211 relations: Aizkraukle, Alūksne, Albert of Riga, Albert Speer, Albert, Duke of Prussia, Albrecht Dürer, Alexander Arkadyevich Suvorov, Alfred Rosenberg, Alfredas Bumblauskas, Archbishop, Archbishopric of Riga, Bailiff, Baltic Germans, Baltic region, Baltic Sea, Balts, Battle of Ergeme, Battle of Grunwald, Battle of Saule, Battle of Wesenberg (1268), Beresford Kidd, Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, Bishopric of Courland, Bishopric of Dorpat, Burgess (title), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia, Castle, Catherine Jagiellon, Cēsis, Cēsis District, Central European University Press, Christopher, Duke of Mecklenburg, Cistercians, City, Coadjutor bishop, Courland, Courland Governorate, Crimean Khanate, Curonians, Danes (Germanic tribe), Denmark, Diplomatic recognition, Dorpat Voivodeship, Drought, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Duchy of Estonia (1219–1346), Duchy of Livonia, Epidemic, ..., Eric XIV of Sweden, Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, Estonia, Estonia under Swedish rule, Extinct language, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Fief, Finland, Finnic peoples, Finnish–Novgorodian wars, Frederick II of Denmark, Free City of Lübeck, Freikorps, Fritz Sauckel, Gdańsk, Gentry, George Miller (historian), German language, Germans, Gotthard Kettler, Governor-general, Governorate of Estonia, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Great Northern War, Gulf of Finland, Gulf of Riga, Gustav I of Sweden, Hanseatic League, Harju County, Hartwig of Uthlede, Hermann Göring, High German languages, Hinrich Lohse, Historical region, History of Estonia, History of Latvia, History of Lithuania, History of Lithuania (1219–95), History of Poland, Hochmeister, Hohenstaufen, Holstein, Holy Roman Emperor, Independence, Inflanty Voivodeship, Ingria, Inheritance, Insanity, Ivan the Terrible, John III of Sweden, Kingdom of Livonia, Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569), Kuldīga, Lake Peipus, Landtag, Latgalians, Latvia, Latvian language, Lübeck, List of administrators, archbishops, bishops, and prince-archbishops of Bremen, Lithuania, Lithuanians, Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Livonian Chronicle of Henry, Livonian Coast, Livonian Crusade, Livonian language, Livonian Order, Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, Livonian War, Livonians, Lutheranism, Magnus, Duke of Holstein, Martin Bormann, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Middle Low German, Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł, Military occupation, Military order (monastic society), Monarch, Monarchy of Denmark, Monasticism, Monk, Moscow, Narva, Negotiation, Norman Davies, North Germanic languages, Northern Seven Years' War, Offensive (military), Oprichnina, Ottoman Empire, Ownership, Oxford University Press, Paganism, Paide, Parnawa Voivodeship, Partitions of Poland, Pärnu, Peace, Persuasion, Philip of Swabia, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish–Swedish War (1626–29), Polotsk, Pope Gregory IX, Pope Innocent III, Prince-bishop, Princess, Pyotr Andreyevich Shuvalov, Reformation, Reichsleiter, Riga, Riga District, Roman Catholic Diocese of Reval, Russia, Russian Empire, Russo-Crimean Wars, Saaremaa, Saint George's Night Uprising, Schutzstaffel, Second Swedish Crusade, Sejm, Semigallia, Semigallians, Siege of Pskov, Sigismund II Augustus, Sigulda, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, State of the Teutonic Order, Stephen Báthory, Swedish Empire, Swedish Livonia, Tallinn, Tartu, Terra Mariana, Teutonic Order, Throne, Treaty of Nystad, Treaty of Stettin (1570), Treaty of Vilnius (1561), Tsardom of Russia, Union of Lublin, Valdemar II of Denmark, Valdemar IV of Denmark, Valka District, Valmiera District, Vassal, Velikiye Luki, Vidzeme, Viljandi, Vilnius, Virumaa, Walk, Livonia, Wehrmacht, Wenden Voivodeship, Wilhelm von Brandenburg, World Digital Library, World War I. Expand index (161 more) » « Shrink index
Aizkraukle (Ascheraden) is a town in Vidzeme region in Latvia, the administrative centre of Aizkraukle Municipality on the right bank of the Daugava River.
Alūksne is a town on the shores of Lake Alūksne in northeastern Latvia near the borders with Estonia and Russia.
Albert of Riga or Albert of Livonia (Alberts fon Buksthēvdens; Albert von Buxthoeven; c.1165 – 17 January 1229) was the third Bishop of Riga in Livonia.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Albert of Prussia (Albrecht von Preussen, 17 May 149020 March 1568) was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who after converting to Lutheranism, became the first ruler of the Duchy of Prussia, the secularized state that emerged from the former Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
Alexander Arkadyevich Suvorov, Prince Italsky, Count Rymniksky (Алекса́ндр Арка́дьевич Суво́ров; 13 June 1804, Saint Petersburg – 12 February 1882, Saint Petersburg), was a Russian general, diplomat and politician.
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
Alfredas Bumblauskas (born on 18 November 1956) is a professor at Vilnius University and one of the best known Lithuanian historians.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
The Archbishopric of Riga (Archiepiscopatus Rigensis, Erzbisdom Riga) was an archbishopric in Medieval Livonia, a subject to the Holy See.
A bailiff (from Middle English baillif, Old French baillis, bail "custody, charge, office"; cf. bail, based on the adjectival form, baiulivus, of Latin bajulus, carrier, manager) is a manager, overseer or custodian; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority or jurisdiction is given.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
The Battle of Ergeme (also Battle of Ermes) (Härgmäe lahing; Schlacht bei Ermes; сражение при Эрмесе; Ērģemes kauja) was fought on 2 August 1560 in present-day Latvia (near Valga) as part of the Livonian War between the forces of Ivan IV of Russia and the Livonian Confederation.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Saule (Saulės mūšis or Šiaulių mūšis; Schlacht von Schaulen; Saules kauja) was fought on 22 September 1236, between the Livonian Brothers of the Sword and pagan Samogitians.
The Battle of Wesenberg, Rakvere or Rakovor was a battle fought on February 18, 1268, between the combined forces of Danish Duchy of Estonia, Bishopric of Dorpat, Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights and local Estonian militia on one side and the forces of Novgorod and Pskov, led by Dmitry of Pereslavl, on the other.
Beresford James Kidd (1 January 1864 – 15 May 1948) was an Anglican priest and Church historian, who was Warden of Keble College, Oxford, from 1920 to 1939.
The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese and semi-independent prince-bishopric (parto of Terra Mariana, i.e. Livonia) in the Holy Roman Empire, covering what are now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia.
The Bishopric of Courland (Episcopatus Curoniensis, Low German: Bisdom Curland) was the second smallest (4500 km2) ecclesiastical state in the Livonian Confederation founded in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade.
The Bishopric of Dorpat (Tartu piiskopkond; Bisdom Dorpat; Ecclesia Tarbatensis) was a medieval prince-bishopric, i;e; both a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church and a temporal principality ruled by the bishop of the diocese.
Burgess originally meant a freeman of a borough (England, Wales, Ireland) or burgh (Scotland).
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
With the Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710 the Swedish dominions Estonia and Livonia were integrated into the Russian EmpireLuts (2006), p. 159 following their conquest during the Great Northern War.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
Catherine Jagiellon (Katarzyna Jagiellonka; Katarina Jagellonica, Lithuanian: Kotryna Jogailatė; 1 November 1526 – 16 September 1583) was a Polish princess and the wife of John III of Sweden.
Cēsis, (Wenden, Venden, Võnnu, Kieś) is a town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Central Vidzeme Upland.
Cēsis District (Cēsu rajons) was an administrative division of Latvia, located in the Vidzeme region, in the country's north-east.
Following the founding of the Central European University by George Soros, the Central European University Press was established in 1993.
Christopher, Duke of Mecklenburg-Gadebusch (30 July 1537 in Augsburg – 4 March 1592 in Tempzin Abbey) was a son of Albrecht VII, Duke of Mecklenburg.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
A city is a large human settlement.
A coadjutor bishop (or bishop coadjutor) is a bishop in the Catholic, Anglican, and (historically) Eastern Orthodox churches whose main role is to assist the diocesan bishop in the administration of the diocese.
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.
Courland Governorate, also known as the Province of Courland, Governorate of Kurland (Курля́ндская губерния), and Government of Courland (Kurländisches Gouvernement, Kurzemes guberņa), was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, that is now part of the Republic of Latvia.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.
The Danes were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting southern Scandinavia, including the area now comprising Denmark proper, during the Nordic Iron Age and the Viking Age.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
The Dorpat Voivodeship (Województwo dorpackie or województwo derpskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from 1598 until the Swedish conquest of Livonia in the 1620s.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.
The Duchy of Estonia (Hertugdømmet Estland Ducatus Estonie), also known as Danish Estonia, was a direct dominion (dominium directum) of the King of Denmark from 1219 until 1346 when it was sold to the Teutonic Order and became part of the Ordenstaat.
The Duchy of Livonia (Księstwo Inflanckie; Livonijos kunigaikštystė; Ducatus Ultradunensis; Üleväina-Liivimaa hertsogkond; Pārdaugavas hercogiste; also referred to as Polish Livonia or Inflanty) was a territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—and later the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—that existed from 1561 to 1621.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Eric XIV (Erik XIV; 13 December 1533 – 26 February 1577) was King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568.
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (1 March 1899 – 8 March 1972) was a high-ranking SS commander of Nazi Germany.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonia under Swedish rule signifies the time between 1558 and 1710, when parts of present-day Estonia (and after 1645 all of the present-day country) were under Swedish rule.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.
The Finnish–Novgorodian wars were a series of conflicts between Finnic tribes in eastern Fennoscandia and the Republic of Novgorod from the 11th or 12th century to the early 13th century.
Frederick II (1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588) was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.
The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck was a city-state from 1226 to 1937, in what is now the German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.
Ernst Friedrich Christoph "Fritz" Sauckel (27 October 1894 – 16 October 1946) was a German Nazi politician, Gauleiter of Thuringia and the General Plenipotentiary for Labour Deployment from March 1942 until the end of the Second World War.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The gentry (genterie; Old French gentil: "high-born") are the "well-born, genteel, and well-bred people" of the social class below the nobility of a society.
George Miller (1764 – 6 October 1848) was an Irish Anglican priest and historian of Trinity College, Dublin.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gotthard von Kettler (also Ketteler, Gotthard Kettler, Herzog von Kurland; 2 February 1517 – 17 May 1587) was the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia.
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
The Governorate of Est(h)onia (Eestimaa kubermang) or Duchy of Estonia, also known as the Government of Estonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia (Rīgas jūras līcis, Liivi laht, Рижский залив) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.
Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September 1560), was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death in 1560, previously self-recognised Protector of the Realm (Riksföreståndare) from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Harju County (Harju maakond), or Harjumaa (Harrien or Rugel, Harria) is one of the 15 counties of Estonia.
Hartwig of Uthlede (died 3 November 1207) was a German nobleman who – as Hartwig II – Prince-Archbishop of Bremen (1185–1190 and de facto again 1192–1207) and one of the originators of the Livonian Crusade.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).
Hinrich Lohse (2 September 1896 – 25 February 1964) was a Nazi German politician and a convicted war criminal, best known for his rule of the Baltic states during World War II.
Historical regions (or historical countries) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural, ethnic, linguistic or political basis, regardless of present-day borders.
The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.
The history of Latvia began around 9000 BC with the end of the last glacial period in northern Europe.
The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD.
The history of Lithuania between 1219 and 1295 concerns the establishment and early history of the first Lithuanian state, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
Hochmeister, literally "high master" may refer to.
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
Holstein (Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen, Holsten, Latin and historical Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
The Inflanty Voivodeship (Województwo inflanckie), or Livonian Voivodeship (Livonijos vaivadija), also known as Polish Livonia, was an administrative division and local government in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in the 1620s out of the Wenden Voivodeship and lasted until the First Partition of Poland in 1772.
Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.
Insanity, craziness, or madness is a spectrum of both group and individual behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
John III (Johan III, Juhana III) (20 December 1537 – 17 November 1592) was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death.
The Kingdom of Livonia was a nominal state in what is now the territory of Estonia and Latvia.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).
Kuldīga (Goldingen) is a town in western Latvia.
Lake Peipus (Peipsi-Pihkva järv; Псковско-Чудское озеро (Pskovsko-Chudskoe ozero), Peipussee), the largest transboundary lake in Europe, lies on the border between Estonia and Russia.
A Landtag (State Diet) is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land).
Latgalians, sometimes also Ancient Latvians (Letti, Lethi, modern; variant translations also include Latgallians, Lettigalls or Lettigallians), were an ancient Baltic tribe.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
This list records the bishops of the Roman Catholic diocese of Bremen (Bistum Bremen), supposedly a suffragan of the Archbishopric of Cologne, then of the bishops of Bremen, who were in personal union archbishops of Hamburg (simply titled Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen), later simply titled archbishops of Bremen, since 1180 simultaneously officiating as rulers of princely rank (prince-archbishop) in the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (Erzstift Bremen; est. 1180 and secularised in 1648), a state of imperial immediacy within the Holy Roman Empire.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
The Livonian Chronicle of Henry (Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae) or Henry's chronicle of Livonia is a document in Latin describing historic events in Livonia (roughly corresponding to today's inland Estonia and north of Latvia) and surrounding areas from 1180 to 1227.
Livonian Coast (Līvõd Rānda, Lībiešu krasts) is a territory of Latvia historically inhabited by Livonian people.
The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.
Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.
The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle (Livländische Reimchronik) was a chronicle written in High German by an anonymous writer.
The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.
The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Magnus of Denmark or Magnus of Holstein (–) was a Prince of Denmark, Duke of Holstein, and a member of the House of Oldenburg.
Martin Bormann (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945) was a prominent official in Nazi Germany as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery.
Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death.
Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.
Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (4 February 1515 – 28 May 1565), nicknamed The Black (Lithuanian: Juodasis), was a Polish-Lithuanian noble who held several administrative positions within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Voivode of Vilnius, Grand Lithuanian Chancellor, and Grand Hetman of Lithuania.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
The Monarchy of Denmark, colloquially known as the Danish Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.
Negotiation comes from the Latin neg (no) and otsia (leisure) referring to businessmen who, unlike the patricians, had no leisure time in their industriousness; it held the meaning of business (le négoce in French) until the 17th century when it took on the diplomatic connotation as a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
The Northern Seven Years' War (also known as the Nordic Seven Years' War, the First Northern War or the Seven Years War in Scandinavia) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and a coalition of Denmark–Norway, Lübeck and Poland between 1563 and 1570.
An offensive is a military operation that seeks through aggressive projection of armed force to occupy territory, gain an objective or achieve some larger strategic, operational, or tactical goal.
The oprichnina (опри́чнина) was a state policy implemented by Tsar Ivan the Terrible in Russia between 1565 and 1572.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land/real estate or intellectual property.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Paide (Weißenstein) is the capital of Järva County, Estonia.
The Parnawa Voivodeship (Województwo parnawskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in 1598 until the Swedish conquest of Livonia in the 1620s.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.
Peace is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility.
Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence.
Philip of Swabia (February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208) was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Swedish War of 1626–1629 was the fourth stage (after 1600–1611, 1617–1618, and 1620–1625) in a series of conflicts between Sweden and Poland fought in the 17th century.
Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.
Pope Gregory IX Gregorius IX (born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241), was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.
Princess is a regal rank and the feminine equivalent of prince (from Latin princeps, meaning principal citizen).
Count Pyotr Andreyevich Shuvalov (Пётр Андре́евич Шува́лов) (27 July 1827, Saint Petersburg – 22 March 1889, Saint Petersburg) was an influential Russian statesman and a counselor to Tsar Alexander II.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Reichsleiter (national leader or Reich leader) was the second highest political rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), next only to the office of Führer.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Riga District (Rīgas rajons) was an administrative division of Latvia, located in Semigallia and Vidzeme regions, in the centre of the country.
The Bishopric of Reval was created in Duchy of Estonia by Valdemar II of Denmark in 1240.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Crimean Wars were fought between the forces of Muscovy and the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate during the 16th century over the region around Volga River.
Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.
Saint George’s Night Uprising in 1343–1345 (Jüriöö ülestõus) was an unsuccessful attempt by the indigenous Estonian population in the Duchy of Estonia, the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, and the insular territories of the State of the Teutonic Order to rid themselves of the Danish and German rulers and landlords, who had conquered the country in the 13th century during the Livonian crusade, and to eradicate the non-indigenous Christian religion.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Second Swedish Crusade was a 13th century Swedish military expedition against the Tavastians, in present-day Finland, led by Birger jarl.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Semigallia, also spelled Semigalia, (Zemgale; Semgallen; Žiemgala; Semigalia; Zemgāl) is a historical region of Latvia, sometimes also including a part of Lithuania.
Semigallians (Latvian Zemgaļi; Žiemgaliai, also Zemgalians, Semigalls, Semigalians) were the Baltic tribe that lived in the southcentral part of contemporary Latvia and northern Lithuania.
The Siege of Pskov, known as the Pskov Defense in Russia (оборона Пскова), took place between August 1581 and February 1582, when the army of the Polish king and Grand Duke of Lithuania Stephen Báthory laid an unsuccessful siege and successful blockade of the city of Pskov during the final stage of the Livonian War of 1558–1583.
Sigismund II Augustus (Zygmunt II August, Ruthenian: Żygimont II Awgust, Žygimantas II Augustas, Sigismund II.) (1 August 1520 – 7 July 1572) was the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548.
Sigulda (Segewold) is a town in the Vidzeme Region of Latvia, from the capital city Riga.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.
Stephen Báthory (Báthory István; Stefan Batory; Steponas Batoras; 27 September 1533 – 12 December 1586) was Voivode of Transylvania (1571–76), Prince of Transylvania (1576–86), from 1576 Queen Anna Jagiellon's husband and jure uxoris King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1576-1586).
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Swedish Livonia (Svenska Livland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1629 until 1721.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.
Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary, especially the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions; or the seat occupied by a pope or bishop on ceremonial occasions.
The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир, Uudenkaupungin rauha, Freden i Nystad, Uusikaupunki rahu) was the last peace treaty of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721.
The Treaty of Stettin (Frieden von Stettin, Freden i Stettin, Freden i Stettin) of 13 December 1570, ended the Northern Seven Years' War fought between Sweden and Denmark with her internally fragmented alliance of Lübeck and Poland.
The Treaty of Vilnius or Vilna was concluded on 28 November 1561, during the Livonian War, between the Livonian Confederation and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at Vilnius (Vilna, Wilna, Wilno).
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Valdemar II (9 May 117028 March 1241), called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror (Valdemar Sejr), was the King of Denmark from 1202 until his death in 1241.
Valdemar IV Atterdag (the epithet meaning "A New Dawn"), or Waldemar (132024 October 1375; Valdemar Atterdag), was King of Denmark from 1340 to 1375.
Valka district (Valkas rajons) was an administrative division of Latvia, located in Vidzeme region, in the country's north-east.
The Valmiera district (Valmieras rajons) was an administrative division of Latvia, located in the Vidzeme region, in the country's north-east.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Velikiye Luki (p; lit. great meanders).
Vidzeme (Vidžemė, Vidūmō) is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia.
Viljandi (Fellin) is a town and municipality in southern Estonia with a population of 17,473 in 2013.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Virumaa (Vironia; Low German: Wierland; Old Norse: Virland) is a former independent county in Ancient Estonia.
Walk was the historical German name for the town that is since 1920 divided into Valga in Estonia and Valka in Latvia.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Wenden Voivodeship (Województwo wendeńskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Wilhelm von Brandenburg (30 June 1498 – 4 February 1563) was the Archbishop of Riga from 1539 to 1561.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.