for mandatory federal inspection, which is taxpayer-funded.
The American bison or simply bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Animal transporters are used to transport livestock or non-livestock animals over long distances.
Animal welfare is the well-being of animals.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antlers are extensions of an animal's skull found in members of the deer family.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the moon bear and the white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life.
An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the highest bidder.
The aurochs (or; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses), also known as urus or ure (Bos primigenius), is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
The Bali cattle (Bos javanicus domesticus) also known as Balinese cattle are a domesticated form of the Javan banteng.
The banteng (Bos javanicus), also known as tembadau, is a species of wild cattle found in Southeast Asia.
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Beefalo, also referred to as cattalo or the American hybrid, are a fertile hybrid offspring of domestic cattle (Bos taurus), usually a male in managed breeding programs, and the American bison (Bison bison), usually a female in managed breeding programs.
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.
Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
A butcher is a person who may slaughter animals, dress their flesh, sell their meat, or participate within any combination of these three tasks.
Proposition 2 was a California ballot proposition in that state's general election on November 4, 2008.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Camel hair specifically refers to the fur from the body of a camel, but more generally refers to the fibre (and cloth) that may be made from either pure camel hair or a blend of camel hair and another fibre.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Animals that are held by humans and prevented from escaping are said to be in captivity.
The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is a mammal native to South America.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Cattle raiding is the act of stealing cattle.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera (also sometimes called pig plague based on the German word Schweinepest) is a highly contagious disease of swine (Old World and New World pigs).
A cloven hoof, cleft hoof, divided hoof or split hoof is a hoof split into two toes.
The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) is a species of mammal in the family Tayassuidae found in North, Central, and South America.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products.
The common eland (Taurotragus oryx), also known as the southern eland or eland antelope, is a savannah and plains antelope found in East and Southern Africa.
The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources is a strategy wherein samples of animal genetic materials are preserved cryogenically.
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
Cuniculture is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising domestic rabbits as livestock for their meat, fur, or wool.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
The cattle sector of the Brazilian Amazon, incentivized by the international beef and leather trades,Lucy Siegle (August 9, 2015).
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
The dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a canid native to Central, South and Southeast Asia.
The dingo (Canis familiaris or Canis familiaris dingo or Canis lupus dingo or Canis dingo) is a type of feral dog native to Australia.
The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus or only Sus domesticus), often called swine, hog, or simply pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a large, even-toed ungulate.
A domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus forma domesticus), more commonly known as a pet rabbit, a bunny, or a bunny rabbit is any of the domesticated varieties of the European rabbit species.
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
A number of hypotheses exist on many of the key issues regarding the domestication of the horse.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
The dromedary, also called the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius), is a large, even-toed ungulate with one hump on its back.
Droving is the practice of moving livestock over long distances by walking them "on the hoof".
The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Economic security or financial security is the condition of having stable income or other resources to support a standard of living now and in the foreseeable future.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.
The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is the second-largest living bird by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
The environmental impact of meat production varies because of the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.
A feedlot or feed yard is a type of animal feeding operation (AFO) which is used in intensive animal farming for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle, but also swine, horses, sheep, turkeys, chickens or ducks, prior to slaughter.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
Foodservice (US English) or catering industry (British English) defines those businesses, institutions, and companies responsible for any meal prepared outside the home.
Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease (Aphthae epizooticae) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
Fur farming is the practice of breeding or raising certain types of animals for their fur.
The gaur (Bos gaurus), also called the Indian bison, is the largest extant bovine.
The gayal (Bos frontalis), also known as mithun, is a large domestic bovine distributed in Northeast India, Bangladesh, northern Myanmar and in Yunnan, China.
The giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus), also known as the Lord Derby eland, is an open-forest and savanna antelope.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus) is one of two species of cane rats, a small family of African hystricognath rodents.
The greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is a woodland antelope found throughout eastern and southern Africa.
The green anaconda (Eunectes murinus), also known as the common anaconda and water boa, is a non-venomous boa species found in South America.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos ssp.) is a large population of the brown bear inhabiting North America.
The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is a camelid native to South America.
The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
The history of the domesticated sheep goes back to between 11000 and 9000 BC, and the domestication of the wild mouflon in ancient Mesopotamia.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also known as factory farming, is a production approach towards farm animals in order to maximize production output, while minimizing production costs.
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is an International organization which conducts agricultural research for rural development, headquartered in Patancheru (Hyderabad, Telangana, India) with several regional centers (Bamako (Mali), Nairobi (Kenya)) and research stations (Niamey (Niger), Kano (Nigeria), Lilongwe (Malawi), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)).
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
Leave the gate as you found it (or leave all gates as found) is an important rule of courtesy in rural areas throughout the world.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation.
The Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 (Title IX of the FY2000 USDA appropriations act (P.L. 106-78)) requires large packers and importers to report to USDA the details of all transactions involving purchases of livestock and imported boxed lamb cuts, and the details of all transactions involving domestic and export sales of boxed beef cuts, sales of domestic and imported boxed lamb cuts, and sales of lamb carcasses.
Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options is a United Nations report, released by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) on 29 November 2006, that "aims to assess the full impact of the livestock sector on environmental problems, along with potential technical and policy approaches to mitigation".
The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era.
Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting central and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A mare is an adult female horse or other equine.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains.
The montane guinea pig, Cavia tschudii, a type of rodent, is a guinea pig species from the Andes in South America.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
The mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis group) is a subspecies group of the wild sheep (Ovis orientalis).
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).
The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
This page is a progressive list of currency orders of magnitude, with examples.
The origin of the domestic dog is not clear.
A pack animal or beast of burden is an individual or type of working animal used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the animal's back, in contrast to draft animals which pull loads but do not carry them.
In ecology, the term pariah dog refers to free-ranging dogs that occupy an ecological niche based on waste from human settlements.
A pen is an enclosure for holding animals such as livestock or pets that are unwanted inside the house.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.
A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool.
In modern agriculture, a rare breed is a breed of poultry or livestock that has a very small breeding population, usually from a few hundred to a few thousand.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The scimitar oryx or scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), also known as the Sahara oryx, is a species of Oryx once widespread across North Africa which went extinct in the wild in 2000.
Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease that affects the nervous systems of sheep and goats.
A sea louse (plural sea lice), often confused with sea fleas, is a member of a family of copepods (small crustaceans) within the order Siphonostomatoida, the Caligidae.
Seed companies produce and sell seeds for flowers, fruit and vegetables to the amateur gardener.
Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Sheep farming is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep.
The sika deer (Cervus nippon) also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia, and introduced to various other parts of the world.
A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered for consumption as food.
Small-scale agriculture has been practiced ever since the Neolithic Revolution.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean bear or Andean short-faced bear and locally as jukumari (Aymara), ukumari (Quechua) or ukuku, is the last remaining short-faced bear (subfamily Tremarctinae).
The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena, is a species of hyena, currently classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Taurotragus is a genus of large antelopes of the African savanna, commonly known as elands.
Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris)Pitraa, Fickela, Meijaard, Groves (2004).
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning.
Transhumance is a type of nomadism or pastoralism, a seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle.
Venison is the meat of a deer.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.
The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) or vicuna (both, very rarely spelled vicugna) is one of the two wild South American camelids which live in the high alpine areas of the Andes, the other being the guanaco.
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
The wedge-tailed eagle or bunjil (Aquila audax) is the largest bird of prey in Australia, and is also found in southern New Guinea, part of Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The Western Fair is a fair held annually in London, Ontario, Canada in early September.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia.
The wild Bactrian camel (Camelus ferus) is a critically endangered species of camel living in parts of northern China and southern Mongolia.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is a widespread species of goat, with a distribution ranging from Europe and Asia Minor to Central Asia and the Middle East.
The wild horse (Equus ferus) is a species of the genus ''Equus'', which includes as subspecies the modern domesticated horse (Equus ferus caballus) as well as the undomesticated tarpan (Equus ferus ferus, now extinct), and the endangered Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii).
The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee), also called Asian buffalo, Asiatic buffalo and wild Asian buffalo, is a large bovine native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
The wild yak (Bos mutus) is a large wild bovid native to the Himalayas.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
Wildlife farming refers to the raising of non-domesticated animals in an agricultural setting to produce whole living animals (to keep as pets) and commodities such as food, traditional medicine and fiber.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.
A zebu (Bos primigenius indicus or Bos indicus or Bos taurus indicus), sometimes known as indicine cattle or humped cattle, is a species or subspecies of domestic cattle originating in the Indian Subcontinent.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
Agricultural animal, Agricultural animals, Animals in agriculture, Barnyard animal, Barnyard animals, Dry stock, Environmental impact of livestock, Farm animal, Farm animals, Farmed animals, Farmyard animal, Farmyard animals, Livestock industry, Livestock waste.