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Index Livonians

The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia. [1]

114 relations: Absalon, Agriculture, Albert of Riga, Animal husbandry, Austria-Hungary, Baltic Sea, Bible, Cape Kolka, Caupo of Turaida, Charles XI of Sweden, Christianity, Courland, Courland Peninsula, Cultural assimilation, Curonians, Danes (Germanic tribe), Daugava, Denmark, Dundaga, Edgar Vaalgamaa, Estonia, Estonian language, Estonians, Ethnic group, Finnic peoples, Finnish language, Finns, First language, Flag of Livonians, Germans, Glasnost, Gotland, Gotthard Kettler, Great Northern War, Gulf of Riga, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Ikšķile, Indigenous peoples, Interwar period, Iron Curtain, Ivan the Terrible, Jaunciems, Jānis Čakste, Kārlis Ulmanis, Košrags, Kolka, Latvia, Language death, Latgalians, Latvia, Latvian language, ..., Latvian parliamentary election, 2011, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lūžņa, Lielirbe, Lithuania, Livonia, Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Livonian Coast, Livonian Crusade, Livonian language, Livonian Order, Livonian War, Livonians, Lutheranism, Martin Luther, Mazirbe, Melnsils, Metsepole, Miķeļtornis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moscow, Nicholas II of Russia, Occam's razor, Paganism, Pētõr Damberg, Perestroika, Peter the Great, Piliscsaba, Pitrags, Poland, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Pope Innocent III, Reformation, Riga, Russia, Russian Empire, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Saaremaa, Saeima, Saint Meinhard, Salaca, Salaspils, Saunags, Sīkrags, Selonians, Semigallians, Siberia, Soviet Union, Staicele, Sweden, Swedes, Tartu, Teutonic Order, Third Partition of Poland, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Nystad, Tsar, Uralic languages, Vaide, Ventspils, Vladimir Lenin, World War I. Expand index (64 more) »


Absalon or Axel (21 March 1201) was a Danish archbishop and statesman, who was the Bishop of Roskilde from 1158 to 1192 and Archbishop of Lund from 1178 until his death.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Albert of Riga

Albert of Riga or Albert of Livonia (Alberts fon Buksthēvdens; Albert von Buxthoeven; c.1165 – 17 January 1229) was the third Bishop of Riga in Livonia.

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Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Cape Kolka

Cape Kolka (Kūolka nanā, Kolkasrags, Old German name - Domesnes, Russian - Колка or мыс Домеснес) - cape on the Baltic Sea, near the entry to Gulf of Riga, in Livonian coast, in the Courland Peninsula of Latvia.

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Caupo of Turaida

Caupo of Turaida, or Kaupo (died September 21, 1217) was a leader of the Finnic-speaking Livonian people in the beginning of the 13th century, in what is now part of Latvia and Estonia.

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Charles XI of Sweden

Charles XI, also Carl (Karl XI; 24 November 1655old style – 5 April 1697old style), was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire (1611–1718).

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.

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Courland Peninsula

The Courland Peninsula is the north-western part of Courland.

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Cultural assimilation

Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.

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The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.

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Danes (Germanic tribe)

The Danes were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting southern Scandinavia, including the area now comprising Denmark proper, during the Nordic Iron Age and the Viking Age.

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The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Dundaga (Dūoņig) is a village in Courland, Latvia.

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Edgar Vaalgamaa

Edgar Vaalgamaa (1912 – December 20, 2003) was a Livonian pastor and ethnologist.

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Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Estonian language

Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

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Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Finnic peoples

The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Flag of Livonians

Flag of Livonians is a flag used to symbolize Livonian people.

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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.

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Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.

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Gotthard Kettler

Gotthard von Kettler (also Ketteler, Gotthard Kettler, Herzog von Kurland; 2 February 1517 – 17 May 1587) was the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia.

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Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Gulf of Riga

The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia (Rīgas jūras līcis, Liivi laht, Рижский залив) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.

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Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Stormaktstiden).

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Ikšķile (Uexküll; Ikškilā; Üksküla) is a town in Latvia, the administrative centre of Ikšķile municipality.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Interwar period

In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.

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Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.

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Ivan the Terrible

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.

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Jaunciems (Ūžkilā) is a populated place in Tārgale parish, Ventspils municipality, northwest Latvia.

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Jānis Čakste

Jānis Čakste (14 September 1859 in Lielsesava (now Viesturi parish), Latvia – 14 March 1927 in Riga, Latvia) was a Latvian politician and lawyer who served as the first head of an independent Latvian state as the Chairman of the People's Council (1918–1920), the Speaker of the Constitutional Assembly (1920–1922), and as the first President of Latvia (1922–1927).

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Kārlis Ulmanis

Kārlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis (September 4, 1877 in Bērze, Bērze Parish, Courland Governorate, Russian Empire – September 20, 1942 in Krasnovodsk prison, Soviet Union, now Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan) was one of the most prominent Latvian politicians of pre-World War II Latvia during the interwar period of independence from November 1918 to June 1940.

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Košrags (Livonian: Kuoštrõg) is a populated place in Kolka parish, Dundaga municipality, Latvia on the shore of the Irbe Strait of the Baltic Sea.

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Kolka, Latvia

Kolka (Livonian: Kūolka; Russian: "Колка") is a village in Kolka parish, Dundaga municipality, on the tip of Cape Kolka in Courland in Latvia, on the coast of the Gulf of Riga in ancient Livonia.

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Language death

In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.

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Latgalians, sometimes also Ancient Latvians (Letti, Lethi, modern; variant translations also include Latgallians, Lettigalls or Lettigallians), were an ancient Baltic tribe.

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Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Latvian language

Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Latvian parliamentary election, 2011

An early parliamentary election was held in Latvia on 17 September 2011, following the country's first parliamentary dissolution referendum held on 23 July 2011.

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Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.

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Lūžņa (Livonian: Lūžkilā) is a populated place in Tārgale parish, Ventspils municipality, Latvia, one of the twelve Livonian villages on the Livonian coast.

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Lielirbe (Livonian: Īra) is a populated place in Tārgale parish, Ventspils municipality, Latvia.

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Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

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Livonian Brothers of the Sword

The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.

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Livonian Coast

Livonian Coast (Līvõd Rānda, Lībiešu krasts) is a territory of Latvia historically inhabited by Livonian people.

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Livonian Crusade

The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.

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Livonian language

Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.

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Livonian Order

The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.

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Livonian War

The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

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The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.

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Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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Martin Luther

Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

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Mazirbe (Irē or Piški Īra, Klein-Irben) is a village place in Kolka parish, Dundaga municipality, Latvia 18 km southwest of Kolka.

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Melnsils (Livonian: Mustānum) is a populated place in Roja municipality, Latvia.

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Mõtsa Pūol or Metsepole was an ancient Livonian county inhabited by a Finnic people Livonians, on the east coast of the Gulf of Riga, at the northwest of what is now the Vidzeme region of Latvia.

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Miķeļtornis (Livonian: Pizā) is a populated place in Tārgale parish, Ventspils municipality, Latvia.

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.

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Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.

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Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.

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Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Pētõr Damberg

Pētõr Damberg (or Пётр Дамберг; March 9, 1909 Sīkrags – April 25, 1987) was Livonian linguist, poet and teacher.

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Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Piliscsaba is a town in Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary, located in northwestern Pest County, near the border of Komárom-Esztergom in a valley between the Buda and Pilis hills.

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Pitrags (Livonian: Pitrõg) is a populated place in Kolka parish, Dundaga municipality, Latvia at the mouth of the river Pitraga.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Pope Innocent III

Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.

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The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia.

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Saint Meinhard

Saint Meinhard (b. 1134 or 1136 - died August 14 or October 11, 1196) was a German canon regular and the first Bishop of Livonia.

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The Salaca is a river in northern Latvia.

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Salaspils (Kirchholm, Kirkholm, Kerkolm) is a town in Latvia, the administrative centre of Salaspils Municipality.

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Saunags (Livonian: Sǟnag, Russian: Саунагс or Саунаг. Other names: Saunagdtsiems, Saunaga, Saunaga Ciems, Saunaguciems) is a populated place in Kolka parish, Dundaga municipality, Latvia, located from the Cape Kolka, within the borders of Slītere National Park.

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Sīkrags (Livonian: Sīkrõg) is a populated place in Kolka parish, Dundaga municipality, Latvia.

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This article is about the Baltic ethnicity.

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Semigallians (Latvian Zemgaļi; Žiemgaliai, also Zemgalians, Semigalls, Semigalians) were the Baltic tribe that lived in the southcentral part of contemporary Latvia and northern Lithuania.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Staicele (Staizel; Staitsõl) is a town in Latvia.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.

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Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.

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Teutonic Order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

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Third Partition of Poland

The Third Partition of Poland (1795) was the last in a series of the Partitions of Poland and the land of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth among Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and the Russian Empire which effectively ended Polish–Lithuanian national sovereignty until 1918.

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Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.

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Treaty of Nystad

The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир, Uudenkaupungin rauha, Freden i Nystad, Uusikaupunki rahu) was the last peace treaty of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721.

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Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Vaide (Livonian: Vaid) is a populated place in Kolka parish, Dundaga municipality, Latvia.

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Ventspils (see other names) is a town in northwestern Latvia in the historical Courland region of Latvia, and is the sixth largest city in the country.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Redirects here:

Livones, Livonian people, Livs.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livonians

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