130 relations: Aeolian processes, Agriculture, Alemannic German, Anticyclone, Arable land, Asian Dust, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Börde, Biome, Braided river, Brickearth, Buff (colour), Calcareous, Calcium carbonate, Cation-exchange capacity, Champaign, Illinois, Charles Lyell, China, Clastic rock, Clay, Cognate, Colorado, Columbia Encyclopedia, Desert, Dry lake, Dune, Erosion, Europe, Feldspar, Ferdinand von Richthofen, Fertilizer, Fluvial, Fluvio-glacial, Friability, Gansu, Gastropoda, Gäu, German language, Glacier, Grassland, Great Plains, Gypsum, Heidelberg, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Humus, Ice age, Illinoian (stage), Illinois State Museum, Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, ..., Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Isotope, John Hardcastle, Kansas, Karl Cäsar von Leonhard, Land degradation, Last glacial period, Leipzig, Loam, Local regression, Loess Hills, Loess Plateau, Louisiana, Louisiana Geological Survey, Louisiana State University, Luminescence dating, Masonry, Mastodon, McGraw-Hill Education, Mica, Mineral, Mississippi, Mississippi embayment, Mississippi River, Nebraska, New York City, Ningxia, No-till farming, Optically stimulated luminescence, Paha (landform), Paleosol, Patagonian Ice Sheet, Peasant, Periglaciation, Plateau, Pleistocene, Plough, Porosity, Prairie, Prevailing winds, Quartz, Quaternary, Quaternary Geochronology, Quaternary Research, Quaternary Science Reviews, Radiation Measurements, Rhine, Ridge, Roundness (geology), Sand, Sedimentary Geology (journal), Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shield (geology), Silt, Slump (geology), Soil, Soil horizon, Springer Science+Business Media, Springfield, Illinois, Stratigraphy, Stratum, Tajikistan, Tephra, Terrace (agriculture), Thermoluminescence, Topsoil, Trade winds, Tropics, Tundra, United States Geological Survey, Vicksburg, Mississippi, Volcanic ash, Volcano, Weathering, Wisconsin glaciation, Yaodong, Yellow Earth, Yellow River, 30th parallel south. Expand index (80 more) » « Shrink index
Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon defined by the United States National Weather Service's glossary as "a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere".
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Asian Dust (also yellow dust, yellow sand, yellow wind or China dust storms) is a meteorological phenomenon which affects much of East Asia year round but especially during the spring months.
Baton Rouge is the capital of the U.S. state of Louisiana and its second-largest city.
A börde (plural: börden) is a region of highly fertile lowland in North Germany, a "fertile plain".
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
A braided river, or braided channel, consists of a network of river channels separated by small, and often temporary, islands called braid bars or, in British usage, aits or eyots.
Brickearth is a term originally used to describe superficial windblown deposits found in southern England.
Buff is the pale yellow-brown colour of the undyed leather of several animals.
Calcareous is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Cation-exchange capacity (CEC) is a measure of how many cations can be retained on soil particle surfaces.
Champaign is a city in Champaign County, Illinois, United States.
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
A dry lake is either a basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation processes exceeded recharge.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
Baron Ferdinand Freiherr von Richthofen FRSFor HFRSE BGS (5 May 18336 October 1905), better known in English as was a German traveller, geographer, and scientist.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
In geography and geology, fluvial processes are associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them.
Fluvio refers to things related to rivers and glacial refers to something that is of ice.
Friability, the condition of being friable, describes the tendency of a solid substance to break into smaller pieces under duress or contact, especially by rubbing.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
In the south German language (of the Alemannic-speaking area, or in Switzerland), a gäu landscape (gäulandschaft) refers to an area of open, level countryside.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
The work of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ (prior to 28 November 2006 UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH) covers both basic research and applied research.
In soil science, humus (derived in 1790–1800 from the Latin humus for earth, ground) denominates the fraction of soil organic matter that is amorphous and without the "cellular cake structure characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or animals." Humus significantly affects the bulk density of soil and contributes to its retention of moisture and nutrients.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
The Illinoian Stage is the name used by Quaternary geologists in North America to designate the period c.191,000 to c.130,000 years ago, during the middle Pleistocene, when sediments comprising the Illinoian Glacial Lobe were deposited.
The Illinois State Museum is the official museum of the natural history of the U.S. state of Illinois.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
Iowa City is a city in Johnson County, Iowa, United States.
The Iowa Department of Natural Resources (Iowa DNR or IA DNR) is a department/agency of the U.S. state of Iowa formed in 1986, charged with maintaining state parks and forests, protecting the environment of Iowa, and managing energy, fish, wildlife, land resources, and water resources of Iowa.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
John Hardcastle (21 January 1847 – 12 June 1927) was a new Zealand amateur scientist, and pioneer in the study of paleoclimatology.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
Karl Cäsar von Leonhard (12 September 1779 in Rumpenheim – 23 January 1862 in Heidelberg) was a German mineralogist and geologist.
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Loam is soil composed mostly of sand (particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size These proportions can vary to a degree, however, and result in different types of loam soils: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam. In the USDA textural classification triangle, the only soil that is not predominantly sand, silt, or clay is called "loam". Loam soils generally contain more nutrients, moisture, and humus than sandy soils, have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silt and clay-rich soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. The different types of loam soils each have slightly different characteristics, with some draining liquids more efficiently than others. The soil's texture, especially its ability to retain nutrients and water are crucial. Loam soil is suitable for growing most plant varieties. Bricks made of loam, mud, sand, and water, with an added binding material such as rice husks or straw, have been used in construction since ancient times.
LOESS and LOWESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing) are two strongly related non-parametric regression methods that combine multiple regression models in a ''k''-nearest-neighbor-based meta-model.
The Loess Hills are a formation of wind-deposited loess soil in the westernmost part of the U.S. states of Iowa and Missouri along the Missouri River.
The Loess Plateau, also known as the Huangtu Plateau, is a plateau located around the Wei River valley and the southern half of the Ordos Loop of the Yellow River in central China.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Louisiana Geological Survey is a state geological survey established by the Louisiana legislature by Act 131 in 1934 to serve the citizens Louisiana by collecting, preserving, and disseminating impartial information on the geomorphology, hydrogeology, geology, paleontology, economic geology, and geological resources of Louisiana.
The Louisiana State University (officially Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, commonly referred to as LSU) is a public coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Luminescence dating refers to a group of methods of determining how long ago mineral grains were last exposed to sunlight or sufficient heating.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.
Mastodons (Greek: μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") are any species of extinct proboscideans in the genus Mammut (family Mammutidae), distantly related to elephants, that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene or late Pliocene up to their extinction at the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 to 11,000 years ago.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
The Mississippi Embayment is a physiographic feature in the south-central United States, part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
No-till farming (also called zero tillage or direct drilling) is a way of growing crops or pasture from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage.
In physics, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is a method for measuring doses from ionizing radiation.
Paha are landforms composed of prominent hills that are oriented from northwest to southeast and typically have large loess deposits.
In the geosciences, paleosol (palaeosol in Great Britain and Australia) can have two meanings.
Map showing the extent of the Patagonian Ice Sheet in the Strait of Magellan area during the last glacial period. Selected modern settlements are shown with yellow dots. The sea-level was much lower than shown in this picture. The Patagonian Ice Sheet was a large elongated and narrow ice sheet centered in the southern Andes that existed during the Llanquihue glaciation.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Periglaciation (adjective: "periglacial," also referring to places at the edges of glacial areas) describes geomorphic processes that result from seasonal thawing of snow in areas of permafrost, the runoff from which refreezes in ice wedges and other structures.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.
Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
Quaternary Geochronology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal addressing methods and results in the dating of samples from the Quaternary Period.
Quaternary Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of Quaternary science.
Quaternary Science Reviews is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering quaternary science.
Radiation Measurements is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on nuclear science and radiation physics.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
A ridge or mountain ridge are geological features consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance.The sides of the ridge slope away from narrow top on either side.The line along the crest formed by the highest points, with the terrain dropping down on either side, is called the ridgeline.
Roundness is the degree of smoothing due to abrasion of sedimentary particles.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sedimentary Geology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal about sediments in a geological context published by Elsevier.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
A shield is generally a large area of exposed Precambrian crystalline igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks that form tectonically stable areas.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
A slump is a form of mass wasting that occurs when a coherent mass of loosely consolidated materials or rock layers moves a short distance down a slope.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
A soil horizon is a layer parallel to the soil surface, whose physical characteristics differ from the layers above and beneath.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Springfield is the capital of the U.S. state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tephra is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size, or emplacement mechanism.
In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming.
Thermoluminescence is a form of luminescence that is exhibited by certain crystalline materials, such as some minerals, when previously absorbed energy from electromagnetic radiation or other ionizing radiation is re-emitted as light upon heating of the material.
Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top to.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Vicksburg is the only city in, and county seat of Warren County, Mississippi, United States.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex.
A yaodong or "house cave" is a particular form of earth shelter dwelling common in the Loess Plateau in China's north.
Yellow Earth is a 1984 Chinese drama film.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
The 30th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 30 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.