499 relations: Abloux, Acolin, Age of Enlightenment, Agile frog, Agnès Sorel, Aigre, Airain, Alagnon, Alans, Alène, Alder, Alemanni, Algae, Allier, Allier (river), Alosinae, Alpine newt, Amboise, Ance, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Ancenis, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Andrézieux-Bouthéon, Ange-Jacques Gabriel, Angers, Angles-sur-l'Anglin, Anglin, Anjou, Anne of Brittany, Appellation, Appellation d'origine contrôlée, Apple, Aquifer, Aquitaine, Archaeology, Arconce, Ardèche, Argenton (river), Arnon (river), Aron (Loire), Arroux, Artichoke, Asparagus, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic salmon, Attila, Aubigny-sur-Nère, Auguste Rodin, Auron (river), Avaricum, ..., Avoise, Azay-sur-Indre, Èvre, Électricité de France, Évaux-les-Bains, Bacillus (shape), Baroque, Bay of Biscay, Beech, Belleville Nuclear Power Plant, Benaize, Besbre, Beuvron (Loire), BirdLife International, Black Death, Blois, Bommiers, Bonneval, Eure-et-Loir, Bordeaux, Botrytis cinerea, Bouble, Bouchemaine, Bourbince, Bourges, Bourgueil, Brame, Braye (river), Bretons, Briance, Briare, Briare aqueduct, Brioude, Brittany (administrative region), Brook lamprey, Brown trout, Burbot, Cabernet Franc, Canal de Berry, Canal de Roanne à Digoin, Canal du Nivernais, Canal latéral à la Loire, Candé-sur-Beuvron, Candes-Saint-Martin, Canopy (grape), Canyon, Carnutes, Carolingian dynasty, Castle, Catholic Church, Cévennes, Celtic languages, Celts, Cenabum, Centre-Val de Loire, Cercy-la-Tour, Chalk, Chalonnes-sur-Loire, Chambon-sur-Voueize, Champagne, Champagne (wine region), Chapeauroux, Chardonnay, Charles Martel, Charles Péguy, Charles the Bald, Charles VI of France, Charles VII of France, Charles VIII of France, Charles, Duke of Orléans, Chaumont-sur-Loire, Château, Château d'Amboise, Château d'Angers, Château d'Ussé, Château de Beaufort, Château de Beauregard, Loire Valley, Château de Blois, Château de Boisgibault, Château de Brissac, Château de Chambord, Château de Chaumont, Château de Chenonceau, Château de Cheverny, Château de Gien, Château de Gizeux, Château de la Bastie d'Urfé, Château de la Verrerie (Cher), Château de Langeais, Château de Menars, Château de Meung-sur-Loire, Château de Montgeoffroy, Château de Montreuil-Bellay, Château de Montrond (Montrond-les-Bains), Château de Montsoreau, Château de Saumur, Château de Serrant, Château de Sully-sur-Loire, Château de Talcy, Château de Troussay, Château de Valençay, Château de Villandry, Château de Villesavin, Château des Réaux, Château du Plessis-Bourré, Château-Larcher, Châteaudun, Châteaux of the Loire Valley, Châtellerault, Chenin blanc, Cher (department), Cher (river), Cherry, Chinon, Chinon AOC, Chinon Nuclear Power Plant, Chondrostoma, Christianity, Cinq-Mars-la-Pile, Clain, Classical architecture, Clément Marot, Clos Lucé, Clouère, Cloyes-sur-le-Loir, Coccus, Common frog, Common midwife toad, Common toad, Condat-sur-Vienne, Cooperative, Cosne-Cours-sur-Loire, Cosson, Creuse (river), Crocus, Crop yield, Dam, Dampierre Nuclear Power Plant, Darnac, Decize, Density, Departments of France, Dessert wine, Diatom, Digoin, Diuretic, Dive (river), Dompierre-sur-Besbre, Dore (river), Droux, Edible frog, Edict of Nantes, English Channel, Erdre, Ernée (river), Esox, Estuary, European bullhead, European eel, European sea sturgeon, European tree frog, Falun, Félix Vallotton, Feudalism, Feurs, Fire salamander, Flathead grey mullet, Fortification, François Mansart, François Rabelais, Francia, Francis I of France, Franks, Fraxinus, French franc, French language, French Revolution, French wine, Fresselines, Frost, Fulk I, Count of Anjou, Fulk III, Count of Anjou, Furan (river), Gallia Aquitania, Gartempe, Gaston Couté, Gaulish language, Gauls, Gien, Gothic architecture, Government of France, Grayling (species), Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Greeks, Green algae, Greengage, Gregory of Tours, Guillaume Bautru, Gustave Courbet, Harvest (wine), Haute-Loire, Hectare, Henry III of France, Henry IV of France, Heterotroph, High Middle Ages, House of Bourbon, Huguenots, Huisne, Hundred Years' War, Huns, Indre (river), Indre-et-Loire, Indrois, Ingrandes, Indre, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Iranian peoples, Iron Age, Italian Renaissance, Italians, J. M. W. Turner, Jacques Bougier, Jacques Villon, Jean Chabot, Jean de La Fontaine, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Jean-Max Albert, Joachim du Bellay, Joan of Arc, Joan of France, Duchess of Berry, John II of France, Julius Caesar, Jumeaux, Keep, La Baule-Escoublac, La Charité-sur-Loire, La Ferté-Hauterive, La Roche-Posay, Latin, Lavenay, Layon, Le Croisic, Le Lion-d'Angers, Le Mans, Le Marillais, Le Puy-en-Velay, Lees (fermentation), Lemnoideae, Leonardo da Vinci, Lignon du Forez, Lignon du Velay, List of English monarchs, List of rivers of France, List of wine-producing regions, Loing, Loir, Loir-et-Cher, Loire, Loire (department), Loire Valley, Loire Valley (wine), Loire-Atlantique, Loiret, Loiret (river), Lonely Planet, Looting, Losse (river), Louis XI of France, Louis XII of France, Louis XIII of France, Louis XV of France, Louis XVI of France, Louvre, Lyon, Maine (river), Maine-et-Loire, Marbled newt, Marseilles-lès-Aubigny, Massif Central, Mayenne (river), Mediterranean gull, Mediterranean Sea, Megalith, Melon, Melon de Bourgogne, Metres above sea level, Middle Ages, Middle Paleolithic, Moat, Monarchy, Monistrol-d'Allier, Monistrol-sur-Loire, Mont Gerbier de Jonc, Montjean-sur-Loire, Montreuil-Bellay, Moors, Mouvement Réformateur, Muscadet, Muslim, Nantes, Natterjack toad, Neanderthal, Neoclassical architecture, Neolithic, Nevers, Nièvre, Nièvre (Loire), Noyers-sur-Cher, Oak, Order of Saint Benedict, Orléans, Orléans Cathedral, Oudon (river), Oxbow, Ozanne, Paganism, Palais ducal de Nevers, Palmate newt, Paris Basin, Parthenay, Pays de la Loire, Pear, Pelobates cultripes, Pelobates fuscus, Perez's frog, Petite Creuse, Phoenicia, Phytoplankton, Pierre de Ronsard, Pierre Viette, Pine, Poitiers, Pool frog, Portcullis, Pouilly-Fumé, Printing press, Prissac, Protestantism, Proto-Indo-European language, Pruning, Prunus domestica, Puy-Guillaume, Quince, Raoul Dufy, Rère, Reformation, Regional climate levels in viticulture, Religious war, Renaissance, Renaissance architecture, Rhône, Rhodeus, Roanne, Rock bass, Roman Empire, Roman Gaul, Rosé, Saône-et-Loire, Sablé-sur-Sarthe, Saffron, Saint, Saint-Brevin-les-Pins, Saint-Christophe-d'Allier, Saint-Hilaire-sur-Benaize, Saint-Jean-Saint-Maurice-sur-Loire, Saint-Jean-sur-Mayenne, Saint-Just-sur-Dive, Saint-Laurent Nuclear Power Plant, Saint-Léger-des-Vignes, Saint-Loup-Lamairé, Saint-Martin-de-Sanzay, Saint-Nazaire, Saint-Pourçain-sur-Sioule, Saint-Priest-Taurion, Saint-Satur, Sainte-Eulalie, Ardèche, Salicornia, Salleron, Sancerre, Sancerre (wine), Sangiban, Sarthe (river), Sauldre, Saumur, Saumur (wine), Sauvignon blanc, Savigny-en-Septaine, Sèvre Nantaise, Sea trout, Segré, Seine, Selles-sur-Cher, Semme, Senouire, Sidonius Apollinaris, Siege of Orléans, Sioule, Smooth newt, Sparkling wine, St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, Stone Age, Sully-sur-Loire, Swamp, Taizé, Deux-Sèvres, Tardes (river), Taurion, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Théols, Thouaret, Thouet, Touraine, Tours, Traditional method, Tributary, Tufa, UNESCO, United States dollar, Vaige, Varenne-Saint-Germain, Varietal, Vauvise, Vègre, Verzée, Vichy, Vienne (river), Vierzon, Vikings, Villandry, Villeherviers, Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure, Vin de pays, Vine, Vineyard, Visigoths, Viticulture, Voueize, Vouvray, Vouvray (wine), War in the Vendée, Wels catfish, Willow, Wine tasting descriptors, Winemaker, Winemaking, World Heritage site, World Wide Fund for Nature, Yèvre, Year, Yellow-bellied toad, Zander. Expand index (449 more) » « Shrink index
The Abloux is a long river in the Creuse and Indre départements, central France.
The Acolin is a long river in France.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The agile frog (Rana dalmatina) is a frog in the genus ''Rana'' in the family of the true frogs.
Agnès Sorel (1422 – 9 February 1450), known by the sobriquet Dame de beauté (Lady of Beauty), was a favourite, and chief mistress, of King Charles VII of France, by whom she bore three daughters.
Aigre is a commune in the Charente department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.
The Airain or Airin is a long river in the Cher département, central France.
The Alagnon (Alanhon in Occitan), also spelled Allagnon, is an river in central France, a left tributary of the river Allier.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
The Alène is a long river in the Nièvre département, central France.
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Allier; is a French department located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of central France named after the river Allier.
The Allier (Alèir) is a river in central France.
The Alosinae, or the shads, ITIS are a subfamily of fishes in the herring family Clupeidae.
The alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) is a newt of the salamander order Caudata (or Urodela) in the class of amphibians.
Amboise is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
Ance is a former commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Ancenis is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrézieux-Bouthéon is a commune of the Loire department in central France.
Ange-Jacques Gabriel (23 October 1698 – 4 January 1782) was the principal architect of King Louis XV of France.
Angers is a city in western France, about southwest of Paris.
Angles-sur-l'Anglin is a commune in the Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
The Anglin is a long river in the Creuse, Indre and Vienne départements in central France.
Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
Anne of Brittany (25/26 January 1477 – 9 January 1514) was Duchess of Brittany from 1488 until her death, and queen consort of France from 1491 to 1498 and from 1499 to her death.
An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication used to identify where the grapes for a wine were grown; other types of food often have appellations as well.
The appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC;; "protected designation of origin") is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut national des appellations d'origine, now called Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité (INAO).
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Arconce is a long river in the Saône-et-Loire département, central France.
Ardèche (Occitan and Arpitan: Ardecha) is a département in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-central France.
The Argenton is a 71 km long river in France, left tributary of the Thouet.
The Arnon is a long river in central France, left tributary of the river Cher.
The Aron is a long river in central France.
The Arroux is a river in central France, right tributary of the river Loire.
The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus)Rottenberg, A., and D. Zohary, 1996: "The wild ancestry of the cultivated artichoke." Genet.
Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Attila (fl. circa 406–453), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453.
Aubigny-sur-Nère is a commune in the Cher department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France.
François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 1840 – 17 November 1917), known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor.
The Auron is a long river in central France, left tributary of the river Yèvre.
Avaricum was an oppidum in ancient Gaul, near what is now the city of Bourges.
Avoise is a commune in the Sarthe department in the region of Pays-de-la-Loire in north-western France.
Azay-sur-Indre is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
The Èvre is a long river in western France, left tributary of the Loire.
Électricité de France S.A. (EDF; Electricity of France) is a French electric utility company, largely owned by the French state.
Évaux-les-Bains is a commune in the Creuse department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in central France.
A bacillus (plural bacilli) or bacilliform bacterium is a rod-shaped bacterium or archaeon.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Bay of Biscay (Golfe de Gascogne, Golfo de Vizcaya, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn, Bizkaiko Golkoa) is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
The Belleville Nuclear Power Plant is located in Belleville-sur-Loire (Cher) near Léré, Cher, along the Loire River between Nevers (upstream) and Orléans (downstream).
The Benaize (Benaise, la Benaize) is a long river in the Creuse, Haute-Vienne, Vienne and Indre départements, central France.
The Besbre is a river in central France, left tributary of the river Loire.
The Beuvron is a long river in central France, left tributary of the river Loire.
BirdLife International (formerly the International Council for Bird Preservation) is a global partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds, their habitats, and global biodiversity, working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Blois is a city and the capital of Loir-et-Cher department in central France, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours.
Bommiers is a commune in the Indre département in central France.
Bonneval is a commune in the Eure-et-Loir department in northern France.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Botrytis cinerea ("botrytis" from Ancient Greek botrys (βότρυς) meaning "grapes" plus the New Latin suffix -itis for disease) is a necrotrophic fungus that affects many plant species, although its most notable hosts may be wine grapes.
The Bouble (la Bouble) is a long river in the Allier and Puy-de-Dôme départements, south central France.
Bouchemaine is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
The Bourbince (la Bourbince) is an long river in the Saône-et-Loire département, in central eastern France.
Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river.
Bourgueil is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
The Brame (Brama, la Brame) is a long river in the Creuse and Haute-Vienne départements, central France.
The Braye is a river of France, and a right tributary of the river Loir.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
The Briance (la Briance) is a long river in the Haute-Vienne département, central France.
Briare (sometimes known as: Briare-le-Canal) is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.
The Briare Aqueduct carries the Canal latéral à la Loire over the River Loire on its journey to the River Seine in France.
Brioude (Auvergnat: Briude) is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in the Auvergne region in south-central France.
Brittany (Breizh, Bretagne) is one of the 18 regions of France.
The brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri, also known as the European brook lamprey and the western brook lamprey) is a small European lamprey species that exclusively inhabits freshwater environments.
The brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a European species of salmonid fish that has been widely introduced into suitable environments globally.
The burbot (Lota lota) is the only gadiform (cod-like) freshwater fish.
Cabernet Franc is one of the major black grape varieties worldwide.
The Canal de Berry is a disused canal in France which links the Canal latéral à la Loire at Marseilles-lès-Aubigny with the Cher at Noyers rejoining the Loire near Tours.
The Canal de Roanne à Digoin connects the Canal latéral à la Loire and Canal du Centre at Digoin to Roanne.
The Canal du Nivernais links the Loire with the Seine following approximately the course of the river Yonne in a south to north direction, first climbing northeast and north to cross the Morvan watershed, then roughly following the course of the river Yonne, south to north.
The Canal Latéral à la Loire was constructed between 1827 and 1838 to connect the Canal de Briare at Briare and the Canal du Centre at Digoin, a distance of 196 km.
Candé-sur-Beuvron is a commune in the Loir-et-Cher department in central France.
Candes-Saint-Martin (Latin: Candia Sanctus Martinus) is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
In viticulture, the canopy of a grapevine includes the parts of the vine visible aboveground - the trunk, cordon, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit.
A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.
The Carnutes, a powerful Gaulish people in the heart of independent Gaul, dwelt in an extensive territory between the Sequana (Seine) and the Liger (Loire) rivers.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cévennes (Cevenas) are a range of mountains in south-central France, covering parts of the départements of Ardèche, Gard, Hérault and Lozère.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Cenabum, Cenabaum or Genabum was the name of an oppidum of the Carnutes tribe, situated on the site of what is now Orléans.
Centre-Val de Loire ("Centre-Loire Valley") is one of the 18 administrative regions of France.
Cercy-la-Tour is a commune in the Nièvre department in central France.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Chalonnes-sur-Loire is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
Chambon-sur-Voueize is a commune in the Creuse department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in central France.
Champagne is sparkling wine or, in EU countries, legally only that sparkling wine which comes from the Champagne region of France.
The Champagne wine region (archaic Champany) is a wine region within the historical province of Champagne in the northeast of France.
The Chapeauroux (le Chapeauroux) is a long river in the Lozère and Haute-Loire départements, south-central France.
Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine.
Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
Charles Pierre Péguy (7 January 1873 – 5 September 1914) was a noted French poet, essayist, and editor.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
Charles VI (3 December 1368 – 21 October 1422), called the Beloved (le Bien-Aimé) and the Mad (le Fol or le Fou), was King of France for 42 years from 1380 to his death in 1422.
Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461), called the Victorious (le Victorieux)Charles VII, King of France, Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, ed.
Charles VIII, called the Affable, l'Affable (30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498.
Charles of Orléans (24 November 1394 – 5 January 1465) was Duke of Orléans from 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, on the orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy.
Chaumont-sur-Loire is a commune in the Loir-et-Cher department in central France known for its historical defensive walls and its castle.
A château (plural châteaux; in both cases) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions.
The royal Château at Amboise is a château located in Amboise, in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France.
The Château d'Angers is a castle in the city of Angers in the Loire Valley, in the département of Maine-et-Loire, in France.
Ussé is a castle in the Indre-et-Loire département, in France.
The Château de Beaufort is a ruined castle located along the upper reaches of the Loire River in France.
The Château de Beauregard is a Renaissance castle in the Loire Valley in France.
The Royal Château de Blois (French: "Château Royal de Blois") is located in the Loir-et-Cher département in the Loire Valley, in France, in the center of the city of Blois.
The Château de Boisgibault is located 10 kilometers south of Orleans on D168 in the commune of Ardon in the Loiret département of France.
The Château de Brissac is a French château in the commune of Brissac-Quincé, located in the département of Maine-et-Loire, France.
The Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France, is one of the most recognisable châteaux in the world because of its very distinctive French Renaissance architecture which blends traditional French medieval forms with classical Renaissance structures.
The Château de Chaumont (or Château de Chaumont-sur-Loire) is a castle in Chaumont-sur-Loire, Loir-et-Cher, France.
The Château de Chenonceau is a French château spanning the River Cher, near the small village of Chenonceaux in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France.
The Château de Cheverny (pronounced "Sheevairny") is located at Cheverny, in the département of Loir-et-Cher in the Loire Valley in France.
The Château de Gien is a historic manor in Gien, Loiret, Indre-et-Loire, Centre-Val de Loire, France.
The Château de Gizeux is an important edifice, dating from the Middle Ages and much altered over the centuries, notably during the Renaissance and the Age of Enlightenment.
The Château de la Bastie d'Urfé (also known as Bastie d'Urfé or Bâtie d’Urfé) is a French château in the town of Saint-Étienne-le-Molard, historically within the province of Forez.
The Château de la Verrerie is a historic castle in Aubigny-sur-Nère, Cher, France.
The Château de Langeais is a medieval castle in Indre-et-Loire, France, built on a promontory created by the small valley of the Roumer River at the opening to the Loire Valley.
The Château de Menars is a château associated with Madame de Pompadour situated on the bank of the Loire at Menars (Loir-et-Cher) in France.
The Château de Meung-sur-Loire is a former castle and episcopal palace in the commune of Meung-sur-Loire in the Loiret département of France.
The Château de Montgeoffroy is an 18th-century manor house located in the commune of Mazé (Maine-et-Loire), France.
The Château de Montreuil-Bellay is a historical building in the town of Montreuil-Bellay, département of Maine-et-Loire, France, first built on the site of a Gallo-Roman village high on a hill on the banks of the Thouet River.
The Château de Montrond is a ruined castle in the commune of Montrond-les-Bains in the Loire département of France.
The Château de Montsoreau is a Renaissance style castle in the Loire Valley, directly built in the Loire riverbed.
The Château de Saumur, originally built as a castle and later developed as a château, is located in the French town of Saumur, in the Maine-et-Loire département.
The Château de Serrant is a Renaissance château situated in the Loire Valley, the private residence of the Prince of Merode.
The Château de Sully-sur-Loire is a castle, converted to a palatial seigneurial residence, situated in the commune of Sully-sur-Loire, Loiret, France.
The Château de Talcy is a historical building in Talcy, Loir-et-Cher, France.
The Château de Troussay is one of the smallest Châteaux of the Loire Valley, and is situated in Cheverny, in the Loir-et-Cher.
Château de Valençay is a residence of the d'Estampes and Talleyrand-Périgord families in the commune of Valençay, the Indre département of France.
The Château de Villandry is a grand country house located in Villandry, in the département of Indre-et-Loire, France.
Château de Villesavin is a 16th-century country house in the Tour-en-Sologne commune in Loir-et-Cher, Centre-Val de Loire, France.
The Château des Réaux is a French medieval castle located in the commune Chouzé-sur-Loire in the Indre-et-Loire department in the Centre-Val de Loire region.
Château du Plessis-Bourré is a château in the Loire Valley in France, situated in the commune of Écuillé in the Maine-et-Loire department.
Château-Larcher is a commune in the Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
Châteaudun is a commune in the Eure-et-Loir department in northern France.
The Châteaux of the Loire Valley (French: Châteaux de la Loire) are part of the architectural heritage of the historic towns of Amboise, Angers, Blois, Chinon, Montsoreau, Nantes, Orléans, Saumur, and Tours along the Loire River in France.
Châtellerault is a commune in the Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in France.
Chenin blanc (known also as Pineau de la Loire among other names) is a White wine grape variety from the Loire Valley of France.
Cher (Berrichon: Char) is a department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France.
The Cher (Char) is a river in central France, left tributary to the river Loire.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
Chinon is a commune located in the Indre-et-Loire department in the Region Centre, France.
Chinon wine comes from the vineyards around the town of Chinon in Touraine.
The Chinon Nuclear Power Plant (Centrale nucléaire de Chinon) is near the town of Avoine in the French Indre et Loire département, on the Loire river (approximately 10 km from the town of Chinon).
Chondrostoma (from the Ancient Greek roots χόνδρος (khondros, “lump”) + στόμα (stoma, “mouth”).
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Cinq-Mars-la-Pile is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
The Clain is a 144 km long river in western France, left tributary of the river Vienne.
Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.
Clément Marot (23 November 1496 – 12 September 1544) was a French poet of the Renaissance period.
The Château du Clos Lucé (or simply Clos Lucé) is a large château in the city of Amboise, France.
The Clouère (la Clouère) is a long river in the Charente and Vienne départements, western France.
Cloyes-sur-le-Loir is a former commune on the River Loir, a few kilometres south of the town of Châteaudun in the department of Eure-et-Loir in northern France.
A coccus (plural cocci) is any bacterium or archaeon that has a spherical, ovoid, or generally round shape.
The common frog (Rana temporaria), also known as the European common frog, European common brown frog, European grass frog, or simply a frog, is a semi-aquatic amphibian of the family Ranidae, found throughout much of Europe as far north as Scandinavia and as far east as the Urals, except for most of Iberia, southern Italy, and the southern Balkans.
The common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) is a species of midwife frog in the family Alytidae (formerly Discoglossidae).
The common toad, European toad, or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the toad (Bufo bufo, from Latin bufo "toad"), is an amphibian found throughout most of Europe (with the exception of Ireland, Iceland, and some Mediterranean islands), in the western part of North Asia, and in a small portion of Northwest Africa.
Condat-sur-Vienne is a commune in the Haute-Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
Cosne-Cours-sur-Loire is a commune in the Nièvre department in central France.
The Cosson is a long river in central France, right tributary of the river Beuvron.
The Creuse (Cruesa) is a long river in western France, a tributary of the Vienne.
Crocus (English plural: crocuses or croci) is a genus of flowering plants in the iris family comprising 90 species of perennials growing from corms.
In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
The Dampierre nuclear power plant is located in the town of Dampierre-en-Burly (Loiret), 55 km upstream of Orleans and 110 km downstream of Nevers, it uses water from the Loire for cooling.
Darnac is a commune in the Haute-Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
Decize is a commune in the Nièvre department in central France.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Dessert wines, sometimes called pudding wines, are sweet wines typically served with dessert.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Digoin is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
The Dive is a 73.7 km long river in France, right tributary of the Thouet.
Dompierre-sur-Besbre is a commune in the Allier department in central France.
The Dore is a 141 km long river in central France in the department of Puy-de-Dôme.
Droux is a commune in the Haute-Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
The edible frog (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) is a name for a common European frog, also known as the common water frog or green frog (however, this latter term is also used for the North American species Rana clamitans).
The Edict of Nantes (French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The Erdre is a long river in western France, right tributary to the Loire.
The Ernée is a long river in the department of Mayenne, Pays de la Loire, France.
Esox is a genus of freshwater fish, the only living genus in the family Esocidae—the esocids which were endemic to North America and Eurasia during the Paleogene through present.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
The European bullhead (Cottus gobio) is a freshwater fish that is widely distributed in Europe, mainly in rivers.
The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a species of eel, a snake-like, catadromous fish.
The European sea sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), also known as the Atlantic sturgeon or common sturgeon, is a species of sturgeon previously found on most coasts of Europe.
The European tree frog (Hyla arborea formerly Rana arborea) is a small tree frog found in Europe, Asia and part of Africa.
Falun is a city and the seat of Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden, with 37,291 inhabitants in 2010.
Félix Edouard Vallotton (December 28, 1865December 29, 1925) was a Swiss/French painter and printmaker associated with the collective known as.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Feurs is a commune in the Loire department and in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in central France.
The fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is possibly the best-known salamander species in Europe.
The flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) is an important food fish species in the mullet family Mugilidae.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
François Mansart (23 January 1598 – 23 September 1666) was a French architect credited with introducing classicism into Baroque architecture of France.
François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7–8 billion bottles.
Fresselines is a commune in the Creuse department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in central France.
Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.
Fulk I of Anjou (870 – 942) — Foulques le Roux ("Fulk the Red", i.e., "Red Falcon") — held the county of Anjou first as Viscount, then Count, until his death.
Fulk III, the Black (970–1040; Foulque Nerra) was an early Count of Anjou celebrated as one of the first great builders of medieval castles.
Furan (also written as: Furens) is a 39.3 km long river in central France (Loire department), right tributary of the river Loire.
Gallia Aquitania, also known as Aquitaine or Aquitaine Gaul, was a province of the Roman Empire.
The Gartempe is a French river, 205 kilometres long.
Gaston Couté (23 September 1880 – 28 June 1911) was a French poet.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Gien is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
The grayling (Thymallus thymallus) is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family Salmonidae.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
The greengages are a group of cultivars of the common European plum.
Saint Gregory of Tours (30 November c. 538 – 17 November 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area that had been previously referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and later added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather. He is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum (Ten Books of Histories), better known as the Historia Francorum (History of the Franks), a title that later chroniclers gave to it, but he is also known for his accounts of the miracles of saints, especially four books of the miracles of St. Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, and St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this highly organized devotion.
Guillaume Bautru, comte de Serrant (1588, Angers – 7 March 1665, Paris) was a French satirical poet, court favourite and a protégé and diplomatic agent of cardinal Richelieu.
Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting.
The harvesting of wine grapes (Vintage) is one of the most crucial steps in the process of wine-making.
Haute-Loire (Naut Léger) is a department in south-central France named after the Loire River.
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Henryk Walezy, Henrikas Valua) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and King of France from 1574 until his death.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
The Huisne is a long river in France.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
The Indre is a long river in central France, left tributary to the river Loire.
Indre-et-Loire is a department in west-central France named after the Indre and the Loire rivers.
The Indrois is a long river in the Indre and Indre-et-Loire départements, central France.
Ingrandes is a commune in the Indre department in central France.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.
Jacques Bougier, nicknamed Boyer de Blois.
Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist and abstract painter and printmaker.
Jean Chabot (October 15, 1806 – May 31, 1860) was a lawyer, judge and political figure in Canada East.
Jean de La Fontaine (8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.
Jean-Max Albert is a painter, sculptor, writer, and musician.
Joachim du Bellay (also Joachim Du Bellay;; c. 1522 – 1 January 1560) was a French poet, critic, and a member of the Pléiade.
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
Joan of France (Jeanne de France, Jeanne de Valois; 23 April 1464 – 4 February 1505), was briefly Queen of France as wife of King Louis XII, in between the death of her brother, King Charles VIII, and the annulment of her marriage.
John II (Jean II; 26 April 1319 – 8 April 1364), called John the Good (French: Jean le Bon), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1350 until his death.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Jumeaux is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne in central France.
A keep (from the Middle English kype) is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility.
La Baule-Escoublac, commonly referred to as La Baule, is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
La Charité-sur-Loire is a commune in the Nièvre department in central France in the south of Paris.
La Ferté-Hauterive is a commune in the Allier department in central France.
La Roche-Posay is a commune in the Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lavenay is a former commune in the Sarthe department in the region of Pays-de-la-Loire in north-western France.
The Layon (le Layon) is a long river in the Deux-Sèvres and Maine-et-Loire départements, western France.
Le Croisic (Breton: Ar Groazig), is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Le Lion-d'Angers is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River.
Le Marillais is a former commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
Le Puy-en-Velay (Lo Puèi de Velai) is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France near the Loire river.
Lees are deposits of dead yeast or residual yeast and other particles that precipitate, or are carried by the action of "fining", to the bottom of a vat of wine after fermentation and aging.
Duckweed, or water lens, are flowering aquatic plants which float on or just beneath the surface of still or slow-moving bodies of fresh water and wetlands.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
The Lignon du Forez (le Lignon du Forez, also called le Lignon de Chalmazel) is a long river in the Loire department, east-central France.
The Lignon du Velay (le Lignon du Velay) is a long river in the Ardèche and Haute-Loire départements, south-central France.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
This is a list of rivers that are at least partially in France.
This list of wine-producing regions catalogues significant growing regions where vineyards are planted.
The Loing is a long river in central France, a left tributary of the Seine.
The Loir is a long river in western France.
Loir-et-Cher is a department in the Centre-Val de Loire region, France.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
Loire (Lêre; Léger) is a department in the east-central part of France occupying the River Loire's upper reaches.
The Loire Valley (Vallée de la Loire), spanning, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire.
The Loire Valley wine region includes the French wine regions situated along the Loire River from the Muscadet region near the city of Nantes on the Atlantic coast to the region of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé just southeast of the city of Orléans in north central France.
Loire-Atlantique (formerly Loire-Inférieure) is a department on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic Ocean.
Loiret is a department in north-central France.
The Loiret is a long river in France, a left tributary to the Loire River.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
Losse is a river of Hesse, Germany.
Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483), called "Louis the Prudent" (le Prudent), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1461 to 1483.
Louis XII (27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
The Maine is a river, a tributary of the Loire, long, in the Maine-et-Loire département in France.
Maine-et-Loire is a department of the Loire Valley in west-central France, in the Pays de la Loire region.
The marbled newt (Triturus marmoratus) is a mainly terrestrial newt native to Europe.
Marseilles-lès-Aubigny is a commune in the Cher department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France.
The Massif Central (Massís Central) is a highland region in the middle of southern France, consisting of mountains and plateaus.
The Mayenne is a long river in western France principally located in the French region of Pays de la Loire.
The Mediterranean gull (Ichthyaetus melanocephalus) is a small gull.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae with sweet edible, fleshy fruit.
Melon de Bourgogne or Melon is a variety of white grape grown primarily in the Loire Valley region of France.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A moat is a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that is dug and surrounds a castle, fortification, building or town, historically to provide it with a preliminary line of defence.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Monistrol-d'Allier is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France.
Monistrol-sur-Loire is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France.
Mont Gerbier de Jonc is a mountain of volcanic origin located in the Massif Central in France.
Montjean-sur-Loire is a former commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
Montreuil-Bellay is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
The Reformist Movement (Mouvement Réformateur, MR) is a liberal and conservative-liberal French-speaking political party in Belgium.
Muscadet is a French white wine.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is a toad native to sandy and heathland areas of Europe.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nevers (Latin: Noviodunum, later Nevirnum and Nebirnum) is the prefecture of the Nièvre department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in central France.
Nièvre is a department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in the centre of France named after the River Nièvre.
The Nièvre is a river in central France, a right tributary of the Loire.
Noyers-sur-Cher is a commune in the Loir-et-Cher department of central France.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
Orléans Cathedral (French: Basilique Cathédrale Sainte-Croix d'Orléans) is a Roman Catholic church located in the city of Orléans, France.
The Oudon is a long river in the Mayenne and Maine-et-Loire départements, western France.
An oxbow is a U-shaped metal pole (or larger wooden frame) that fits the underside and the sides of the neck of an ox or bullock.
The Ozanne is a 44 km long French river, a tributary of the Loir, a tributary of the Loire.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Ducal Palace of Nevers is a residence castle of the 15th and 16th centuries of counts and dukes of Nevers.
The palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus) is a species of newt found in most of Western Europe, including Great Britain.
The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny.
Parthenay is an ancient fortified town and ''commune'' in the Deux-Sèvres department of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
Pays de la Loire (Broioù al Liger, meaning Loire Country) is one of the 18 regions of France.
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
Pelobates cultripes is a toad species in the family Pelobatidae.
Pelobates fuscus is a species of toad in the family Pelobatidae, native to an area extending from Central Europe to Western Asia.
The Perez's frog, also known as Iberian waterfrog, Iberian green frog, or Coruna frog (Pelophylax perezi) is a species of frog in the Ranidae family.
The Petite Creuse (la Petite Creuse, the small Creuse) is a long river in Allier and Creuse départements, in central France.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Pierre de Ronsard (11 September 1524 – 27 December 1585) was a French poet or, as his own generation in France called him, a "prince of poets".
Pierre E. L. Viette (29 June 1921 – 30 April 2011) was a French entomologist.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
The pool frog (Pelophylax lessonae) is a European frog.
A portcullis (from the French porte coulissante, "sliding door") is a heavy vertically-closing gate typically found in medieval fortifications, consisting of a latticed grille made of wood, metal, or a combination of the two, which slides down grooves inset within each jamb of the gateway.
Pouilly-Fumé is an appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for the dry sauvignon blanc white wine produced around Pouilly-sur-Loire, in the Nièvre département.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Prissac is a commune in the Indre department in central France.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Pruning is a horticultural and silvicultural practice involving the selective removal of certain parts of a plant, such as branches, buds, or roots.
Prunus domestica (sometimes referred to as Prunus × domestica) is a species of flowering plant in the family Rosaceae.
Puy-Guillaume is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne in central France.
The quince (Cydonia oblonga) is the sole member of the genus Cydonia in the family Rosaceae (which also contains apples and pears, among other fruits).
Raoul Dufy (3 June 1877 – 23 March 1953) was a French Fauvist painter, brother of Jean Dufy.
The Rère (la Rère) is a long river in the Cher and Loir-et-Cher département, central France.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
In viticulture, there are several levels of regional climates that are used to describe the terroir or immutable characteristics of an area.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
Rhodeus is a genus of cyprinid fish, consisting of 22 species called bitterlings.
Roanne (Rouana in Arpitan) is a commune in the Loire department in central France.
The rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), also known as the rock perch, goggle-eye, red eye, is a fresh water fish native to east-central North America.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
A rosé (from French rosé; also known as rosado in Portuguese and Spanish-speaking countries and rosato in Italy) is a type of wine that incorporates some of the color from the grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine.
Saône-et-Loire (Arpitan: Sona-et-Lêre) is a French department, named after the Saône and the Loire rivers between which it lies.
Sablé-sur-Sarthe, commonly referred to as Sablé, is a commune in the Sarthe department, in the Pays de la Loire region, in western France.
Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint-Brevin-les-Pins is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Saint-Christophe-d'Allier is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France.
Saint-Hilaire-sur-Benaize is a commune in the Indre department in central France.
Saint-Jean-Saint-Maurice-sur-Loire is a commune in the Loire department in central France.
Saint-Jean-sur-Mayenne is a commune in the Mayenne department in north-western France.
Saint-Just-sur-Dive is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
The Saint-Laurent Nuclear Power Station is located in the commune of Saint-Laurent-Nouan in Loir-et-Cher on the Loire – 28 km upstream from Blois and 30 km downstream from Orléans.
Saint-Léger-des-Vignes is a Burgondian village located in the department of the Nièvre in central France.
Saint-Loup-Lamairé is a commune in the Deux-Sèvres department in western France.
Saint-Martin-de-Sanzay is a commune in the Deux-Sèvres department in western France.
Saint-Nazaire (Gallo: Saint-Nazère/Saint-Nazaer) is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France, in traditional Brittany.
Saint-Pourçain-sur-Sioule is a commune in the Allier department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France.
Saint-Priest-Taurion is a commune in the Haute-Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in west-central France.
Saint-Satur is a commune in the Cher department in central France.
Sainte-Eulalie is a commune in the Ardèche department in southern France.
Salicornia is a genus of succulent, halophyte (salt tolerant) flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae that grow in salt marshes, on beaches, and among mangroves.
The Salleron (le Salleron) is a long river in the Haute-Vienne, Vienne and Indre départements, central France.
Sancerre is a medieval hilltop town (ville), commune and canton in the Cher department of central France overlooking the Loire River.
Sancerre is a French wine Appellation d'origine contrôlée or AOC for wine produced in the area of Sancerre in the eastern part of the Loire valley, southeast of Orléans.
Sangiban was a fifth-century Alan king at the time of Attila's invasion of Gaul (451).
The Sarthe is a long river in western France.
The Sauldre is a long river in central France, right tributary of the river Cher.
Saumur is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
Saumur is a French wine region located in the Loire Valley.
Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux region of France.
Savigny-en-Septaine is a commune in the Cher department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France.
The Sèvre Nantaise is a river in western France, a left-bank tributary to the Loire.
Sea trout is the common name usually applied to anadromous (or sea-run) forms of brown trout (Salmo trutta), and is often referred to as Salmo trutta morpha trutta.
Segré is a former commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Selles-sur-Cher is a commune in the Loir-et-Cher department of central France.
The Semme (in la Semme) is a long river in the Creuse and Haute-Vienne départements, in central France.
The Senouire (la Senouire) is a long river in the Haute-Loire département, south-central France.
Gaius Sollius Modestus Apollinaris Sidonius, better known as Saint Sidonius Apollinaris (5 November of an unknown year, 430 – August 489 AD), was a poet, diplomat, and bishop.
The Siege of Orléans (12 October 1428 – 8 May 1429) was the watershed of the Hundred Years' War between France and England.
The Sioule is a long river in central France, a left tributary of the river Allier.
The smooth newt, also known as the common newt (Lissotriton vulgaris; formerly Triturus vulgaris) is a species of amphibian, the most common newt of the genus Lissotriton.
Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Sully-sur-Loire is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.
A swamp is a wetland that is forested.
Taizé is a commune in the Deux-Sèvres department in western France, one of three that share the name, confusing several hundred pilgrims a year.
The Tardes (la Tardes) is a long river in the Creuse département, central France.
The Taurion (Taurion), as it is known in Haute-Vienne, or Thaurion, as it is known in Creuse, is a 107.5 km long river in western France, tributary of the Vienne river.
Thalassiosira pseudonana is a species of marine centric diatoms.
The Théols is a French river, that flows in the Boischaut natural region.
The Thouaret is a 52 km long river in France, right tributary of the Thouet.
The Thouet is a tributary river of the Loire in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine and Pays de la Loire régions of France.
Touraine is one of the traditional provinces of France.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
The traditional method is the process used in the Champagne region of France to produce Champagne.
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake.
Tufa is a variety of limestone formed when carbonate minerals precipitate out of ambient temperature water.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Vaige (la Vaige) is a long river in the Mayenne and Sarthe départements, western France.
Varenne-Saint-Germain is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France.
A varietal wine is a wine made primarily from a single named grape variety, and which typically displays the name of that variety on the wine label.
The Vauvise (la Vauvise) is a long river in the Cher département, central France.
The Vègre (la Vègre) is an long river in the Sarthe département, western France.
The Verzée (la Verzée) is a long river in the Loire-Atlantique and Maine-et-Loire départements, western France.
Vichy (Vichèi in Occitan) is a city in the Allier department of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France, in the historic province of Bourbonnais.
The Vienne (Vinhana) is one of the most important rivers in south-western France.
Vierzon is a commune in the Cher department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Villandry is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
Villeherviers is a commune in the Loir-et-Cher department in central France.
Vin délimité de qualité supérieure ("Delimited Wine of Superior Quality"), usually abbreviated as VDQS, was the second highest category of French wine, below Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in rank, but above Vin de pays (country wine).
Vin de pays is a French term meaning "country wine." Vins de pays are a step in the French wine classification that is above the table wine (Vin de table) classification, but below Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and formerly below VDQS classifications.
A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes.
The Voueize (la Voueize) is a long river in the Creuse département, central France.
Vouvray is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
Vouvray is a French wine region in the Loire Valley located in the Touraine district just east of the city of Tours in the commune of Vouvray.
The War in the Vendée (1793; Guerre de Vendée) was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution.
The wels catfish (or; Silurus glanis), also called sheatfish, is a large species of catfish native to wide areas of central, southern, and eastern Europe, in the basins of the Baltic, Black, and Caspian Seas.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
The use of wine tasting descriptors allows the taster to qualitatively relate the aromas and flavors that the taster experiences and can be used in assessing the overall quality of wine.
A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in winemaking.
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
The Yèvre is a river in central France, right tributary of the river Cher.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
The yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata) belongs to the order Anura, the archaeobatrachial family Bombinatoridae, and the genus of fire-bellied toads.
The zander (Sander lucioperca) is a species of fish from freshwater and brackish habitats in western Eurasia.