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Long Depression

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The Long Depression was a worldwide price and economic recession, beginning in 1873 and running either through the spring of 1879, or 1896, depending on the metrics used. [1]

161 relations: A Monetary History of the United States, Adolphe Thiers, African Americans, Allan Nevins, American Civil War, Americas, Aníbal Pinto, Anna Schwartz, Araucanía (historic region), Argentina, Austria-Hungary, Baltimore railroad strike of 1877, Bank of England, Benjamin Harrison, Bessemer process, Bimetallism, Black Thursday, Bland–Allison Act, California Gold Rush, Canada, Capital (economics), Capital accumulation, Capital adequacy ratio, Central Europe, Chilean silver rush, Chilean wheat cycle, City of Glasgow Bank, Coal, Coinage Act of 1873, Colonialism, Colorado, Construction, Continental Europe, Cotton, Crédit Mobilier of America scandal, Crisis theory, Cross of Gold speech, Customs war, David Ames Wells, Deflation, Deleveraging, Demand Note, Depression of 1882–85, Durable good, Economic history, Eric Hobsbawm, Europe, Fiat money, Financial contagion, Financial crisis, ..., Fixed exchange-rate system, Foreign direct investment, France, Franco-Prussian War, Freedman, Freedman's Savings Bank, French indemnity, French Third Republic, Gabriel Salazar, German Empire, German tariff of 1879, Gilded Age, Gold standard, Grain, Great Depression, Great Depression of British Agriculture, Great power, Great Railroad Strike of 1877, Hannah Arendt, Hungary, Idaho, Inflation, Investment banking, Irish Famine (1879), Irish Land Acts, Iron, Irving Fisher, Italian unification, Jay Cooke, Jorge Pinto Rodríguez, Junker, Kansas, Klondike Gold Rush, Kondratiev wave, Land War, Latin Monetary Union, List of economic crises, List of recessions in the United States, Long-term depression, Maize, Méline tariff, Milton Friedman, Monetarism, Money supply, Murray Rothbard, National Bureau of Economic Research, National Liberal Party (Germany), Net national product, Netherlands, Nevada, New Imperialism, New York Stock Exchange, North America, Northeastern United States, Northern Pacific Railway, Occupation of Araucanía, Otto von Bismarck, Panic of 1873, Panic of 1884, Panic of 1893, Paris Bourse crash of 1882, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh railroad strike of 1877, President of France, President of the United States, Productivity improving technologies, Rail transport, Railway Mania, Reading Railroad Massacre, Real estate, Recession, Reflation, Robber baron (industrialist), Ron Chernow, Russia, Rutherford B. Hayes, Scramble for Africa, Scranton general strike, Second French Empire, Second Industrial Revolution, Sherman Silver Purchase Act, Silver as an investment, Southern United States, Spain, Steel, Tenant farmer, Thaler, The Origins of Totalitarianism, Treaty of Frankfurt (1871), Ulysses S. Grant, Unemployment in the United States, Union Pacific Railroad, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, United States Congress, United States dollar, United States Note, United States presidential election, 1888, Veto, Vienna, War of the Pacific, War reparations, Western Europe, Western United States, Wiener Börse, William Jennings Bryan, Witwatersrand Gold Rush, Wood, 1877 Shamokin uprising, 1877 St. Louis general strike. Expand index (111 more) »

A Monetary History of the United States

A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960 is a book written in 1963 by Nobel Prize–winning economist Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz.

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Adolphe Thiers

Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers (15 April 17973 September 1877) was a French statesman and historian.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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Allan Nevins

Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 – March 5, 1971) was an American historian and journalist, known for his extensive work on the history of the Civil War and his biographies of such figures as Grover Cleveland, Hamilton Fish, Henry Ford, and John D. Rockefeller, as well as his public service.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Aníbal Pinto

Aníbal Pinto Garmendia (March 15, 1825June 9, 1884) was a Chilean political figure.

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Anna Schwartz

Anna Jacobson Schwartz (/ʃwɔːrts/; November 11, 1915 – June 21, 2012) was an American economist who worked at the National Bureau of Economic Research in New York City and a writer for the New York Times.

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Araucanía (historic region)

Araucanía or Araucana was the Spanish name given to the region of Chile inhabited by the Mapuche peoples known as the Moluche (also known as Araucanos by the Spanish) in the 18th century.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Baltimore railroad strike of 1877

The Baltimore railroad strike of 1877 involved several days of work stoppage and violence in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1877.

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Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Benjamin Harrison

Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd President of the United States from 1889 to 1893.

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Bessemer process

The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace.

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Bimetallism is the economic term for a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent to certain quantities of two metals, typically gold and silver, creating a fixed rate of exchange between them.

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Black Thursday

Black Thursday is a term used to refer to negative events which occurred on a Thursday.

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Bland–Allison Act

The Bland–Allison Act, also referred to as the Grand Bland Plan of 1878, was an act of United States Congress requiring the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars.

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California Gold Rush

The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

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Capital accumulation

Capital accumulation (also termed the accumulation of capital) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit, rent, interest, royalties or capital gains.

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Capital adequacy ratio

Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) is also known as Capital to Risk (Weighted) Assets Ratio (CRAR), is the ratio of a bank's capital to its risk.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Chilean silver rush

Between 1830 and 1850 Chilean silver mining grew at an unprecedented pace which transformed mining into one of the country's principal sources of wealth.

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Chilean wheat cycle

In Chilean historiography, the wheat cycle (Spanish: ciclo triguero) refers to two episodes of booming wheat exports and related changes in society and agriculture.

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City of Glasgow Bank

The City of Glasgow Bank is now largely known for its spectacular collapse in October 1878, ruining all but 254 of its 1,200 shareholders, whose liability was not limited.

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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coinage Act of 1873

The Coinage Act of 1873 or Mint Act of 1873, 17 Stat. 424, was a general revision of the laws relating to the Mint of the United States.

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Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

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Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.

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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Crédit Mobilier of America scandal

The Crédit Mobilier scandal of 1867, which came to public attention in 1872, involved the Union Pacific Rail Road and the Crédit Mobilier of America construction company in the building of the eastern portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad.

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Crisis theory

Crisis theory, concerning the causes and consequences of the tendency for the rate of profit to fall in a capitalist system, is now generally associated with Marxian economics.

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Cross of Gold speech

The Cross of Gold speech was delivered by William Jennings Bryan, a former United States Representative from Nebraska, at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 9, 1896.

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Customs war

A Customs war, also known as a toll war or tariff war, is a type of economical conflict between two or more states.

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David Ames Wells

David Ames Wells (June 17, 1828 – November 5, 1898) was an American engineer, textbook author, economist and advocate of low tariffs.

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In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.

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At the micro-economic level, deleveraging refers to the reduction of the leverage ratio, or the percentage of debt in the balance sheet of a single economic entity, such as a household or a firm.

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Demand Note

A Demand Note is a type of United States paper money that was issued between August 1861 and April 1862 during the American Civil War in denominations of 5, 10, and 20 US$.

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Depression of 1882–85

The Depression of 1882–85 or Recession of 1882–85 was an economic contraction in the United States that lasted from March 1882 to May 1885, according to the National Bureau of Economic Research.

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Durable good

In economics, a durable good or a hard good is a good that does not quickly wear out, or more specifically, one that yields utility over time rather than being completely consumed in one use.

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Economic history

Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.

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Eric Hobsbawm

Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm (9 June 1917 – 1 October 2012) was a British historian of the rise of industrial capitalism, socialism and nationalism.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fiat money

Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.

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Financial contagion

Financial contagion refers to "the spread of market disturbances mostly on the downside from one country to the other, a process observed through co-movements in exchange rates, stock prices, sovereign spreads, and capital flows".

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Financial crisis

A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.

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Fixed exchange-rate system

A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.

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Foreign direct investment

A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.

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Freedman's Savings Bank

The Freedman's Saving and Trust Company, popularly known as the Freedman's Savings Bank, was a private corporation chartered by the U.S. government to encourage and guide the economic development of the newly emancipated African-American communities in the post-Civil War period.

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French indemnity

The French indemnity was the indemnity the French Third Republic paid to the German Empire after the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in 1871.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

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Gabriel Salazar

Gabriel Salazar Vergara, (Santiago 31 January 1936) is a Chilean historian.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German tariff of 1879

The German tariff of 1879 was a protectionist law passed by the Reichstag (under the guidance of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck) that imposed tariffs on industrial and agricultural imports into Imperial Germany.

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Gilded Age

The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.

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Gold standard

A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.

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A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Great Depression of British Agriculture

The Great Depression of British Agriculture occurred during the late nineteenth century and is usually dated from 1873 to 1896.

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Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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Great Railroad Strike of 1877

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877, sometimes referred to as the Great Upheaval, began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, United States after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) cut wages for the third time in a year.

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Hannah Arendt

Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.

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In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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Investment banking

An investment bank is typically a private company that provides various finance-related and other services to individuals, corporations, and governments such as raising financial capital by underwriting or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities.

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Irish Famine (1879)

The Irish famine of 1879 was the last main Irish famine.

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Irish Land Acts

The Land Acts were a series of measures to deal with the question of peasant proprietorship of land in Ireland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Irving Fisher

Irving Fisher (February 27, 1867 – April 29, 1947) was an American economist, statistician, inventor, and Progressive social campaigner.

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Italian unification

Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.

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Jay Cooke

Jay Cooke (August 12, 1821 – February 16, 1905) was an American financier who helped finance the Union war effort during the American Civil War and the postwar development of railroads in the northwestern United States.

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Jorge Pinto Rodríguez

Jorge Manuel Pinto Rodríguez, (La Serena 18 December 1944) is a Chilean historian.

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Junker (Junker, Scandinavian: Junker, Jonkheer, Yunker) is a noble honorific, derived from Middle High German Juncherre, meaning "young nobleman"Duden; Meaning of Junker, in German.

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Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.

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Klondike Gold Rush

The Klondike Gold Rush was a migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899.

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Kondratiev wave

In economics, Kondratiev waves (also called supercycles, great surges, long waves, K-waves or the long economic cycle) are hypothesized cycle-like phenomena in the modern world economy.

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Land War

The Land War (Cogadh na Talún) in Irish history was a period of agrarian agitation in rural Ireland in the 1870s, 1880s, and 1890s.

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Latin Monetary Union

The Latin Monetary Union (LMU) was a 19th-century attempt to unify several European currencies into a single currency that could be used in all the member states, at a time when most national currencies were still made out of gold and silver.

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List of economic crises

List of economic crises and depressions.

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List of recessions in the United States

There have been as many as 47 recessions in the United States dating back to the Articles of Confederation, and although economists and historians dispute certain 19th-century recessions, the consensus view among economists and historians is that "The cyclical volatility of GNP and unemployment was greater before the Great Depression than it has been since the end of World War II." Cycles in the country's agricultural production, industrial production, consumption, business investment, and the health of the banking industry contribute to these declines.

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Long-term depression

Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Méline tariff

The Méline tariff was a French protectionist measure introduced in 1892.

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Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.

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Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.

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Money supply

In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.

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Murray Rothbard

Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.

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National Bureau of Economic Research

The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is an American private nonprofit research organization "committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community." The NBER is well known for providing start and end dates for recessions in the United States.

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National Liberal Party (Germany)

The National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei, NLP) was a liberal political party of the North German Confederation and the German Empire, which flourished between 1867 and 1918.

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Net national product

Net national product (NNP) refers to gross national product (GNP), i.e. the total market value of all final goods and services produced by the factors of production of a country or other polity during a given time period, minus depreciation.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.

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New Imperialism

In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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New York Stock Exchange

The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Northeastern United States

The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.

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Northern Pacific Railway

The Northern Pacific Railway was a transcontinental railroad that operated across the northern tier of the western United States, from Minnesota to the Pacific Northwest.

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Occupation of Araucanía

The Occupation of Araucanía or Pacification of Araucanía (1861–1883) was a series of military campaigns, agreements and penetrations by the Chilean army and settlers into Mapuche territory which led to the incorporation of Araucanía into Chilean national territory.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.

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Panic of 1873

The Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 until 1879, and even longer in some countries (France and Britain).

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Panic of 1884

The Panic of 1884 was a panic during the Depression of 1882-85.

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Panic of 1893

The Panic of 1893 was a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893 and ended in 1897.

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Paris Bourse crash of 1882

The Paris Bourse crash of 1882 was a stock market crash in France, and was the worst crisis in the French economy in the nineteenth century.

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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Pittsburgh railroad strike of 1877

The Pittsburgh railway riots occurred in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as part of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.

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President of France

The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Productivity improving technologies

This article is about the important technologies that have historically increased productivity and is intended to serve as the History section of Productivity from which it was moved.

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Rail transport

Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.

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Railway Mania

Railway Mania was an instance of speculative frenzy in Britain in the 1840s.

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Reading Railroad Massacre

The Reading Railroad Massacre occurred on July 23, 1877, when strikes in Reading, Pennsylvania, led to an outbreak of violence, during which 10 to 16 people were killed and between 20 and 203 were injured.

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Real estate

Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.

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In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

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Reflation is the act of stimulating the economy by increasing the money supply or by reducing taxes, seeking to bring the economy (specifically price level) back up to the long-term trend, following a dip in the business cycle.

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Robber baron (industrialist)

"Robber baron" is a derogatory metaphor of social criticism originally applied to certain late 19th-century American businessmen who used unscrupulous methods to get rich.

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Ron Chernow

Ronald "Ron" Chernow (born March 3, 1949) is an American writer, journalist, historian, and biographer.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Rutherford B. Hayes

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States from 1877 to 1881, an American congressman, and governor of Ohio.

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Scramble for Africa

The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.

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Scranton general strike

The Scranton general strike was a widespread work stoppage in 1877 by workers in Scranton, Pennsylvania, which took place as part of the Great Railroad Strike, and was the last in a number of violent outbreaks across Pennsylvania.

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Second French Empire

The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

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Second Industrial Revolution

The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.

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Sherman Silver Purchase Act

The Sherman Silver Purchase Act was a United States federal law enacted on July 14, 1890.

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Silver as an investment

Silver may be used as an investment like other precious metals.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Tenant farmer

A tenant farmer is one who resides on land owned by a landlord.

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The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.

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The Origins of Totalitarianism

The Origins of Totalitarianism (Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft, "Elements and Origins of Totalitarian Rule"; 1951), by Hannah Arendt, describes and analyzes Nazism and Stalinism, the major totalitarian political movements of the first half of the 20th century.

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Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)

The Treaty of Frankfurt (Traité de Francfort; Friede von Frankfurt) was a peace treaty signed in Frankfurt on 10 May 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War.

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Ulysses S. Grant

Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.

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Unemployment in the United States

Unemployment in the United States discusses the causes and measures of U.S. unemployment and strategies for reducing it.

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Union Pacific Railroad

The Union Pacific Railroad (or Union Pacific Railroad Company and simply Union Pacific) is a freight hauling railroad that operates 8,500 locomotives over 32,100 route-miles in 23 states west of Chicago and New Orleans.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United States Note

A United States Note, also known as a Legal Tender Note, is a type of paper money that was issued from 1862 to 1971 in the U.S. Having been current for more than 100 years, they were issued for longer than any other form of U.S. paper money.

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United States presidential election, 1888

The United States presidential election of 1888 was the 26th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1888.

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A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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War of the Pacific

The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Salpeter War (Guerra del Salitre) and by multiple other names (see the etymology section below) was a war between Chile on one side and a Bolivian-Peruvian alliance on the other.

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War reparations

War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Western United States

The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.

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Wiener Börse

The Wiener Börse AG (also known as the Vienna Stock Exchange) is the only stock exchange in Vienna, Austria, and one of the most established exchanges in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.

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William Jennings Bryan

William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American orator and politician from Nebraska.

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Witwatersrand Gold Rush

The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa.

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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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1877 Shamokin uprising

The 1877 Shamokin uprising occurred in Shamokin, Pennsylvania, in July 1877, as one of the several cities in the state where strikes occurred as part of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.

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1877 St. Louis general strike

Generally accepted as the first general strike in the United States, the 1877 St.

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Redirects here:

Depression of 1873–79, First Great Depression, Long depression, Th Long Depression, The Great Depression (1873-1896), The Great Depression (1873–1896), Victorian Depression.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_Depression

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