138 relations: Akira Nakashima, Allan Marquand, American National Standards Institute, Amplifier, Analytical Engine, AND gate, And-inverter graph, AND-OR-Invert, Arithmetic logic unit, Arthur Burks, Binary number, Bipolar junction transistor, Boolean algebra, Boolean function, Boston University, British Standards, Bus (computing), Capacitance, Central processing unit, Charles Sanders Peirce, Chip carrier, Claude Shannon, Clock signal, CMOS, Coincidence circuit, Combinational logic, Computer, Computer data storage, Computer memory, Current-mode logic, De Morgan's laws, Digital electronics, Diode, Diode logic, Diode–transistor logic, Direct-coupled transistor logic, DNA, DNA nanotechnology, Electronics, Espresso heuristic logic minimizer, European Committee for Standardization, Exclusive or, Fan-out, Field-effect transistor, Field-programmable gate array, Fleming valve, Flip-flop (electronics), Fluidics, Functional completeness, Gain (electronics), ..., Gate array, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Hardware description language, Harvard Mark I, Henry M. Sheffer, I Ching, Information Processing Society of Japan, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Integrated circuit, Inverter (logic gate), Karnaugh map, Konrad Zuse, Lee de Forest, List of 4000 series integrated circuits, List of 7400 series integrated circuits, List of Boolean algebra topics, Logic family, Logical biconditional, Logical conjunction, Logical connective, Logical disjunction, Logical graph, Logical NOR, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Mathematics, MAYA-II, Microprocessor, Molecular logic gate, MOSFET, Multiplexer, NAND gate, NAND logic, NEC, Negation, NMOS logic, Nobel Prize, Nonlinear optics, NOR gate, NOR logic, Operational amplifier, Optical computing, Optics, OR gate, PMOS logic, Pneumatics, Printed circuit board, Processor register, Programmable logic controller, Programmable logic device, Propagation delay, Propositional calculus, Quantum computing, Quantum dot cellular automaton, Quantum logic gate, Quantum mechanics, Race condition, RCA, Rectangle, Relay, Relay logic, Resistor–transistor logic, Reversible computing, Rise time, Sequential logic, Sheffer stroke, Speed, Switching circuit theory, Tampere University of Technology, Texas Instruments, Toffoli gate, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Transistor, Transistor–transistor logic, Truth table, Two-element Boolean algebra, University of Niš, Vacuum tube, Verilog, VHDL, Voltage, Walther Bothe, World War II, XNOR gate, XOR gate, Z1 (computer), 4000 series, 7400 series. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
Akira Nakashima was the NEC engineer who introduced switching circuit theory in papers from 1934 to 1936,Radomir S. Stanković (University of Niš), Jaakko T. Astola (Tampere University of Technology), Mark G. Karpovsky (Boston University),, 2007, DOI 10.1.1.66.1248Radomir S. Stanković, Jaakko Astola (2008),, TICSP Series #40, Tampere International Center for Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology laying the foundations for digital circuit design, in digital computers and other areas of modern technology.
Allan Marquand (1853–1924) was an art historian at Princeton University and a curator of the Princeton University Art Museum.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).
The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.
The AND gate is a basic digital logic gate that implements logical conjunction - it behaves according to the truth table to the right.
An and-inverter graph (AIG) is a directed, acyclic graph that represents a structural implementation of the logical functionality of a circuit or network.
AND-OR-Invert (AOI) logic and AOI gates are two-level compound (or complex) logic functions constructed from the combination of one or more AND gates followed by a NOR gate.
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.
Arthur Walter Burks (October 13, 1915 – May 14, 2008) was an American mathematician who worked in the 1940s as a senior engineer on the project that contributed to the design of the ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.
In mathematics and logic, a (finitary) Boolean function (or switching function) is a function of the form ƒ: Bk → B, where B.
Boston University (commonly referred to as BU) is a private, non-profit, research university in Boston, Massachusetts.
British Standards (BS) are the standards produced by the BSI Group which is incorporated under a Royal Charter (and which is formally designated as the National Standards Body (NSB) for the UK).
In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
In electronics, a chip carrier is one of several kinds of surface mount technology packages for integrated circuits (commonly called "chips").
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
In physics, a coincidence circuit is an electronic device with one output and two (or more) inputs.
In digital circuit theory, combinational logic (sometimes also referred to as time-independent logic) is a type of digital logic which is implemented by Boolean circuits, where the output is a pure function of the present input only.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
Current mode logic (CML), or source-coupled logic (SCL), is a differential digital logic family intended to transmit data at speeds between 312.5 Mbit/s and 3.125 Gbit/s across standard printed circuit boards.
In propositional logic and boolean algebra, De Morgan's laws are a pair of transformation rules that are both valid rules of inference.
Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
Diode logic (DL), or diode-resistor logic (DRL), is the construction of Boolean logic gates from diodes.
Diode–transistor logic (DTL) is a class of digital circuits that is the direct ancestor of transistor–transistor logic.
Direct-coupled transistor logic (DCTL) is similar to resistor–transistor logic (RTL) but the input transistor bases are connected directly to the collector outputs without any base resistors.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures for technological uses.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
The Espresso logic minimizer is a computer program using heuristic and specific algorithms for efficiently reducing the complexity of digital electronic gate circuits.
The European Committee for Standardization (CEN, Comité Européen de Normalisation) is a public standards organization whose mission is to foster the economy of the European Union (EU) in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and distribution of coherent sets of standards and specifications.
Exclusive or or exclusive disjunction is a logical operation that outputs true only when inputs differ (one is true, the other is false).
In digital electronics, the fan-out of a logic gate output is the number of gate inputs it can drive.
The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device.
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".
The Fleming valve, also called the Fleming oscillation valve, was a thermionic valve or vacuum tube invented in 1904 by Englishman John Ambrose Fleming as a detector for early radio receivers used in electromagnetic wireless telegraphy.
In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.
Fluidics, or fluidic logic, is the use of a fluid to perform analog or digital operations similar to those performed with electronics.
In logic, a functionally complete set of logical connectives or Boolean operators is one which can be used to express all possible truth tables by combining members of the set into a Boolean expression.
In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some power supply to the signal.
A gate array is an approach to the design and manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) using a prefabricated chip with components that are later interconnected into logic devices (e.g. NAND gates, flip-flops,etc.) according to a custom order by adding metal interconnect layers in the factory.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
In computer engineering, a hardware description language (HDL) is a specialized computer language used to describe the structure and behavior of electronic circuits, and most commonly, digital logic circuits.
The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called Mark I by Harvard University’s staff, was a general purpose electromechanical computer that was used in the war effort during the last part of World War II.
Henry Maurice Sheffer (September 1, 18821964) was an American logician.
The I Ching,.
The Information Processing Society of Japan ("IPSJ") is a Japanese learned society for computing.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan (IEEJ) is a scientific and professional organization based in Tokyo, Japan.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
In digital logic, an inverter or NOT gate is a logic gate which implements logical negation.
The Karnaugh map (KM or K-map) is a method of simplifying Boolean algebra expressions.
Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.
Lee de Forest (August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American inventor, self-described "Father of Radio", and a pioneer in the development of sound-on-film recording used for motion pictures.
List of the CMOS 4000 series.
The following is a list of 7400 series digital logic integrated circuits.
This is a list of topics around Boolean algebra and propositional logic.
In computer engineering, a logic family may refer to one of two related concepts.
In logic and mathematics, the logical biconditional (sometimes known as the material biconditional) is the logical connective of two statements asserting "P if and only if Q", where P is an antecedent and Q is a consequent.
In logic, mathematics and linguistics, And (∧) is the truth-functional operator of logical conjunction; the and of a set of operands is true if and only if all of its operands are true.
In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a symbol or word used to connect two or more sentences (of either a formal or a natural language) in a grammatically valid way, such that the value of the compound sentence produced depends only on that of the original sentences and on the meaning of the connective.
In logic and mathematics, or is the truth-functional operator of (inclusive) disjunction, also known as alternation; the or of a set of operands is true if and only if one or more of its operands is true.
A logical graph is a special type of diagramatic structure in any one of several systems of graphical syntax that Charles Sanders Peirce developed for logic.
In boolean logic, logical nor or joint denial is a truth-functional operator which produces a result that is the negation of logical or.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
MAYA-II (Molecular Array of YES and ANDNOT logic gates) is a DNA computer, based on DNA Stem Loop Controllers, developed by scientists at Columbia University and the University of New Mexico and created in 2006.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
A molecular logic gate is a molecule that performs a logical operation based on one or more physical or chemical inputs and a single output.
MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.
In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.
In digital electronics, a NAND gate (NOT-AND) is a logic gate which produces an output which is false only if all its inputs are true; thus its output is complement to that of an AND gate.
Because the NAND function has functional completeness all logic systems can be converted into NAND gates.
is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.
N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses n-type field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.
The NOR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR - it behaves according to the truth table to the right.
A NOR gate is a logic gate which gives a positive output only when both inputs are negative.
An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.
Optical or photonic computing uses photons produced by lasers or diodes for computation.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
The OR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical disjunctionit behaves according to the truth table to the right.
P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
Pneumatics (From Greek: πνεύμα) is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis.
A programmable logic device (PLD) is an electronic component used to build reconfigurable digital circuits.
Propagation delay is a technical term that can have a different meaning depending on the context.
Propositional calculus is a branch of logic.
Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.
Quantum dot cellular automata (sometimes referred to simply as quantum cellular automata, or QCA) are a proposed improvement on conventional computer design (CMOS), which have been devised in analogy to conventional models of cellular automata introduced by von Neumann.
In quantum computing and specifically the quantum circuit model of computation, a quantum logic gate (or simply quantum gate) is a basic quantum circuit operating on a small number of qubits.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
A race condition or race hazard is the behavior of an electronics, software, or other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events.
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.
In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles.
A relay is an electrically operated switch.
Relay logic is a method of implementing combinational logic in electrical control circuits by using several electrical relays wired in a particular configuration.
Resistor–transistor logic (RTL) (sometimes also transistor–resistor logic (TRL)) is a class of digital circuits built using resistors as the input network and bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) as switching devices.
Reversible computing is a model of computing where the computational process to some extent is reversible, i.e., time-invertible.
In electronics, when describing a voltage or current step function, rise time is the time taken by a signal to change from a specified low value to a specified high value.
In digital circuit theory, sequential logic is a type of logic circuit whose output depends not only on the present value of its input signals but on the sequence of past inputs, the input history.
In Boolean functions and propositional calculus, the Sheffer stroke, named after Henry M. Sheffer, written ↑, also written | (not to be confused with "||", which is often used to represent disjunction), or Dpq (in Bocheński notation), denotes a logical operation that is equivalent to the negation of the conjunction operation, expressed in ordinary language as "not both".
In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.
Switching circuit theory is the mathematical study of the properties of networks of idealized switches.
Tampere University of Technology (TUT) (Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto (TTY)) is Finland's second-largest university in engineering sciences.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
In logic circuits, the Toffoli gate (also CCNOT gate), invented by Tommaso Toffoli, is a universal reversible logic gate, which means that any reversible circuit can be constructed from Toffoli gates.
The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP) (Latin for "Logico-Philosophical Treatise") is the only book-length philosophical work published by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.
A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic—specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus—which sets out the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments, that is, for each combination of values taken by their logical variables (Enderton, 2001).
In mathematics and abstract algebra, the two-element Boolean algebra is the Boolean algebra whose underlying set (or universe or carrier) B is the Boolean domain.
The University of Niš (Универзитет у Нишу / Univerzitet u Nišu) is a public university in Serbia.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
Verilog, standardized as IEEE 1364, is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems.
VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic design automation to describe digital and mixed-signal systems such as field-programmable gate arrays and integrated circuits.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (8 January 1891 – 8 February 1957) was a German nuclear physicist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 with Max Born.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The XNOR gate (often written Exclusive-NOR, sometimes: EXNOR, ENOR, NXOR, XAND) is a digital logic gate whose function is the logical complement of the exclusive OR (XOR) gate.
The XOR gate (sometimes EOR gate, or EXOR gate and pronounced as Exclusive OR gate) is a digital logic gate that gives a true (1 or HIGH) output when the number of true inputs is odd.
The Z1 was a mechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse from 1935 to 1936 and built by him from 1936 to 1938.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 4000 series is a family of integrated circuits (ICs) first introduced in 1968.
The 7400 series of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are the most popular family of TTL integrated circuit logic.
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