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Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication often used to treat anxiety disorders. [1]

151 relations: ABIM Foundation, Activated carbon, Acute severe asthma, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Allergy, Alprazolam, American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Amnesia, Ampoule, Anterograde amnesia, Anticonvulsant, Antiemetic, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Apnea, Aqueous humour, Ataxia, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine dependence, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Benzyl alcohol, Breastfeeding, British Medical Association, British National Formulary, Bromazepam, Carbamazepine, Catatonia, Cellulose, Central nervous system depression, Chaperone (clinical), Chemotherapy, Choosing Wisely, Circulatory system, Clonazepam, Clorazepate, Cognitive deficit, Coma, Comorbidity, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Controlled Substances Act, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Cyanosis, Cyclic vomiting syndrome, Date rape drug, Death, Delirium, Derealization, Diazepam, Disinhibition, ..., Drug tolerance, Dysarthria, Dysphoria, Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Explicit memory, Federal Trade Commission, Flumazenil, Flurazepam, Food and Drug Administration, GABA receptor, GABAA receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gastric lavage, Gene expression, Glaucoma, Glucuronidation, Haloperidol, Hospice, Hypersensitivity, Hypnosis, Hypnotic, Hypotension, Hypotonia, Hypoventilation, Implicit memory, Indigo carmine, Informed consent, Insomnia, Intensive care unit, Internalization, International Narcotics Control Board, Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Kidney, Lactose, Lamotrigine, List of counseling topics, Liver, Liver failure, Magnesium stearate, Major depressive disorder, Mechanical ventilation, Mental disorder, Metabolism, Midazolam, Muscle relaxant, Myalgia, Myasthenia gravis, Mylan, Neurotransmitter, Nitrazepam, Nonbenzodiazepine, Opioid, Oxazepam, Palliative sedation, Paradoxical reaction, Patent, Personality disorder, Pharmacokinetics, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Physical dependence, Polyethylene glycol, Pregnancy, Premedication, Preventive healthcare, Propofol, Propylene glycol, Psychosis, Rebound effect, Renal failure, Respiratory failure, Rifabutin, Rifampicin, Robbery, Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, Sedation, Sedative, Sleep apnea, Sodium channel, Somnolence, Status epilepticus, Sublingual administration, Substance abuse, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Substance dependence, Substance intoxication, Substance use disorder, Tachycardia, Tartrazine, That's Life!, The New York Times, Topical medication, Triazolam, Uncoupling (neuropsychopharmacology), United States, Valproate, Vomiting, Wyeth. Expand index (101 more) »

ABIM Foundation

The ABIM Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation established by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) in 1999 to advance medical professionalism to improve health care.

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Activated carbon

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, activated coal, or carbo activatus, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.

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Acute severe asthma

Acute severe asthma (also referred to as status asthmaticus) is an acute exacerbation of asthma that does not respond to standard treatments of bronchodilators (inhalers) and steroids.

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Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur when an individual reduces or stops alcoholic consumption after long periods of use.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that normally causes little problem.

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Alprazolam or, available as the trade name Xanax among others, is a short-acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class.

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American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine

The American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (AAHPM) is a professional organization for physicians specializing in Hospice and Palliative Medicine, headquartered in Chicago, IL.

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Amnesia (from Greek ἀμνησία from ἀ- meaning "without" and μνήμη memory), also known as amnesic syndrome, is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.

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An ampoule (also ampul, ampule, or ampulla) is a small sealed vial which is used to contain and preserve a sample, usually a solid or liquid.

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Anterograde amnesia

Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

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Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

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An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events.

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An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.

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Apnea, apnoea, or apnœa (ἄπνοια, from ἀ-, privative, πνέειν, to breathe) is a term for suspension of external breathing.

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Aqueous humour

The aqueous humour is a transparent, gelatinous fluid similar to plasma, but containing low protein concentrations.

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Ataxia (from Greek α- + -τάξις.

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Benzodiazepines (BZD), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Benzodiazepine dependence

Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV.

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Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.

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Benzyl alcohol

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the formula C6H5CH2OH.

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Breastfeeding or nursing is feeding of babies and young children with milk from a female breast.

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British Medical Association

The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.

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British National Formulary

The British National Formulary (BNF) is a pharmaceutical reference book that contains a wide spectrum of information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology, along with specific facts and details about many medicines available on the National Health Service (NHS), including indication(s), contraindications, side effects, doses, legal classification, names and prices of available proprietary and generic formulations, and any other notable points.

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Bromazepam (marketed under several brand names, including Lectopam, Lexotan, Lexilium, Lexaurin, Brazepam, Rekotnil, Bromaze, Somalium and Lexotanil) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, patented by Roche in 1963 and developed clinically in the 1970s.

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Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.

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Catatonia is a state of neurogenic motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor.

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Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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Central nervous system depression

Central nervous system depression or CNS depression refers to physiological depression of the central nervous system that can result in decreased rate of breathing, decreased heart rate, and loss of consciousness possibly leading to coma or death.

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Chaperone (clinical)

In clinical medicine, a chaperone is a person who serves as a witness for both a patient and a medical practitioner as a safeguard for both parties during a medical examination or procedure.

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Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a category of cancer treatment that uses chemical substances, especially one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) that are given as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the ABIM Foundation.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.

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Clorazepate (marketed under the brand names Tranxene and Novo-Clopate), also known as clorazepate dipotassium, is a benzodiazepine.

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Cognitive deficit

Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.

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In medicine, coma (from the Greek κῶμα koma, meaning "deep sleep") is a state of unconsciousness in which a person: cannot be awakened; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.

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In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases.

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Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canada's federal drug control statute.

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Controlled Substances Act

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute prescribing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

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Convention on Psychotropic Substances

The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.

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Cyanosis is the appearance of a blue or purple coloration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.

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Cyclic vomiting syndrome

Cyclic vomiting syndrome (US English) or cyclical vomiting syndrome (UK English) (CVS) is a chronic functional condition of unknown etiology characterised by recurring attacks of intense nausea, vomiting and sometimes abdominal pain, headaches or migraines.

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Date rape drug

A date rape drug, also referred to as a predator drug, is any drug that is an incapacitating agent which, when administered to another person, incapacitates the person and renders them vulnerable to a drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), including rape.

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Death is the termination of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Delirium, or acute confusional state, is an organically-caused decline from a previously attained baseline level of cognitive function.

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Derealization or derealisation (sometimes abbreviated as DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.

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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medication of the benzodiazepine type that alters the function of the brain.

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In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment.

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Drug tolerance

Drug tolerance is a pharmacology concept where a subject's reaction to a specific drug and concentration of the drug is reduced followed repeated use, requiring an increase in concentration to achieve the desired effect.

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Dysarthria (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys, "hard, difficult, bad" and ἄρθρωσις arthrosis, "articulation") is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes (cf. aphasia: a disorder of the content of language).

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Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.

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Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use

The effects of long-term benzodiazepine use include drug dependence as well as the possibility of adverse effects on cognitive function, physical health, and mental health.

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Epilepsy (from to seize, possess, or afflict) is a group of neurological diseases characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure (colloquially a fit) is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Explicit memory

Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information.

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Federal Trade Commission

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.

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Flumazenil (also known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788) is a GABAA receptor antagonist primarily available by injection only, and the only GABAA receptor antagonist on the market today.

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Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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GABA receptor

The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.

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GABAA receptor

The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

γ-Aminobutyric acid (or GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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Gastric lavage

Gastric lavage, also commonly called stomach pumping or gastric irrigation, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Glaucoma is a term for a group of eye disorders which result in damage to the optic nerve.

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Glucuronidation, more correctly glucuronosylation, is the addition of glucuronic acid to a substrate.

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Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.

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Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.

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Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) is a set of undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.

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Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity for response to suggestion.

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Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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Hypotonia, also known as floppy baby syndrome, is a state of low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to stretch in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength.

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In medicine, hypoventilation (also known as) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.

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Implicit memory

Implicit memory is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.

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Indigo carmine

Indigo carmine, or 5,5'-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt, also known as indigotine or FD&C Blue #2 is a pH indicator with the chemical formula C16H8N2Na2O8S2.

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Informed consent

Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person.

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Insomnia, or trouble sleeping, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired.

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Intensive care unit

Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive care medicine.

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Internalization (or internalisation) has different definitions depending on the field that the term is used in.

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International Narcotics Control Board

The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.

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Intramuscular injection

Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV therapy or iv therapy in short) is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein.

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The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.

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Lactose is a disaccharide sugar derived from galactose and glucose that is found in milk.

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Lamotrigine, marketed in most of the world as Lamictal by GlaxoSmithKline, is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

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List of counseling topics

Counseling is the activity of the counselor, a professional who counsels people (gives them assistance, advice and guidance), especially on personal problems and difficulties.

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The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.

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Liver failure

Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.

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Magnesium stearate

Magnesium stearate, also called octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt, is a white substance, powder which becomes solid at room temperature.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

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Mechanical ventilation

In medicine, mechanical ventilation is a method to mechanically assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by a registered nurse, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating through the mouth (such as an endotracheal tube) or the skin (such as a tracheostomy tube). There are two main modes of mechanical ventilation within the two divisions: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness, psychological disorder or psychiatric disorder, is mental or behavioral pattern that causes either suffering or a poor ability to function in ordinary life.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

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Midazolam, marketed under the trade names Versed among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.

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Muscle relaxant

A muscle relaxant is a drug which affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.

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Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.

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Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis (from Greek μύς "muscle", ἀσθένεια "weakness", and gravis "serious"; abbreviated MG) is a neuromuscular disease that leads to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigue.

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Mylan N.V. is a global generic and specialty pharmaceuticals company registered in the Netherlands and with operational headquarters in Hatfield, Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Nitrazepam is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class, indicated for the short-term relief of severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.

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Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.

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An "opioid" is any synthetic narcotic not derived from opium.

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Oxazepam is a short-to-intermediate-acting benzodiazepine.

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Palliative sedation

In medicine, specifically in end-of-life care, palliative sedation (also known as terminal sedation, continuous deep sedation, or sedation for intractable distress in the dying/of a dying patient) is the palliative practice of relieving distress in a terminally ill person in the last hours or days of a dying patient's life, usually by means of a continuous intravenous or subcutaneous infusion of a sedative drug, or by means of a specialized catheter designed to provide comfortable and discreet administration of ongoing medications via the rectal route.

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Paradoxical reaction

A paradoxical reaction or paradoxical effect is an effect of medical treatment, usually a drug, opposite to the effect which would normally be expected.

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A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Personality disorder

Personality disorders are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's culture.

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Pharmacokinetics, sometimes abbreviated as PK (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism.

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Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.

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Phenytoin, sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.

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Physical dependence

Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from chronic use of a drug that has produced tolerance and where negative physical symptoms of withdrawal result from abrupt discontinuation or dosage reduction.

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Polyethylene glycol

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.

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Pregnancy, also known as gravidity or gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Premedication refer to a drug treatment given to a patient before a (surgical or invasive) medical procedure.

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Propofol marketed as Diprivan, is a short-acting, intravenously administered hypnotic/amnestic agent.

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Propylene glycol

Propylene glycol, also called propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2.

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Psychosis refers to an abnormal condition of the mind described as involving a "loss of contact with reality".

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Rebound effect

The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage.

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Renal failure

Renal failure, also known as kidney failure or renal insufficiency, is a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter waste products from the blood.

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Respiratory failure

Respiratory failure is inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, with the result that levels of arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be maintained within their normal ranges.

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Rifabutin (Rfb) is a bactericidal antibiotic drug primarily used in the treatment of tuberculosis.

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Rifampicin (INN, BAN), also known as rifampin (USAN), is a antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

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Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear.

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Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB) was formerly the statutory regulatory and professional body for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in England, Scotland and Wales.

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Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.

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A sedative or tranquilizer (or tranquilliser, see American and British English spelling differences) is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.

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Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea (or sleep apnoea in British English) is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or instances of shallow or infrequent breathing during sleep.

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Sodium channel

Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.

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Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (cf. hypersomnia).

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Status epilepticus

Status epilepticus (SE) is an epileptic seizure of greater than five minutes or more than one seizure within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.

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Sublingual administration

Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which drugs diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse and substance use disorder, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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Substance dependence

Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.

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Substance intoxication

Substance intoxication is a type of substance use disorder which is potentially maladaptive and impairing, but reversible, and associated with recent use.

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Substance use disorder

Substance use disorder, also known as drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Tartrazine is a synthetic lemon yellow azo dye primarily used as a food coloring.

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That's Life!

That's Life! was a magazine-style television series on BBC1 between 26 May 1973 and 19 June 1994, presented by Esther Rantzen throughout the entire run, with various changes of co-presenters.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.

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Topical medication

A topical medication is a medication that is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including but not limited to creams, foams, gels, lotions, and ointments.

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Triazolam (original brand name Halcion) is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant in the benzodiazepine class.

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Uncoupling (neuropsychopharmacology)

In neuropsychopharmacology, uncoupling, also known as decoupling, is the process of receptor- or ligand-binding sites or domains becoming separated, moving alignments and/or becoming internalised as a result of drug tolerance resulting from prolonged exposure to bioavailable psychoactive substances or toxins.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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Valproate (VPA, valproic acid) is an acidic organic compound that has found clinical use as an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug, primarily in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and prevention of migraine headaches.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Wyeth was a pharmaceutical company until it was purchased by Pfizer in 2009.

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ATC code N05BA06, ATCvet code QN05BA06, Adavan, Almazine, Alzapam, Anxiar, Anxiedin, Anxiedrin, Anxira, Anzepam, Aplacasse, Aplacassee, Apo-Lorazepam, Aripax, Atavan, Atavin, Ativan, Atvian, Azurogen, Bonatranquan, Delormetazepam, Durazolam, Efasedan, Emotival, Idalprem, Kalmalin, Larpose, Lopam, Lorabenz, Lorans, Lorapam, Lorasifar, Lorat, Loraz, Lorazem, Lorazene, Lorazep, Lorazepam pivalate, Lorazin, Lorazon, Lorenin, Loridem, Lorivan, Lorsedal, Lorsilan, Lorzem, Lozepam, Merlit, Nervistop, Nervistop L, Nervistopl, Novhepar, Novo-Lorazem, Novolorazem, Orfidal, Pivazepam, Pro Dorm, Psicopax, Punktyl, Quait, Renaquil, Rocosgen, Securit, Sedatival, Sedazin, Sedizepan, Sidenar, Sinestron, Somagerol, Stapam, Temesta, Tranqipam, Trapax, Trapex, Upan, Wypax.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorazepam

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