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Index Lombardy

Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of. [1]

299 relations: Accademia Carrara di Belle Arti di Bergamo, Adda (river), Adriatic Sea, Airolo, Alder, Alessandro Manzoni, Alluvium, Alps, Amaretti di Saronno, Ancient Rome, Andrea Mantegna, Apennine Mountains, Apulia, Armani, Attilio Fontana, Austrian Empire, Azalea, Basilica of San Lorenzo, Milan, Basilica of Sant'Abbondio, Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio, Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio, Battle of Legnano, Battle of Marignano, Battle of Parma, Battle of Pavia, Bavaria, Bedretto, Bellagio, Lombardy, Bergamasque Alps, Bergamo, Bernina railway, Bitto, Bresaola, Brescia, Bronze Age, Byzantine Empire, Calabria, Campania, Camunni, Canton of Grisons, Canton of Ticino, Cappella Colleoni, Capra (genus), Carpaccio, Cassoeula, Castelseprio (archaeological park), Celts, Certosa di Pavia, Chamois, Charlemagne, ..., Chiasso, Christian Democracy (Italy), Cisalpine Gaul, Cisalpine Republic, Citrus, Como, Como Cathedral, Comune, Constantine the Great, Cotoletta, Cream, Cremona, Cremona Cathedral, Crespi d'Adda, Cypress, Desiderius, Diglossia, Dolce & Gabbana, Domini di Terraferma, Dominican Order, Duchy of Amalfi, Duchy of Benevento, Duchy of Gaeta, Duchy of Milan, Duchy of Naples, Duchy of Rome, Duchy of Sorrento, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Lombard dialect, Edict of Milan, Elm, Emilia (region of Italy), Emilia-Romagna, Epipalaeolithic, Etruscan civilization, European Union, Exarchate of Ravenna, Executive (government), Fashion capital, First French Empire, Five Days of Milan, Four Motors for Europe, Franks, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Gaetano Donizetti, Gallo-Italic languages, Gandino, Gaul, Gauls, Germanic languages, Giuliano Pisapia, Giuseppe Verdi, Golasecca, Golden eagle, Gorgonzola, Grana Padano, Gross domestic product, Head of government, Hohenstaufen, Hornbeam, House of Gonzaga, House of Habsburg, House of Sforza, Humid continental climate, Humid subtropical climate, Ice age, Iron Age, Italian Communist Party, Italian economic miracle, Italian fashion, Italian language, Italian National Institute of Statistics, Italian sausage, Italian Socialist Party, Italian unification, Italian Wars, Juniper, Köppen climate classification, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire), Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic), Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Kingdom of the Lombards, La Scala, Lake Como, Lake Garda, Lake Idro, Lake Iseo, Lake Lugano, Lake Maggiore, Lambro, Langobardia Major, Langobardia Minor, Larch, Last Supper, Late Latin, Lazio, Lecco, Lega Lombarda, Lega Nord, Legislature, Leonardo da Vinci, Lepontine Alps, Liguria, List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes, List of European regions by GDP, Lodi, Lombardy, Lombard autonomy referendum, 2017, Lombard language, Lombard League, Lombard Street, London, Lombardic language, Lombards, Longobardia, Longobards in Italy: Places of Power (568–774 A.D.), Luthier, Magnolia, Mani pulite, Mantua, Marche, Mascarpone, Medieval commune, Mediolanum, Mesolithic, Metropolitan cities of Italy, Metropolitan City of Milan, Milan, Milan Cathedral, Mincio, Monte Resegone, Monte San Giorgio, Monza, Mortara, Lombardy, Mount Adamello, Multi-party system, Museo Nazionale Scienza e Tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci, Napoleon, New Cathedral, Brescia, Northern Italy, Northwest Italy, Novara, Oceanic climate, Oglio, Old Swiss Confederacy, Olive, Olona, Oltrepò Pavese, Orography, Ortler Alps, Ossobuco, Palazzo del Te, Panettone, Pavia, Piccolo Teatro (Milan), Piedmont, Pinacoteca di Brera, Piz Bernina, Pizzoccheri, Pliny the Elder, Po (river), Po Valley, Polenta, Populus, Prada, Praetorian prefecture of Italy, Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, Prehistory, Presolana, Proto-Germanic language, Province of Bergamo, Province of Brescia, Province of Como, Province of Cremona, Province of Lecco, Province of Lodi, Province of Mantua, Province of Monza and Brianza, Province of Pavia, Province of Sondrio, Province of Varese, Provinces of Italy, Ravioli, Red deer, Regional Council of Lombardy, Regions of Italy, Renaissance, Representative democracy, Republic of Venice, Rhaetian Alps, Rhododendron, Risotto, Robiola, Rock Drawings in Valcamonica, Roe deer, Romagna, Romance languages, Rosa Camuna, Royal Villa of Monza, Rump state, Sabbioneta, Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy, Saffron, San Michele Maggiore, Pavia, San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, San Salvatore, Brescia, Santa Maria delle Grazie (Milan), Santa Maria Maggiore, Bergamo, Saxifraga, Second Italian War of Independence, Sforza Castle, Sikh, Silvio Berlusconi, Southern Italy, Stato da Màr, Stelvio National Park, Stoat, Stracchino, Switzerland, Sycamore, Taleggio cheese, Tempio Civico della Beata Vergine Incoronata, Tempio Voltiano, The Betrothed (Manzoni novel), Ticino (river), Tirano, Torrazzo of Cremona, Tortelli, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Triassic, Turkey as food, Umbria, Val Camonica, Valentino SpA, Valtellina, Valtellina Casera, Varese, Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar, Veneto, Versace, Vigevano, Villa Olmo, Virgil, Visconti of Milan, Waldensians, Western Lombard dialect, Western Roman Empire, Willow, World Heritage site. 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Accademia Carrara di Belle Arti di Bergamo

The Accademia Carrara is an art gallery and an academy of fine arts in Bergamo, Italy.

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Adda (river)

The Adda (Latin Abdua, or Addua; in Lombard Ada or, again, Adda in local dialects where the double consonants are marked) is a river in North Italy, a tributary of the Po.

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Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Airolo (Airöö in its local dialect, Iriel) is a municipality in the district of Leventina in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.

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Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.

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Alessandro Manzoni

Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Antonio Manzoni (7 March 1785 – 22 May 1873) was an Italian poet and novelist.

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Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Amaretti di Saronno

Amaretti di Saronno (singular amaretto di Saronno) refer to an amaretto (almond flavored) macaron that is traditional to Saronno, a comune of Lombardy, Italy.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Andrea Mantegna

Andrea Mantegna (September 13, 1506) was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini.

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Apennine Mountains

The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.

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Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.

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Giorgio Armani S.P.A. is an Italian fashion house founded by Giorgio Armani which designs, manufactures, distributes and retails haute couture, ready-to-wear, leather goods, shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, eyewear, cosmetics and home interiors.

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Attilio Fontana

Attilio Fontana (born 28 March 1952) is an Italian politician from Varese, Lombardy.

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Austrian Empire

The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.

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Azaleas are flowering shrubs in the genus Rhododendron, particularly the former sections Tsutsuji (evergreen) and Pentanthera (deciduous).

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Basilica of San Lorenzo, Milan

The Basilica of San Lorenzo Maggiore is church in Milan, northern Italy.

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Basilica of Sant'Abbondio

The Basilica of Sant'Abbondio is a church in Como, Lombardy, northern Italy.

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Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio

The Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio (official name: Basilica romana minore collegiata abbaziale prepositurale di Sant'Ambrogio) is a church in Milan, northern Italy.

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Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio

The Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio is a church in Milan in northern Italy, which is in the Basilicas Park city park.

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Battle of Legnano

The Battle of Legnano was fought on May 29, 1176, between the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the Lombard League.

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Battle of Marignano

The Battle of Marignano was fought during the phase of the Italian Wars (1494–1559) called the War of the League of Cambrai, between France and the Old Swiss Confederacy.

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Battle of Parma

The Battle of Parma was fought on 18 February 1248 between the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and the Guelphs.

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Battle of Pavia

The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–26.

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Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Bedretto is a municipality in the district of Leventina in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.

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Bellagio, Lombardy

Bellagio (Belàs in Lombard) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Como in the Italian region of Lombardy.

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Bergamasque Alps

The Bergamasque Alps or Bergamo Alps (Italian: Alpi Orobie) are a mountain range in the Italian Alps.

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Bergamo (Italian:; Bèrghem; from Latin Bergomum) is a city in Lombardy, northern Italy, approximately northeast of Milan, and about from the Alpine lakes Como and Iseo.

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Bernina railway

The Bernina railway is a single-track railway line forming part of the Rhaetian Railway (RhB).

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"Bitto" redirects here.

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Bresaola is air-dried, salted beef (but also horse, venison and pork) that has been aged two or three months until it becomes hard and turns a dark red, almost purple colour.

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Brescia (Lombard: Brèsa,, or; Brixia; Bressa) is a city and comune in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.

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Campania is a region in Southern Italy.

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The Camuni or Camunni were an ancient population located in Val Camonica during the Iron Age (1st millennium BC); the Latin name Camunni was attributed to them by the authors of the 1st century.

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Canton of Grisons

The canton of (the) Grisons, or canton of Graubünden is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland.

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Canton of Ticino

The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.

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Cappella Colleoni

The Cappella Colleoni (Italian: "Colleoni Chapel") is a church and mausoleum in Bergamo in northern Italy.

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Capra (genus)

Capra is a genus of mammals, the goats, composed of up to nine species, including the wild goat, the markhor, and several species known as ibex.

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Carpaccio is a dish of raw meat or fish (such as beef, veal, venison, salmon or tuna), thinly sliced or pounded thin and served mainly as an appetizer.

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Cassoeula, sometimes Italianized Cazzuola or Cazzola (Italian word for trowel) or bottaggio (probably derived from the French word potage) is a typical winter dish popular in Northern Italy, mostly in Lombardy.

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Castelseprio (archaeological park)

Castelseprio or Castel Seprio was the site of a Roman fort in antiquity, and a significant Lombard town in the early Middle Ages, before being destroyed and abandoned in 1287.

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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Certosa di Pavia

The Certosa di Pavia is a monastery and complex in Lombardy, northern Italy, situated near a small town of the same name in the Province of Pavia, 8 km north of Pavia.

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The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a species of goat-antelope native to mountains in Europe, including the European Alps, the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, the Tatra Mountains, the Balkans, parts of Turkey, the Caucasus, and the Apennines.

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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Chiasso (or commonly in Lombard: Ciass, English: Noise) is a municipality in the district of Mendrisio in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.

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Christian Democracy (Italy)

Christian Democracy (Democrazia Cristiana, DC) was a Christian democratic political party in Italy.

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Cisalpine Gaul

Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.

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Cisalpine Republic

The Cisalpine Republic (Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802.

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Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.

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Como (Lombard: Còmm, Cómm or Cùmm; Novum Comum) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy.

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Como Cathedral

Como Cathedral (Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta; Duomo di Como) is the Roman Catholic cathedral of the city of Como, Lombardy, Italy, and the seat of the Bishop of Como.

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The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.

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Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.

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Cotoletta (from costoletta.

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Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization.

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Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).

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Cremona Cathedral

Cremona Cathedral (Duomo di Cremona, Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta), dedicated to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Cremona, Lombardy, northern Italy.

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Crespi d'Adda

Crespi d'Adda is a northern Italian village and hamlet (frazione) of Capriate San Gervasio, a municipality in the province of Bergamo, Lombardy.

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Cypress is a common name for various coniferous trees or shrubs of northern temperate regions that belong to the family Cupressaceae.

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Desiderius (also known as Desiderio in Italian) (died c. 786) was a king of the Lombard Kingdom of northern Italy, ruling from 756 to 774.

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In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.

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Dolce & Gabbana

Dolce & Gabbana is an Italian fashion house founded in 1985 in Legnano by Italian designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana.

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Domini di Terraferma

The Domini di Terraferma (domini de teraferma or stato da tera, literally "mainland domains" or "mainland state") was the name given to the hinterland territories of the Republic of Venice beyond the Adriatic coast in Northeast Italy.

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Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.

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Duchy of Amalfi

The Duchy of Amalfi (Ducato di Amalfi) or the Republic of Amalfi (Repubblica di Amalfi) was a de facto independent state centered on the Southern Italian city of Amalfi during the 10th and 11th centuries.

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Duchy of Benevento

The Duchy of Benevento (after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard duchy in the Italian peninsula, centered on Benevento, a city in Southern Italy.

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Duchy of Gaeta

The Duchy of Gaeta was an early medieval state centered on the coastal South Italian city of Gaeta.

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Duchy of Milan

The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.

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Duchy of Naples

The Duchy of Naples (Ducatus Neapolitanus, Ducato di Napoli) began as a Byzantine province that was constituted in the seventh century, in the reduced coastal lands that the Lombards had not conquered during their invasion of Italy in the sixth century.

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Duchy of Rome

The Duchy of Rome (Ducatus Romanus) was a state within the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna.

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Duchy of Sorrento

The Duchy of Sorrento was a small peninsular principality of the Early Middle Ages centred on the Italian city of Sorrento.

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Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.

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Eastern Lombard dialect

Eastern Lombard is a group of closely related dialects of Lombard, a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua, in the area around Crema and in parts of Trentino.

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Edict of Milan

The Edict of Milan (Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.

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Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.

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Emilia (region of Italy)

Emilia (Emîlia) is a historical region of northern Italy which approximately corresponds to the western and north-eastern portions of today’s Emilia-Romagna region, of which Romagna forms the remainder.

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Emilia-Romagna (Emilian and Emélia-Rumâgna) is an administrative Region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.

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In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic, Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc) is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic in the Stone Age.

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Etruscan civilization

The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Exarchate of Ravenna

The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy (Esarcato d'Italia) was a lordship of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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Fashion capital

A fashion capital is a city which has a major influence on international fashion trends and in which the design, production and retailing of fashion products – plus events such as fashion weeks, awards and trade fairs – generate significant economic output.

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First French Empire

The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

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Five Days of Milan

The Five Days of Milan were a major event in the Revolutionary Year of 1848 and the start of the First Italian War of Independence.

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Four Motors for Europe

The Four Motors for Europe is a transnational, interregional network of four highly industrialized and research-oriented regions in Europe.

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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.

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Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.

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Gaetano Donizetti

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer.

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Gallo-Italic languages

The Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy.

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Gandino is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about northeast of Milan and about northeast of Bergamo.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Giuliano Pisapia

Giuliano Pisapia (born 20 May 1949) is an Italian lawyer and politician, twice member of the Parliament (from 1996 to 2006) and former Mayor of Milan.

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Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.

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Golasecca is a town and comune in the province of Varese, Lombardy (northern Italy).

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Golden eagle

The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Gorgonzola is a veined Italian blue cheese, made from unskimmed cow's milk.

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Grana Padano

Grana Padano is a hard, slow-ripened, semi-fat cheese from Italy, comparable to Parmigiano Reggiano ("Parmesan").

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.

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Hornbeams are hardwood trees in the flowering plant genus Carpinus in the birch family Betulaceae.

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House of Gonzaga

The House of Gonzaga was a princely family that ruled Mantua, in northern Italy, from 1328 to 1708; they also ruled Monferrato in Piedmont and Nevers in France, and also many other lesser fiefs throughout Europe.

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House of Habsburg

The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.

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House of Sforza

The House of Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan.

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.

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Humid subtropical climate

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.

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Ice age

An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Italian Communist Party

The Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy.

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Italian economic miracle

The Italian economic miracle or the Italian economic boom (il miracolo economico, or boom economico) is the term used by historians, economists and the mass media to designate the prolonged period of strong economic growth in Italy after the Second World War from the 1950s to the late 1960s, and in particular the years from 1950 to 1963.

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Italian fashion

Italy is one of the leading countries in fashion design, alongside others such as France, United States and United Kingdom.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italian National Institute of Statistics

The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.

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Italian sausage

In North America, Italian sausage (salsiccia in Italian) most often refers to a style of pork sausage.

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Italian Socialist Party

The Italian Socialist Party (PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy.

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Italian unification

Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.

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Italian Wars

The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.

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Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

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Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)

The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.

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Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia; Royaume d'Italie) was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.

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Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia

The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto, Königreich Lombardo–Venetien; Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empire.

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Kingdom of the Lombards

The Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century.

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La Scala

La Scala (abbreviation in Italian language for the official name Teatro alla Scala) is an opera house in Milan, Italy.

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Lake Como

Lake Como (Lago di Como or locally in Italian, also known as Lario, after the Latin name of the lake; Lagh de Còmm in Lombard; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy.

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Lake Garda

Lake Garda (Lago di Garda or Lago Benàco, Benacus; Lach de Garda; Łago de Garda) is the largest lake in Italy.

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Lake Idro

Lake Idro (Lago d'Idro, also Eridio from Eridius lacus, Lac d'Ider, Idrosee) is an Italian prealpine lake of glacial origin situated largely within the Province of Brescia (Lombardy) and in part in Trentino.

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Lake Iseo

Lake Iseo or Lago d'Iseo or Sebino is the fourth largest lake in Lombardy, Italy, fed by the Oglio river.

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Lake Lugano

Lake Lugano (Lago di Lugano or Ceresio, from Ceresius lacus; Luganersee) is a glacial lake which is situated on the border between southern Switzerland and northern Italy.

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Lake Maggiore

Lake Maggiore (Lago Maggiore, literally 'Greater Lake') or Lago Verbàno (Lacus Verbanus) is a large lake located on the south side of the Alps.

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The Lambro (Lamber or Lambar) is a river of Lombardy, northern Italy, a left tributary of the Po.

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Langobardia Major

Langobardia Maior was the name that, in the Early Middle Ages, was given to the domains of the Lombard Kingdom in Northern Italy.

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Langobardia Minor

Langobardia Minor was the name that, in early Middle Ages, was given to the Lombard dominion in central-southern Italy, corresponding to the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento.

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Larches are conifers in the genus Larix, of the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae).

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Last Supper

The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion.

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Late Latin

Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.

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Lazio (Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.

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Lecco (Lombard: Lecch) is a city of 48,131 inhabitants in Lombardy, northern Italy, north of Milan, the capital of the province of Lecco.

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Lega Lombarda

Lega Lombarda (English translation: "Lombard League", LL), whose complete name is Lega Lombarda–Lega Nord ("Lombard League–Northern League"), is a regionalist political party active in Lombardy.

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Lega Nord

Lega Nord (LN; italic), whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (Northern League for the Independence of Padania), is a regionalist political party in Italy.

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A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Lepontine Alps

The Lepontine Alps (Lepontinische Alpen, Alpes lépontines, Alpi Lepontine) are a mountain range in the north-western part of the Alps.

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Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.

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List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes

This list of Germanic tribes is a list of tribes, tribal groups, and other connections and alliances of ethnic groups and tribes that were considered Germanic in ancient times.

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List of European regions by GDP

This is a list of European regions (NUTS2 regions) sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP).

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Lodi, Lombardy

Lodi (Lombard: Lòd) is a city and comune in Lombardy, northern Italy, on primarily on the western bank of the River Adda.

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Lombard autonomy referendum, 2017

The Lombard autonomy referendum of 2017 took place on 22 October in Lombardy, Italy.

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Lombard language

Lombard (native name lumbàart, lumbard or lombard, depending on the orthography) is a language belonging to the Cisalpine or Gallo-Italic group, within the Romance languages.

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Lombard League

The Lombard League (Italian and Lombard: Lega Lombarda) was a medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the Pope, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperors to assert influence over the Kingdom of Italy as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Lombard Street, London

Lombard Street, London, is a street notable for its connections with the City of London's merchant, banking and insurance industries, stretching back to medieval times.

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Lombardic language

Lombardic or Langobardic is an extinct West Germanic language that was spoken by the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic people who settled in Italy in the 6th century.

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The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

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Longobardia (Λογγοβαρδία, also variously Λογγιβαρδία, Longibardia and Λαγουβαρδία, Lagoubardia) was a Byzantine term for the territories controlled by the Lombards in Italy.

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Longobards in Italy: Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)

Longobards in Italy: Places of Power (568–774 A.D.) is seven groups of historic buildings that reflect the achievements of the Germanic tribe of the Lombards (also referred to as Longobards), who settled in Italy during the sixth century and established a Lombard Kingdom which ended in 774 A.D. The groups comprise monasteries, church buildings, and fortresses and became UNESCO World Heritage Sites in June 2011 as they testify "to the Lombards' major role in the spiritual and cultural development of Medieval European Christianity".

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A luthier is someone who builds or repairs string instruments generally consisting of a neck and a sound box.

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Magnolia is a large genus of about 210The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up.

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Mani pulite

Mani pulite (Italian for "clean hands") was a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the 1990s.

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Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.

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Marche, or the Marches, is one of the twenty regions of Italy.

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Mascarpone is an Italian cream cheese coagulated by the addition of certain acidic substances such as lemon juice, vinegar, citric acid or acetic acid.

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Medieval commune

Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

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Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was originally an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy.

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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Metropolitan cities of Italy

The metropolitan city (città metropolitana in Italian) is an administrative division of Italy, operative since 2015.

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Metropolitan City of Milan

The Metropolitan City of Milan (Città Metropolitana di Milano) is a metropolitan city in the Lombardy region, Italy.

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Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Milan Cathedral

Milan Cathedral (Duomo di Milano; Lombard: Domm de Milan) is the cathedral church of Milan, Lombardy, Italy.

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Mincio (Latin: Mincius, Ancient Greek: Minchios, Μίγχιος) is a river in the Lombardy region of northern Italy.

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Monte Resegone

Monte Resegone or Resegone di Lecco (also Monte Serrada; Resegon) is a mountain of the Bergamasque Prealps in Lombardy, northern Italy.

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Monte San Giorgio

Monte San Giorgio is a wooded mountain (1,097 m above sea level) of the Lugano Prealps, overlooking Lake Lugano in Switzerland.

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Monza (Mùnscia; Modoetia) is a city and comune on the River Lambro, a tributary of the Po in the Lombardy region of Italy, about north-northeast of Milan.

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Mortara, Lombardy

Mortara is a town and comune in the region of Lombardy, Italy.

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Mount Adamello

Adamello (in local dialect Adamèl) is a mountain in Lombardy, Italy.

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Multi-party system

A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.

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Museo Nazionale Scienza e Tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci

The Museo nazionale della Scienza e della Tecnologia "Leonardo da Vinci" in Milan is the largest science and technology museum in Italy, and is dedicated to Italian painter and scientist Leonardo da Vinci.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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New Cathedral, Brescia

The Duomo Nuovo or New Cathedral is the largest Roman Catholic church in Brescia, Italy.

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Northern Italy

Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.

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Northwest Italy

Northwest Italy (Italia nord-occidentale or just Nord-ovest) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.

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Novara (Nuàra in the local Lombard dialect) is the capital city of the province of Novara in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy, to the west of Milan.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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The Oglio (Latin Ollius, or Olius; Lombard Òi) is a left-side tributary of the Po River in Lombardy, Italy.

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Old Swiss Confederacy

The Old Swiss Confederacy (Modern German: Alte Eidgenossenschaft; historically Eidgenossenschaft, after the Reformation also République des Suisses, Res publica Helvetiorum "Republic of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (cantons, German or) within the Holy Roman Empire.

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The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.

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The Olona (Ulona, Urona or Uòna in Western Lombard) is an Italian river, long, that runs through the provinces of Varese, Milan and Pavia.

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Oltrepò Pavese

The Oltrepò Pavese (Western Lombard: Ultrepò Paves) is an area of the Province of Pavia, in the north-west Italian region of Lombardy, which lies to the south of the river Po.

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Orography (from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the topographic relief of mountains, and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain.

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Ortler Alps

The Ortler Alps (Ortles-Cevedale; Ortler-Alpen) are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps mountain group in the Central Eastern Alps, in Italy and Switzerland.

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Ossobuco (Milanese) is a Milanese speciality of cross-cut veal shanks braised with vegetables, white wine and broth.

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Palazzo del Te

Palazzo del Te or Palazzo Te is a palace in the suburbs of Mantua, Italy.

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Panettone (pronounced) is an Italian type of sweet bread loaf originally from Milan (in Milanese dialect of the Lombard language it is called paneton), usually prepared and enjoyed for Christmas and New Year in Western, Southern and Southeastern Europe as well as in the Horn of Africa, and to a lesser extent in former French, Spanish and Portuguese colonies.

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Pavia (Lombard: Pavia; Ticinum; Medieval Latin: Papia) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po.

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Piccolo Teatro (Milan)

The Piccolo Teatro della Città di Milano (translation: "Little Theatre of the City of Milan") is a theatre in Milan, Italy.

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Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.

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Pinacoteca di Brera

The Pinacoteca di Brera ("Brera Art Gallery") is the main public gallery for paintings in Milan, Italy.

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Piz Bernina

Piz Bernina or Pizzo Bernina is the highest mountain in the Eastern Alps, the highest point of the Bernina Range, and the highest peak in the Rhaetian Alps.

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Pizzoccheri are a type of short tagliatelle, a flat ribbon pasta, made with 80% buckwheat flour and 20% wheat flour.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Po (river)

The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.

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Po Valley

The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain (Pianura Padana, or Val Padana) is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy.

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Polenta is a dish of boiled cornmeal that was historically made from other grains.

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Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Prada S.p.A. is an Italian luxury fashion house, specializing in leather handbags, travel accessories, shoes, ready-to-wear, perfumes and other fashion accessories, founded in 1913 by Mario Prada.

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Praetorian prefecture of Italy

The praetorian prefecture of Italy (Praefectura praetorio Italiae, in its full form (until 356) praefectura praetorio Italiae, Illyrici et Africae) was one of four Praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided.

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Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps

Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps is a series of prehistoric pile-dwelling (or stilt house) settlements in and around the Alps built from around 5000 to 500 B.C. on the edges of lakes, rivers or wetlands.

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Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.

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Presolana (Italian: Pizzo della Presolana) is a mountain located in Lombardy, northern Italy, about 35 km north of Bergamo.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Province of Bergamo

The Province of Bergamo (provincia di Bergamo; proìnsa de Bèrghem) is a province in the Lombardy region of Italy.

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Province of Brescia

The Province of Brescia is a Province in Lombardy, northern Italy.

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Province of Como

The Province of Como (Provincia di Como; Provinz Como) is a province in the north of the Lombardy region of Italy and borders the Swiss cantons of Ticino and Grigioni to the North, the Italian provinces of Sondrio and Lecco to the East, the Province of Monza and Brianza to the south and the Province of Varese to the West.

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Province of Cremona

The Province of Cremona (Provincia di Cremona) is a province in the Lombardy region of Italy.

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Province of Lecco

The Province of Lecco (Italian: Provincia di Lecco) is a province in the Lombardy region of Italy.

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Province of Lodi

The province of Lodi (provincia di Lodi) is a province in the Lombardy region of Italy.

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Province of Mantua

The Province of Mantua (Provincia di Mantova) is a province in the Lombardy region of northern Italy.

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Province of Monza and Brianza

The Province of Monza and Brianza, (Italian: Provincia di Monza e della Brianza), is an administrative province of Lombardy region, Italy.

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Province of Pavia

The province of Pavia (Provincia di Pavia) is a province in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy; its capital is Pavia.

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Province of Sondrio

The Province of Sondrio (provincia di Sondrio) is in the Lombardy region of northern Italy.

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Province of Varese

The province of Varese (provincia di Varese) is a province in the Lombardy region of Italy.

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Provinces of Italy

In Italy, a province (provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between a municipality (comune) and a region (regione).

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Ravioli (singular: raviolo) are a type of dumpling composed of a filling sealed between two layers of thin pasta dough.

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Red deer

The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.

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Regional Council of Lombardy

The Regional Council of Lombardy (Consiglio Regionale della Lombardia) is the legislative assembly of Lombardy.

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Regions of Italy

The regions of Italy (Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Rhaetian Alps

The Rhaetian Alps (Alpi Retiche; Rätische Alpen) are a mountain range of the Eastern Alps.

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Rhododendron (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America.

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Risotto is a northern Italian rice dish cooked in a broth to a creamy consistency.

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Robiola is an Italian soft-ripened cheese of the Stracchino family.

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Rock Drawings in Valcamonica

The stone carvings of Val Camonica (Camonica Valley) are located in the Province of Brescia, Italy, and constitute the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.

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Roe deer

The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.

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Romagna (Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Rosa Camuna

Rosa Camuna is an Italian mild compact paste cheese made with partially skimmed cow’s milk.

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Royal Villa of Monza

The Royal Villa (Italian: Villa Reale) is a historical building in Monza, northern Italy.

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Rump state

A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.

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Sabbioneta is a town and comune in the province of Mantua, Lombardy region, Northern Italy.

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Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy

The Sacri Monti (plural of Sacro Monte, Italian for "Sacred Mountain") of Piedmont and Lombardy are a series of nine calvaries or groups of chapels and other architectural features created in northern Italy during the late sixteenth century and the seventeenth century.

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Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".

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San Michele Maggiore, Pavia

The Basilica of San Michele Maggiore is a church of Pavia, one of the most striking example of Lombard-Romanesque style.

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San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro

San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro (Italian for "Saint Peter in Golden Sky") is a Roman Catholic basilica (and a former cathedral) of the Augustinians in Pavia, Italy, in the Lombardy region.

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San Salvatore, Brescia

San Salvatore (or Santa Giulia) is a former monastery in Brescia, Lombardy, northern Italy, now turned into a museum.

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Santa Maria delle Grazie (Milan)

Santa Maria delle grazie ("Holy Mary of Grace") is a church and Dominican convent in Milan, northern Italy, included in the UNESCO World Heritage sites list.

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Santa Maria Maggiore, Bergamo

The Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore is a major church in the upper town of Bergamo, Northern Italy.

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Saxifraga is the largest genus in the family Saxifragaceae, containing about 440 species of holarctic perennial plants, known as saxifrages or rockfoils.

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Second Italian War of Independence

The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.

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Sforza Castle

Sforza Castle (Castello Sforzesco) is in Milan, northern Italy.

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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Silvio Berlusconi

Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.

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Southern Italy

Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.

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Stato da Màr

The Stato da Màr or Domini da Mar ("State/Domains of the Sea") was the name given to the Republic of Venice's maritime and overseas possessions, including Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, Negroponte, the Morea (the "Kingdom of the Morea"), the Aegean islands of the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the islands of Crete (the "Kingdom of Candia") and Cyprus.

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Stelvio National Park

Stelvio National Park (Parco nazionale dello Stelvio; Nationalpark Stilfser Joch) is a national park in the north-east of Italy, founded in 1935.

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The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.

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Stracchino, also known as crescenza, is a type of Italian cow’s-milk cheese, typical of Lombardy, Piedmont, Veneto, and Liguria.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Sycamore is a name which has been applied at various times and places to several different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms.

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Taleggio cheese

Taleggio is a semisoft, washed-rind, smear-ripened Italian cheese that is named after Val Taleggio.

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Tempio Civico della Beata Vergine Incoronata

The Tempio Civico della Beata Vergine Incoronata is a church in Lodi, Lombardy, Italy.

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Tempio Voltiano

The Tempio Voltiano (Italian; Volta Temple in English) is a museum in the city of Como, Italy that is dedicated to Alessandro Volta, a prolific scientist and the inventor of the electrical battery.

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The Betrothed (Manzoni novel)

The Betrothed (I promessi sposi) is an Italian historical novel by Alessandro Manzoni, first published in 1827, in three volumes.

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Ticino (river)

The river Ticino (Tisín; French and Tessin; Ticīnus) is the most important perennial left-bank tributary of the Po.

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Tirano (Tiràn, Thiran) is a town in Valtellina, located in the province of Sondrio in northern Italy.

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Torrazzo of Cremona

The Torrazzo is the bell tower of the Cathedral of Cremona, Lombardy, in northern Italy.

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Tortelli is a type of pasta traditionally made in the Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, and Tuscany regions of Italy.

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Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (Trentino-Alto Adige,; Trentino-Südtirol; Trentin-Südtirol) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Turkey as food

Turkey meat, commonly referred to as just turkey, is the meat from turkeys, typically domesticated turkeys.

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Umbria is a region of central Italy.

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Val Camonica

Val Camonica (also Valcamonica or Camonica Valley, local dialect: Al Camònega) is one of the largest valleys of the central Alps, in eastern Lombardy, Italy.

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Valentino SpA

Valentino SpA is a clothing company founded in 1960 by Valentino Garavani.

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Valtellina or the Valtelline (occasionally spelled as two words in English: Val Telline; Vuclina, Valtelina); Veltlin, Valtellina, Valtulina, Vuclina, is a valley in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, bordering Switzerland.

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Valtellina Casera

Valtellina Casera is a cheese made from semi-skimmed cows’ milk in the northern Italian province of Sondrio.

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Varese (Latin Baretium, archaic Väris, Varés in Varesino) is a city and comune in north-western Lombardy, northern Italy, north of Milan.

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Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar

Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar is the official denomination given by UNESCO to six defensive walls built by the Republic of Venice on its mainland domains (Stato da Terra) and its territories stretching along the Adriatic coast (Stato da Mar).

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Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.

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Gianni Versace S.p.A. usually referred to simply as Versace, is an Italian luxury fashion company and trade name founded by Gianni Versace in 1978.

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Vigevano (or; Western Lombard: Avgevan) is a town and comune in the province of Pavia, Lombardy in northern Italy.

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Villa Olmo

Villa Olmo is a neoclassical villa located in the city of Como, northern Italy.

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Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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Visconti of Milan

Visconti is the family name of important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages.

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The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.

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Western Lombard dialect

Western Lombard is one of the main varieties of Lombard, a Romance language spoken in Italy.

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Western Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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IT-25, Lombardia, Lombardy (Italy), Lombardy Region, Lombardy, Italy, Region of Lombardy, Republic of Lombardy.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lombardy

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