89 relations: Abdominal distension, Adverse drug reaction, Agonist, Angioedema, Anticholinergic, Antihistamine, Antipsychotic, Beerse, Bloating, Blood–brain barrier, Breastfeeding, British Society of Gastroenterology, Cardiotoxicity, Clostridium difficile infection, Constipation, Contraindication, Developing country, Diarrhea, Diphenoxylate, Dysentery, Enterocolitis, Erythema multiforme, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Fentanyl, Fever, First pass effect, Food and Drug Administration, Gastrocolic reflex, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal tract, Generic drug, Gut (journal), Health system, Heart arrhythmia, Heat stroke, HIV, Ileostomy, Ileus, Inflammatory bowel disease, Irinotecan, Μ-opioid receptor, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Johnson & Johnson, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Ketoconazole, Liver, Liver failure, Loperamide/simethicone, Methadone, Methylnaltrexone, ..., Morphine, MPTP, Myenteric plexus, Naloxegol, Off-label use, Opioid, Opioid epidemic, Orally disintegrating tablet, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Over-the-counter drug, P-glycoprotein, Pakistan, Paul Janssen, Peripheral nervous system, Physical dependence, Placebo, Pregnancy, Pregnancy category, Pseudoephedrine, Quinidine, Ritonavir, Salmonella, Saquinavir, Short bowel syndrome, Simeticone, Smooth muscle tissue, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, Teratology, Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Toxic megacolon, Traveler's diarrhea, Ulcerative colitis, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States dollar, Urinary retention, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, World Health Organization, Zydis. Expand index (39 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal distension occurs when substances, such as air (gas) or fluid, accumulate in the abdomen causing its outward expansion beyond the normal girth of the stomach and waist.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Angioedema is an area of swelling of the lower layer of skin and tissue just under the skin or mucous membranes.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Beerse is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp.
Abdominal bloating is a symptom that can appear at any age, generally associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but can also appear alone.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
The British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) is a British professional organisation of gastroenterologists, surgeons, pathologists, radiologists, scientists, nurses, dietitians and others amongst its members, which number over 3,000.
Cardiotoxicity is the occurrence of heart electrophysiology dysfunction or muscle damage.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI or C-dif) is a symptomatic infection due to the spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium difficile.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Diphenoxylate is a centrally active opioid drug of the phenylpiperidine series that is used in a combination drug with atropine for the treatment of diarrhea.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Enterocolitis or coloenteritis is an inflammation of the digestive tract, involving enteritis of the small intestine and colitis of the colon.
Erythema multiforme (EM) is a skin condition of unknown cause; it is a type of erythema possibly mediated by deposition of immune complexes (mostly IgM-bound complexes) in the superficial microvasculature of the skin and oral mucous membrane that usually follows an infection or drug exposure.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The gastrocolic reflex or gastrocolic response is one of a number of physiological reflexes controlling the motility, or peristalsis, of the gastrointestinal tract.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Gut is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal on gastroenterology and hepatology.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Ileostomy is a stoma (surgical opening) constructed by bringing the end or loop of small intestine (the ileum) out onto the surface of the skin, or the surgical procedure which creates this opening.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Irinotecan, sold under the brand name Camptosar among others, is a medication used to treat colon cancer, and small cell lung cancer.
The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low affinity for dynorphins.
Janssen Pharmaceutica is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Beerse, Belgium.
Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886.
The Journal of Medicinal Chemistry is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in medicinal chemistry.
Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.
Loperamide/simethicone is combination medication marketed under the trade name Imodium Multi-Symptom Relief (formerly Imodium A-D Advanced) used to treat diarrhea and gas simultaneously.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methylnaltrexone (MNTX, brand name Relistor), used in form of methylnaltrexone bromide (INN, USAN, BAN), is one of the newer agents of peripherally acting μ-opioid antagonists that act to reverse some of the side effects of opioid drugs such as constipation without affecting analgesia or precipitating withdrawals.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is a prodrug to the neurotoxin MPP+, which causes permanent symptoms of Parkinson's disease by destroying dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain.
The myenteric plexus (or Auerbach's plexus) provides motor innervation to both layers of the muscular layer of the gut, having both parasympathetic and sympathetic input (although present ganglionar cell bodies belong to parasympathetic innervation, fibers from sympathetic innervation also reach the plexus), whereas the submucous plexus has only parasympathetic fibers and provides secretomotor innervation to the mucosa nearest the lumen of the gut.
Naloxegol (INN; PEGylated naloxol; trade names Movantik and Moventig) is a peripherally selective opioid antagonist developed by AstraZeneca, licensed from Nektar Therapeutics, for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
The opioid epidemic or opioid crisis is the rapid increase in the use of prescription and non-prescription opioid drugs in the United States and Canada beginning in the late 1990s and continuing throughout the next two decades.
An orally disintegrating tablet or orally dissolving tablet (ODT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited range of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications.
The company was formed from the merger of Ortho Pharmaceutical and McNeil Pharmaceutical in 1993.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
P-glycoprotein 1 (permeability glycoprotein, abbreviated as P-gp or Pgp) also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) or cluster of differentiation 243 (CD243) is an important protein of the cell membrane that pumps many foreign substances out of cells.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Paul Adriaan Jan, Baron Janssen (12 September 1926, Turnhout – 11 November 2003, Rome) was a Belgian physician.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
The pregnancy category of a medication is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy.
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent (Ia) in the heart.
Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Saquinavir, sold under the brand names Invirase and Fortovase, is an antiretroviral drug used together with other medications to treat or prevent HIV/AIDS.
Short bowel syndrome (SBS, or simply short gut) is a malabsorption disorder caused by a lack of functional small intestine.
Simeticone (INN), also known as simethicone (USAN), is an anti-foaming agent used to reduce bloating, discomfort or pain caused by excessive gas.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a type of severe skin reaction.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a type of severe skin reaction.
Toxic megacolon (megacolon toxicum) is an acute form of colonic distension.
Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is a stomach and intestinal infection.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Zydis is a technology used to manufacture orally disintegrating tablets developed by R.P. Scherer Corporation.
ATC code A07DA03, ATCvet code QA07DA03, Apo-Loperamide, C29H33ClN2O2, Diarr-Eze, Dimor, Immodium, Imodium, Imodium A-D, Imodium A-D Caplets, Imodium AD, Imodium a-d, Ioperamide, Kaopectate II, Loperacap, Loperamid, Loperamida, Loperamide HCI, Loperamide Hydrochloride, Loperamide hcl, Loperamide hydrochloride, Loperamidum, Lopex, Maalox Anti-Diarrheal, Norimode, Nu-Loperamide, PMS-Loperamide, Pepto Diarrhea Control, R 18 553, R 18-553, R 18553, R-18 553, R-18-553, R-18553, R18 553, R18-553, R18553, Rho-Loperamide, Travello, Vaprino.