99 relations: Adrenal gland, Adrenal medulla, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Afferent nerve fiber, Alzheimer's disease, Amygdala, Amyloid beta, Anatomical terms of location, Anterior pituitary, Anti-inflammatory, Anxiety, Arousal, Atomoxetine, Attention, Autonomic nervous system, Balance (ability), Basel, Brain Research, Brainstem, Bupropion, Ceiling, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Cerebrum, Cingulate cortex, Circadian rhythm, Clonidine, Corticotropin-releasing factor family, Cytokine, Dopamine, Dorsal raphe nucleus, Down syndrome, Duloxetine, East Tennessee State University, Emotion, Executive functions, Félix Vicq-d'Azyr, Fourth ventricle, Hippocampus, Homeostasis, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamus, Jena, Johann Christian Reil, Locus coeruleus, Luxol fast blue stain, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, MECP2, Medieval Latin, ..., Melanin, Memory, Micrograph, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Natural environment, Neuroglia, Neuromelanin, Neuron, Neuroplasticity, Nomina Anatomica, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Nucleus (neuroanatomy), Nucleus accumbens, Nucleus paragigantocellularis, Nucleus prepositus, Opioid, Orexin, Panic, Panic disorder, Parkinson's disease, Phagocytosis, Physiology, Pick's disease, Polymerization, Pons, Pontine raphe nucleus, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prefrontal cortex, Progressive supranuclear palsy, Psychological stress, Raphe nuclei, Rapid eye movement sleep, Reboxetine, Reticular formation, Rett syndrome, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Spinal cord, Stress (biology), Substantia nigra, Tectum, Terminologia Anatomica, Thalamus, University of Texas at Austin, University of Virginia, Venlafaxine, Ventral tegmental area. Expand index (49 more) » « Shrink index
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Afferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that arrive at a particular region; as opposed to efferent projections that exit the region.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) denotes peptides of 36–43 amino acids that are crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease as the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer patients.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.
Atomoxetine, sold under the brand name Strattera among others, is a norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor which is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
In biomechanics, balance is an ability to maintain the line of gravity (vertical line from centre of mass) of a body within the base of support with minimal postural sway.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
Brain Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal focusing on several aspects of neuroscience.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
A ceiling is an overhead interior surface that covers the upper limits of a room.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
Corticotropin-releasing factor, CRF is a family of related neuropeptides in vertebrates.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dorsal raphe nucleus is located on the midline of the brainstem and is part of the raphe nucleus, consisting of the rostral and caudal subdivisions.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication mostly used for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.
East Tennessee State University (ETSU) is a public university located in Johnson City, Tennessee.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Félix Vicq d'Azyr (23 April 1748 – 20 June 1794) was a French physician and anatomist, the originator of comparative anatomy and discoverer of the theory of homology in biology.
The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.
Johann Christian Reil (20 February 1759, Rhaude (an urban district of Rhauderfehn) – 22 November 1813, Halle an der Saale) was a German physician, physiologist, anatomist, and psychiatrist.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
Luxol fast blue stain, abbreviated LFB stain or simply LFB, is a commonly used stain to observe myelin under light microscopy, created by Heinrich Klüver and Elizabeth Barrera in 1953.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
MECP2 (methyl CpG binding protein 2 (Rett syndrome)) is a gene that encodes the protein MECP2.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment found in the brain which is structurally related to melanin.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Nomina Anatomica (NA) was the international standard on human anatomic terminology from 1955 until it was replaced by Terminologia Anatomica in 1998.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI, NERI) or adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI), is a type of drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET).
A norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively.
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
The nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) is a part of the brain, located in the rostral ventral medulla.
Located in the caudal pons and upper medulla oblongata, the nucleus prepositus (also nucleus prepositus hypoglossi) is part of the horizontal gaze holding system.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite.
Panic is a sudden sensation of fear, which is so strong as to dominate or prevent reason and logical thinking, replacing it with overwhelming feelings of anxiety and frantic agitation consistent with an animalistic fight-or-flight reaction.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pick's disease is a term that can be used in two different ways.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
The Pontine raphe nucleus is one of the raphe nuclei.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP; or the Steele–Richardson–Olszewski syndrome, after the doctors who described it in 1963) is a degenerative disease involving the gradual deterioration and death of specific volumes of the brain.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
The raphe nuclei (ῥαφή "seam"Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.) are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
Reboxetine, sold under the brand name Edronax among others, is a drug of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) class, marketed as an antidepressant by Pfizer for use in the treatment of major depression, although it has also been used off-label for panic disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a genetic brain disorder which typically becomes apparent after 6 to 18 months of age in females.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
The tectum (Latin: roof) is a region of the brain, specifically the dorsal (top) part of the midbrain (mesencephalon).
Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is the international standard on human anatomic terminology.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
Blue place, Caerulean nucleus, Cerulean nucleus, LC-NA system, Locus caeruleus, Locus ceruleus, Locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system, Locus coerulius, Locus cæruleus, Nucleus caeruleus, Nucleus pigmentosus pontis.