74 relations: Albanian language, American and British English spelling differences, Arabic, Aria, Atatürk's Reforms, Autological word, Ballet, Bazaar, Bosnian language, Buffet, Bulgarian language, Calque, Coffeehouse, Cognate, Concerto, Croatian language, Déjà vu, Einar Haugen, English language, Etymology, ʻOkina, French language, German language, Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Glossary of musical terminology, Glottal stop, Greek language, Hans Henrich Hock, Hawaiian language, Hungarian language, Hybrid word, Idiom, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Inkhorn term, Italian language, Jagannath, Joachim Grzega, Judaeo-Spanish, Kindergarten, Language, Language contact, Language reform, Left-wing politics, List of replaced loanwords in Turkish, Lists of English words by country or language of origin, Macedonian language, Macron (diacritic), Meaning (linguistics), Montenegrin language, ..., Neologism, Noun, Opera, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish language, Palgrave Macmillan, Persian language, Phoneme, Phono-semantic matching, Right-wing politics, Semantic loan, Serbian language, Soprano, Tempo, Translation, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Turkish Language Association, Uriel Weinreich, Verb, Word, World War I. Expand index (24 more) » « Shrink index
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
An aria (air; plural: arie, or arias in common usage, diminutive form arietta or ariette) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer.
Atatürk's Reforms (Atatürk Devrimleri) were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state and implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with Kemalist ideology.
An autological word (also called homological word or autonym) is a word that expresses a property that it also possesses (e.g. the word "short" is short, "noun" is a noun, "English" is English, "pentasyllabic" has five syllables, "word" is a word).
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the 15th century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia.
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
A buffet (from sideboard) is a system of serving meals in which food is placed in a public area where the diners serve themselves.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
A concerto (plural concertos, or concerti from the Italian plural) is a musical composition usually composed in three movements, in which, usually, one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Déjà vu is the feeling that the situation currently being experienced has already been experienced in the past.
Einar Ingvald Haugen (April 19, 1906 – June 20, 1994) was an American linguist, author and Professor at University of Wisconsin–Madison and Harvard University.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The okina, also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, as it is used in many Polynesian languages.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Ghil'ad Zuckermann (גלעד צוקרמן,, born 1 June 1971) is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity.
This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hans Henrich Hock (born September 26, 1938) is Professor Emeritus of Linguistics and Sanskrit at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
A hybrid word or hybridism is a word that etymologically derives from at least two languages.
An idiom (idiom, "special property", from translite, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. translit, "one's own") is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
An inkhorn term is any foreign borrowing (or a word created from existing word roots by an English speaker) into English deemed to be unnecessary or overly pretentious.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jagannath ('''ଜଗନ୍ନାଥ'''., IAST: Jagannātha, or Jagannatha) literally means "Lord of the Universe" and is a deity worshipped in regional traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism in India and Bangladesh.
Joachim Grzega (born 9 September 1971) is a German linguist.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
Language reform is a type of language planning by massive change to a language.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Contemporary Turkish includes Ottoman Turkish loanwords—mostly of Persian and French, but also Arabic, Greek, and Italian origin—which were officially replaced with their Turkish counterparts suggested by the Turkish Language Association (Türk Dil Kurumu, TDK) as a part of the cultural reforms—in the broader framework of Atatürk's Reforms—following the foundation of Republic of Turkey.
The following are lists of words in the English language that are known as "loanwords" or "borrowings," which are derived from other languages.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism), where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with phonetically and semantically similar words or roots from the adopting language. Thus, the approximate sound and meaning of the original expression in the source language are preserved, though the new expression (the PSM) in the target language may sound native. Phono-semantic matching is distinct from calquing, which includes (semantic) translation but does not include phonetic matching (i.e. retaining the approximate sound of the borrowed word through matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existent word or morpheme in the target language). At the same time, phono-semantic matching is also distinct from homophonic translation, which retains the sound of a word but not the meaning.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
A semantic loan is a process of borrowing semantic meaning (rather than lexical items) from another language, very similar to the formation of calques.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
A soprano is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types.
In musical terminology, tempo ("time" in Italian; plural: tempi) is the speed or pace of a given piece.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Turkish Language Institution (Türk Dil Kurumu, TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 by the initiative of Atatürk and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey.
Uriel Weinreich (אוריאל ווײַנרײַך Uriel Vaynraykh,; 23 May 1926 – 30 March 1967) was a Polish-American linguist.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Borrowed word, Borrowed words, Borrowing (linguistics), Borrowing word, Foreign word, Leenwoord, Lehnwort, Lexical borrowing, Linguistic contamination, Loan word, Loan words, Loan-word, Loan-words, Loanwords, Loneword, Thin translation, Word borrowing.