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Lossy compression

Index Lossy compression

In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content. [1]

132 relations: ABX test, Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation, Adaptive Multi-Rate audio codec, Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding, Advanced Audio Coding, Aesthetics, AptX, Audio Interchange File Format, Audio mastering, Backward compatibility, Bandwidth (computing), Bayesian probability, Better Portable Graphics, Bit, Bitrate peeling, Cartesian Perceptual Compression, Chroma subsampling, Chrominance, Codec, Codec 2, Color space, Compression artifact, Computer file, Cropping (image), Data compression, Decimation (signal processing), Decision theory, Diagnostically Acceptable Irreversible Compression, Digital master, Dirac (video compression format), DjVu, Dolby Digital, Domain of a function, DTS-HD Master Audio, Entropy encoding, Equalization (audio), Estimation theory, Exif, Fault tolerance, Flipped image, Flopped image, Format shifting, Fractal compression, Gamut, Gaussian blur, Generation loss, Graphics processing unit, Grayscale, GSM, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, ..., Hierarchical modulation, High Efficiency Video Coding, High-dynamic-range imaging, Human body, ICER, ID3, Image, Image scaling, Information technology, Information theory, Interlacing (bitmaps), IrfanView, ITunes Store, JBIG2, JPEG, JPEG 2000, JPEG XR, Kilobyte, LDAC (codec), Lenna, Libjpeg, List of codecs, Lossless compression, Lossy data conversion, Luma (video), Mipmap, Motion JPEG, MP3, MPEG-1, MPEG-1 Audio Layer II, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, MPEG-4 Part 2, MPEG-4 SLS, Multimedia, Musepack, Natural language generation, Netflix, New Horizons, NTSC, Ogg, OptimFROG, Opus (audio format), Plug-in (computing), Portable Network Graphics, Probability, Progressive Graphics File, Psychoacoustics, Pyramid (image processing), Quantization (signal processing), Rate–distortion theory, Raw image format, RealNetworks, S3 Texture Compression, Scalable Video Coding, Scale space, Scan line, Seam carving, Software patent, Sorenson Media, Sound recording and reproduction, Speex, Spotify, Streaming media, Texture mapping, Theora, Transcoding, Transform coding, Transparency (data compression), VC-1, Video, Voice over IP, Vorbis, Vorbis comment, WAV, Wavelet transform, WavPack, Windows Media Audio, YIQ, YUV, Zip (file format), 3GPP. Expand index (82 more) »

ABX test

An ABX test is a method of comparing two choices of sensory stimuli to identify detectable differences between them.

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Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation

Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation (ADPCM) is a variant of differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) that varies the size of the quantization step, to allow further reduction of the required data bandwidth for a given signal-to-noise ratio.

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Adaptive Multi-Rate audio codec

The Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR or AMR-NB or GSM-AMR) audio codec is an audio compression format optimized for speech coding.

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Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding

Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding (ATRAC) is a family of proprietary audio compression algorithms developed by Sony.

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Advanced Audio Coding

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a proprietary audio coding standard for lossy digital audio compression.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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In digital audio data reduction technology, aptX (formerly apt-X) is a family of proprietary audio codec compression algorithms currently owned by Qualcomm.

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Audio Interchange File Format

Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used for storing sound data for personal computers and other electronic audio devices.

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Audio mastering

Mastering, a form of audio post production, is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device (the master); the source from which all copies will be produced (via methods such as pressing, duplication or replication).

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Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.

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Bandwidth (computing)

In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path.

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Bayesian probability

Bayesian probability is an interpretation of the concept of probability, in which, instead of frequency or propensity of some phenomenon, probability is interpreted as reasonable expectation representing a state of knowledge or as quantification of a personal belief.

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Better Portable Graphics

Better Portable Graphics (BPG) is a file format for coding digital images, which was created by programmer Fabrice Bellard in 2014.

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The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

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Bitrate peeling

Bitrate Peeling is a technique used in Ogg Vorbis audio encoded streams, wherein a stream can be encoded at one bitrate but can be served at that or any lower bitrate.

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Cartesian Perceptual Compression

Cartesian Perceptual Compression (abbreviated CPC, with filename extension.cpc) is a proprietary image file format.

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Chroma subsampling

Chroma subsampling is the practice of encoding images by implementing less resolution for chroma information than for luma information, taking advantage of the human visual system's lower acuity for color differences than for luminance.

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Chrominance (chroma or C for short) is the signal used in video systems to convey the color information of the picture, separately from the accompanying luma signal (or Y for short).

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A codec is a device or computer program for encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal.

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Codec 2

Codec 2 is a low-bitrate speech audio codec (speech coding) that is patent free and open source.

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Color space

A color space is a specific organization of colors.

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Compression artifact

A compression artifact (or artefact) is a noticeable distortion of media (including images, audio, and video) caused by the application of lossy compression.

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Computer file

A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device.

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Cropping (image)

Cropping is the removal of unwanted outer areas from a photographic or illustrated image.

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Data compression

In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

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Decimation (signal processing)

In digital signal processing, decimation is the process of reducing the sampling rate of a signal.

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Decision theory

Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.

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Diagnostically Acceptable Irreversible Compression

In medical imaging applications, Diagnostically Acceptable Irreversible Compression, abbreviated DAIC, is the application of irreversible compression in medical imaging to produce a result that has no negative impact on the ability of the user to perform a particular diagnostic task (contribute to making a medical diagnosis using the image).

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Digital master

A digital master is an image, PDF file, digital recording or another digital asset preserved as the "original" for the purpose of archival storage, reuse and re-expression.

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Dirac (video compression format)

Dirac is an open and royalty-free video compression format, specification and system developed by BBC Research & Development.

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DjVu (like English "déjà vu") is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents, especially those containing a combination of text, line drawings, indexed color images, and photographs.

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Dolby Digital

Dolby Digital is the name for audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories.

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Domain of a function

In mathematics, and more specifically in naive set theory, the domain of definition (or simply the domain) of a function is the set of "input" or argument values for which the function is defined.

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DTS-HD Master Audio

DTS-HD Master Audio (DTS-HD MA) is a combined lossless/lossy audio codec created by DTS (formerly Digital Theater Systems), commonly used for surround-sound movie soundtracks on Blu-ray Disc.

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Entropy encoding

In information theory an entropy encoding is a lossless data compression scheme that is independent of the specific characteristics of the medium.

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Equalization (audio)

Equalization or equalisation is the process of adjusting the balance between frequency components within an electronic signal.

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Estimation theory

Estimation theory is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured empirical data that has a random component.

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Exchangeable image file format (officially Exif, according to JEIDA/JEITA/CIPA specifications) is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras (including smartphones), scanners and other systems handling image and sound files recorded by digital cameras.

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Fault tolerance

Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure (or one or more faults within) some of its components.

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Flipped image

A flipped image or reversed image, the more formal term, is a static or moving image that is generated by a mirror-reversal of an original across a horizontal axis (a flopped image is mirrored across the vertical axis).

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Flopped image

In photography and graphic arts a flopped image is a technical term for a static or moving image that is generated by a mirror-reversal of an original image across a vertical axis.

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Format shifting

Format shifting is the conversion of media files into different file format or Data compression (video coding format and audio coding format).

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Fractal compression

Fractal compression is a lossy compression method for digital images, based on fractals.

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In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors.

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Gaussian blur

In image processing, a Gaussian blur (also known as Gaussian smoothing) is the result of blurring an image by a Gaussian function (named after mathematician and scientist Carl Friedrich Gauss).

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Generation loss

Generation loss is the loss of quality between subsequent copies or transcodes of data.

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Graphics processing unit

A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.

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In photography, computing, and colorimetry, a grayscale or greyscale image is one in which the value of each pixel is a single sample representing only an amount of light, that is, it carries only intensity information.

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GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991.

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H.264/MPEG-4 AVC

H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC) is a block-oriented motion-compensation-based video compression standard.

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Hierarchical modulation

Hierarchical modulation, also called layered modulation, is one of the signal processing techniques for multiplexing and modulating multiple data streams into one single symbol stream, where base-layer symbols and enhancement-layer symbols are synchronously overplayed before transmission.

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High Efficiency Video Coding

High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a video compression standard, one of several potential successors to the widely used AVC (H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10).

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High-dynamic-range imaging

High-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI) is a high dynamic range (HDR) technique used in imaging and photography to reproduce a greater dynamic range of luminosity than is possible with standard digital imaging or photographic techniques.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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ICER is a wavelet-based image compression file format used by the NASA Mars Rovers.

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ID3 is a metadata container most often used in conjunction with the MP3 audio file format.

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An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.

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Image scaling

In computer graphics and digital imaging, image scaling refers to the resizing of a digital image.

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Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

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Information theory

Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

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Interlacing (bitmaps)

Interlacing (also known as interleaving) is a method of encoding a bitmap image such that a person who has partially received it sees a degraded copy of the entire image.

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IrfanView is an image viewer, editor, organiser and converter program for Microsoft Windows.

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ITunes Store

The iTunes Store is a software-based online digital media store operated by Apple Inc. It opened on April 28, 2003, and has been the largest music vendor in the United States since April 2008, and the largest music vendor in the world since February 2010.

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JBIG2 is an image compression standard for bi-level images, developed by the Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group.

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JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.

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JPEG 2000

JPEG 2000 (JP2) is an image compression standard and coding system.

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JPEG XR (JPEG extended range) is a still-image compression standard and file format for continuous tone photographic images, based on technology originally developed and patented by Microsoft under the name HD Photo (formerly Windows Media Photo).

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The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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LDAC (codec)

LDAC is an audio coding technology developed by Sony, which allows streaming audio over Bluetooth connections up to 990 kbit/s at 24bit/96khz (also called High-resolution audio).

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Lenna or Lena is the name given to a standard test image widely used in the field of image processing since 1973.

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libjpeg is a free library with functions for handling the JPEG image data format.

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List of codecs

The following is a list of compression formats and related codecs.

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Lossless compression

Lossless compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.

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Lossy data conversion

A lossy data conversion method is one where converting data between one storage format and another displays data in a form that is "close enough" to be useful, but may differ in some ways from the original.

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Luma (video)

In video, luma represents the brightness in an image (the "black-and-white" or achromatic portion of the image).

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In computer graphics, mipmaps (also MIP maps) or pyramids are pre-calculated, optimized sequences of images, each of which is a progressively lower resolution representation of the same image.

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Motion JPEG

In multimedia, Motion JPEG (M-JPEG or MJPEG) is a video compression format in which each video frame or interlaced field of a digital video sequence is compressed separately as a JPEG image.

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MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is an audio coding format for digital audio.

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MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio.

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MPEG-1 Audio Layer II

MPEG-1 Audio Layer II or MPEG-2 Audio Layer II (MP2, sometimes incorrectly called Musicam or MUSICAM) is a lossy audio compression format defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3 alongside MPEG-1 Audio Layer I and MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3).

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MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as defined by the ITU) is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information".

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MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data.

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MPEG-4 Part 2

MPEG-4 Part 2, MPEG-4 Visual (formally ISO/IEC 14496-2) is a video compression format developed by MPEG.

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MPEG-4 SLS, or MPEG-4 Scalable to Lossless as per ISO/IEC 14496-3:2005/Amd 3:2006 (Scalable Lossless Coding), is an extension to the MPEG-4 Part 3 (MPEG-4 Audio) standard to allow lossless audio compression scalable to lossy MPEG-4 General Audio coding methods (e.g., variations of AAC).

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Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.

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Musepack or MPC is an open source lossy audio codec, specifically optimized for transparent compression of stereo audio at bitrates of 160–180 (manual set allows bitrates up to 320) kbit/s.

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Natural language generation

Natural language generation (NLG) is the natural language processing task of generating natural language from a machine representation system such as a knowledge base or a logical form.

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Netflix, Inc. is an American over-the-top media services provider, headquartered in Los Gatos, California.

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New Horizons

New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.

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NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953),, 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables.

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Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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OptimFROG is a proprietary lossless audio data compression codec developed by Florin Ghido.

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Opus (audio format)

Opus is a lossy audio coding format developed by the Xiph.Org Foundation and standardized by the Internet Engineering Task Force, designed to efficiently code speech and general audio in a single format, while remaining low-latency enough for real-time interactive communication and low-complexity enough for low-end embedded processors.

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Plug-in (computing)

In computing, a plug-in (or plugin, add-in, addin, add-on, addon, or extension) is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program.

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Portable Network Graphics

Portable Network Graphics (PNG, pronounced or) is a raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression.

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Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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Progressive Graphics File

PGF (Progressive Graphics File) is a wavelet-based bitmapped image format that employs lossless and lossy data compression.

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Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception and audiology.

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Pyramid (image processing)

Pyramid, or pyramid representation, is a type of multi-scale signal representation developed by the computer vision, image processing and signal processing communities, in which a signal or an image is subject to repeated smoothing and subsampling.

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Quantization (signal processing)

Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set.

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Rate–distortion theory

Rate–distortion theory is a major branch of information theory which provides the theoretical foundations for lossy data compression; it addresses the problem of determining the minimal number of bits per symbol, as measured by the rate R, that should be communicated over a channel, so that the source (input signal) can be approximately reconstructed at the receiver (output signal) without exceeding a given distortion D.

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Raw image format

A camera raw image file contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of either a digital camera, image scanner, or motion picture film scanner.

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RealNetworks, Inc. is a provider of Internet streaming media delivery software and services based in Seattle, Washington, United States.

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S3 Texture Compression

S3 Texture Compression (S3TC) (sometimes also called DXTn or DXTC) is a group of related lossy texture compression algorithms originally developed by Iourcha et al.

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Scalable Video Coding

Scalable Video Coding (SVC) is the name for the Annex G extension of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video compression standard.

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Scale space

Scale-space theory is a framework for multi-scale signal representation developed by the computer vision, image processing and signal processing communities with complementary motivations from physics and biological vision.

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Scan line

A scan line (also scanline) is one line, or row, in a raster scanning pattern, such as a line of video on a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of a television set or computer monitor.

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Seam carving

Seam carving (or liquid rescaling) is an algorithm for content-aware image resizing, developed by Shai Avidan, of Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories (MERL), and Ariel Shamir, of the Interdisciplinary Center and MERL.

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Software patent

A software patent is a patent on a piece of software, such as a computer program, libraries, user interface, or algorithm.

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Sorenson Media

Sorenson Media is an American software company specializing in video encoding technology.

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Sound recording and reproduction

Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.

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Speex is an audio compression format specifically tuned for the reproduction of human speech and also a free software speech codec that may be used on VoIP applications and podcasts.

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Spotify Technology SA is a Swedish entertainment company founded by Daniel Ek and Martin Lorentzon.

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Streaming media

Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.

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Texture mapping

Texture mapping is a method for defining high frequency detail, surface texture, or color information on a computer-generated graphic or 3D model.

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Theora is a free lossy video compression format.

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Transcoding is the direct digital-to-digital conversion of one encoding to another, such as for movie data files (e.g., PAL, SECAM, NTSC), audio files (e.g., MP3, WAV), or character encoding (e.g., UTF-8, ISO/IEC 8859).

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Transform coding

Transform coding is a type of data compression for "natural" data like audio signals or photographic images.

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Transparency (data compression)

In data compression and psychoacoustics, transparency is the result of lossy data compression accurate enough that the compressed result is perceptually indistinguishable from the uncompressed input.

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SMPTE 421M, informally known as VC-1, is a video coding format.

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Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.

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Voice over IP

Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.

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Vorbis is a free and open-source software project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Vorbis comment

A Vorbis comment is a metadata container used in the Vorbis, FLAC, Theora, Speex and Opus file formats.

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Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension - both pronounced "wave") (rarely, Audio for Windows) is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs.

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Wavelet transform

In mathematics, a wavelet series is a representation of a square-integrable (real- or complex-valued) function by a certain orthonormal series generated by a wavelet.

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WavPack is a free and open-source lossless audio compression format.

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Windows Media Audio

Windows Media Audio (WMA) is the name of a series of audio codecs and their corresponding audio coding formats developed by Microsoft.

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YIQ is the color space used by the NTSC color TV system, employed mainly in North and Central America, and Japan.

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YUV is a color encoding system typically used as part of a color image pipeline.

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Zip (file format)

ZIP is an archive file format that supports lossless data compression.

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The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration between groups of telecommunications standards associations, known as the Organizational Partners.

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Data compression/lossy, Irreversible compression, List of lossy compression methods, Lossy, Lossy data compression, Lossy encoding.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lossy_compression

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