174 relations: Aachen, Agnes of Bavaria (nun), Agnes of Hohenstaufen, Agnes of Loon, Agnes of the Palatinate, Albert I of Germany, Albert I, Duke of Bavaria, Albert II, Duke of Austria, Albert IV, Count of Habsburg, Alter Hof, Ampfing, Antipope Nicholas V, Avignon, Baldwin of Luxembourg, Ban (law), Battle of Crécy, Battle of Gammelsdorf, Battle of Mühldorf, Beatrice of Bavaria, Beatrice of Silesia, Bonn, Brandenburg, Buda, Cangrande II della Scala, Catholic Church, Charles I of Hungary, Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Count of Hainaut, Count of Holland, County of Hainaut, County of Tyrol, County of Zeeland, Declaration of Rhense, Duchy of Carinthia, Edward III of England, Elector of Mainz, Electoral Palatinate, Elizabeth of Hungary, Duchess of Bohemia, England, Eric XII of Sweden, Ettal Abbey, Excommunication, Family tree of the German monarchs, Fürstenfeldbruck, Fief, France, Franciscans, Frankfurt, Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen, ..., Frederick III of Sicily, Frederick the Fair, Frederick, Duke of Bohemia, Free imperial city, Friesland, Galeazzo I Visconti, Günther von Schwarzburg, German Tyrol, Germany, Gertrude of Hohenberg, Growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy, Hanseatic League, Heinrich II of Virneburg, Henry II, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal, Henry of Bohemia, Henry the Lion, Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry XIV, Duke of Bavaria, Henry XV, Duke of Bavaria, Heresy, Holland, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, House of Ascania, House of Habsburg, House of Luxembourg, House of Wittelsbach, Humbert II of Viennois, Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Italy, John Henry, Margrave of Moravia, John I, Duke of Bavaria, John II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, John of Bohemia, Kastl, Amberg-Sulzbach, King of Italy, King of the Romans, Kingdom of Arles, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Naples, Knight, Koblenz, Lübeck, Legal guardian, Leopold I, Duke of Austria, Linz, List of German monarchs, List of rulers of Bavaria, List of rulers of Brandenburg, Lithuania, Lords of Verona, Louis I, Duke of Bavaria, Louis II, Duke of Bavaria, Louis II, Elector of Brandenburg, Louis V, Duke of Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, Ludmilla of Bohemia, Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut, Margaret of Bavaria, Duchess of Slavonia, Margaret of Bohemia, Duchess of Bavaria, Margaret, Countess of Tyrol, Margraviate of Brandenburg, Marsilius of Padua, Matilda of Bavaria, Margravine of Meissen, Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony, Matilda of Habsburg, Meissen, Messe Frankfurt, Michael of Cesena, Milan, Munich, Munich Frauenkirche, Nuremberg, Oath, Otto I, Duke of Bavaria, Otto II, Duke of Bavaria, Otto III, Duke of Bavaria, Otto IV, Duke of Lower Bavaria, Otto V, Duke of Bavaria, Otto, Duke of Austria, Peter of Aspelt, Philip VI of France, Philippa of Hainault, Pisa, Pope, Pope Benedict XII, Pope Clement VI, Pope John XXII, Prince-elector, Rhenish guilder, Robert, King of Naples, Rome, Rudolf I of Germany, Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria, Rudolf I, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg, Rudolf II, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Rudolph II, Count of Habsburg, Rudolph II, Count Palatine of Tübingen, Rupert I, Elector Palatine, Rupert, King of Germany, Russia, Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main), Salzburg (state), Schwandorf (district), Sciarra Colonna, Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria, Stephen of Anjou, Stroke, Stuttgart, Teutonic Order, Trausnitz, Treaty of Pavia (1329), Tutor, Ulm, Upper Bavaria, Verona, Vienna, Waldemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal, Württemberg, William I, Duke of Bavaria, William II, Count of Hainaut, William of Ockham, Zeeland. Expand index (124 more) » « Shrink index
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
Agnes of Bavaria (1335 – 11 November 1352) was a Bavarian nun from Munich and a member of the House of Wittelsbach.
Agnes of Hohenstaufen (1176 – 7 or 9 May 1204) was the daughter and heiress of the Hohenstaufen count palatine Conrad of the Rhine.
Agnes of Loon (1150–1191), was a duchess consort of Bavaria, married to Otto I of Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria.
Agnes of the Palatinate (1201–1267) was a daughter of Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine and his first wife Agnes of Hohenstaufen, daughter of Conrad, Count Palatine of the Rhine.
Albert I of Habsburg (Albrecht I.) (July 12551 May 1308), the eldest son of King Rudolf I of Germany and his first wife Gertrude of Hohenburg, was a Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 and King of Germany from 1298 until his assassination.
Albert I, Duke of Bavaria (Albrecht; 25 July 1336, Munich – 13 December 1404, The Hague) KG, was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries.
Albert II (12 December 1298 – 16 August 1358), known as the Wise or the Lame, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1330, as well as Duke of Carinthia from 1335 until his death.
Albert IV (or Albert the Wise) (ca. 1188 – December 13, 1239) was Count of Habsburg in the Aargau and a progenitor of the royal House of Habsburg.
The Alter Hof (Old Court) in the center of Munich is the former imperial residence of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and consists of five wings: Burgstock, Zwingerstock, Lorenzistock, Pfisterstock and Brunnenstock.
Ampfing is a municipality in the district of Mühldorf in Bavaria in Germany.
Nicholas V, born Pietro Rainalducci (c. 125816 October 1333) was an antipope in Italy from 12 May 1328 to 25 July 1330 during the pontificate of Pope John XXII (1316–34) at Avignon.
Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
Baldwin of Luxembourg (c. 1285 – 21 January 1354) was the Archbishop-Elector of Trier and Archchancellor of Burgundy from 1307 to his death.
A ban is a formal or informal prohibition of something.
The Battle of Crécy (26 August 1346), also spelled Cressy, was an English victory during the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War.
The Battle of Gammelsdorf (Schlacht von Gammelsdorf) circled around the question of who would execute tutelage over the minor children of the late Lower Bavarian Dukes, thus also commanding the tremendous economic power of that region.
The Battle of Mühldorf (also Battle of Ampfing) was fought near Mühldorf am Inn on September 28, 1322 between the Duchy of (Upper) Bavaria and Austria.
Beatrice of Bavaria (1344 – 25 December 1359); Swedish: Beatrix; was Queen of Sweden by marriage to King Eric XII, who co-ruled with his father, King Magnus IV.
Beatrice of Silesia (also known as Beatrice of Świdnica; Beatrycze świdnicka, Beatrix von Schweidnitz; 1290 – 25 August 1320) was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast in the Silesian branch of Jawor-Świdnica and by marriage Duchess of Bavaria and German Queen.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube.
Cangrande II della Scala (8 June 1332 – 14 December 1359) was Lord of Verona from 1351 until his death.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles I, also known as Charles Robert (Károly Róbert; Karlo Robert; Karol Róbert; 128816 July 1342) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308 to his death.
Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.
Conrad of Hohenstaufen (– 8 November 1195) was the first hereditary Count Palatine of the Rhine.
The Count of Hainaut was the ruler of the county of Hainaut, a historical region in the Low Countries (including the modern countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and parts of northern France and western Germany).
The Counts of Holland ruled over the County of Holland in the Low Countries between the 10th and the 16th century.
The County of Hainaut (Comté de Hainaut, Graafschap Henegouwen; Grafschaft Hennegau), sometimes given the archaic spellings Hainault and Heynowes, was a historical lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, with its capital at Mons (Bergen).
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
The County of Zeeland (Graafschap Zeeland) was a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries.
The Declaration of Rhens or Treaty of Rhens (Kurverein) was a decree or Kurverein of the Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire issued in 1338 and initiated by Baldwin of Luxembourg, the Archbishop of Trier and brother of the late Emperor Henry VII.
The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten; Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
The Elector of Mainz was one of the seven Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
Elizabeth of Hungary (1145-1189), was a Duchess consort of Bohemia, married to Frederick, Duke of Bohemia.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Eric "XII" (Swedish: Erik Magnusson; 1339 – 21 June 1359) was a rival king of Sweden of his father, Magnus IV, from 1356 to his death in 1359.
Ettal Abbey (Kloster Ettal) is a Benedictine monastery in the village of Ettal close to Oberammergau and Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
The following image is a family tree of every king, monarch, confederation president and emperor of Germany, from Charlemagne in 800 over Louis the German in 843 through to Wilhelm II in 1918.
Fürstenfeldbruck is a town in Bavaria, Germany, located 32 kilometres west of Munich.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frederick II, the Serious (30 November 1310 in Gotha – 18 November 1349 at the Wartburg), Margrave of Meissen, son of Frederick I, Margrave of Meissen and Elisabeth von Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk.
Frederick II (or III) (13 December 1272 – 25 June 1337) was the regent (from 1291) and subsequently King of Sicily from 1295 until his death.
Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Schöne) or the Fair (c. 1289 – 13 January 1330), from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 as Frederick I as well as King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1314 (anti-king until 1325) as Frederick III until his death.
Frederick (Bedřich) (– 25 March 1189), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia from 1172 to 1173 and again from 1178 to his death.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.
Friesland (official, Fryslân), also historically known as Frisia, is a province of the Netherlands located in the northern part of the country.
Galeazzo I Visconti (21 January 1277 – 6 August 1328) was lord of Milan from 1322 to 1327.
Günther XXI von Schwarzburg (1304 – 14 June 1349), King of Germany, was a descendant of the counts of Schwarzburg and the younger son of Henry VII, Count of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg.
German Tyrol (Deutschtirol; Tirolo tedesco) is a historical region in the Alps now divided between Austria and Italy.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gertrude Anne of Hohenberg (– 16 February 1281) was German queen from 1273 until her death, by her marriage with King Rudolf I of Germany.
The Old Swiss Confederacy began as a late medieval alliance between the communities of the valleys in the Central Alps, at the time part of the Holy Roman Empire, to facilitate the management of common interests such as free trade and to ensure the peace along the important trade routes through the mountains.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Count Heinrich II of Virneburg (Graf Heinrich II.) (1244 or 1246 – 5 January 1332) was Archbishop of Cologne from 1304 to his death in 1332.
Henry II of Brandenburg-Stendal, nicknamed Henry the Younger or Henry the Child (Heinrich das Kind; – July 1320) was the last Margrave of Brandenburg from the House of Ascania.
Henry of Carinthia (Heinrich von Kärnten, Jindřich Korutanský; – 2 April 1335), a member of the House of Gorizia (Meinhardiner), was Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Carniola (as Henry VI) as well as Count of Tyrol from 1295 until his death.
Henry the Lion (Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies of which he held until 1180.
Henry V, the Elder of Brunswick (Heinrich der Ältere von Braunschweig; – 28 April 1227), a member of the House of Welf, was Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1195 until 1213.
Henry VII (German: Heinrich; c. 1275 – 24 August 1313)Kleinhenz, pg.
Henry XIV, duke of Bavaria (29 September 1305 – 1 September 1339), was duke of Lower Bavaria (also called Henry II).
Henry XV, duke of Bavaria, as duke of Lower Bavaria also called Henry III, (28 August 1312 – 18 June 1333 in Natternberg near Deggendorf).
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Ascania (Askanier) is a dynasty of German rulers.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Luxembourg (Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary.
The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.
Humbert II de la Tour-du-Pin (1312 – 4 May 1355) was the Dauphin of the Viennois from 1333 to 16 July 1349.
The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
John Henry of Luxembourg (Jan Jindřich, Johann Heinrich; 12 February 1322 – 12 November 1375), a member of the House of Luxembourg, was Count of Tyrol from 1335 to 1341 and Margrave of Moravia from 1349 until his death.
John I of Bavaria (29 November 1329 – 20 December 1340), (German: Johann I das Kind, Herzog von Niederbayern), he was the Duke of Lower Bavaria since 1339.
John II of Saxe-Lauenburg (c. 1275 – 22 April 1322) was the eldest son of John I of Saxony and Ingeborg Birgersdotter of Småland (c. 1253–30 June 1302, Mölln), a daughter or grandchild of Birger jarl.
John the Blind (Jang de Blannen; Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg; Jan Lucemburský; 10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) was the Count of Luxembourg from 1309 and King of Bohemia from 1310 and titular King of Poland.
Kastl is a municipality in the district of Amberg-Sulzbach in Bavaria in Germany.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
King of the Romans (Rex Romanorum; König der Römer) was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward.
The Kingdom of Arles (also Kingdom of Arelat or Second Kingdom of Burgundy) was a Frankish dominion established from lands of the early medieval Kingdom of the Burgundians in 933 by the merger of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Burgundy under King Rudolf II.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Koblenz (Coblence), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine where it is joined by the Moselle.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward.
Leopold I (4 August 1290 – 28 February 1326) from the House of Habsburg was Duke of Austria and Styria – as co-ruler with his elder brother Frederick the Fair – from 1308 until his death.
Linz (Linec) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich).
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria.
This article lists the Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg during the period of time that Brandenburg was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Lords of Verona ruled the city from 1260 until 19 October 1387 and for ten days in 1404.
Ludwig I (23 December 1173 – 15 September 1231), called the Kelheimer or of Kelheim, since he was born and died at Kelheim, was the Duke of Bavaria from 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1214.
Ludwig I or Louis I of Upper Bavaria (Ludwig II der Strenge, Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein) (13 April 1229 – 2 February 1294) was Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253.
Louis the Roman (7 May 1328 – 17 May 1365) was the eldest son of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian by his second wife, Margaret II, Countess of Hainault, and a member of the House of Wittelsbach.
Louis V, called the Brandenburger (May 1315 – 18 September 1361), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, ruled as Margrave of Brandenburg (as Louis I) from 1323 to 1351 and as Duke of Bavaria from 1347 until his death.
Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of the state.
Ludmilla of Bohemia (died 14 August 1240) was a daughter of Frederick, Duke of Bohemia, and his wife, Elizabeth of Hungary.
Margaret II of Avesnes (1311 – 23 June 1356) was Countess of Hainaut and Countess of Holland (as Margaret I) from 1345 to 1356.
Margaret of Bavaria (1321–1374) was the eldest child of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, and Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut.
Margaret of Bohemia (1313–1341) was the daughter of King John of Bohemia by his first wife Elisabeth of Bohemia (1292–1330).
Margaret, nicknamed Margarete Maultasch (1318 – 3 October 1369), was the last Countess of Tyrol from the House of Gorizia (Meinhardiner).
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Marsilius of Padua (Italian: Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova; born Marsilio dei Mainardini or Marsilio Mainardini; c. 1275 – c. 1342) was an Italian scholar, trained in medicine, who practiced a variety of professions.
Matilde of Bavaria (aft. 21 June 1313 – 2 July 1346) Meißen) was the eldest daughter of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife Beatrix of Świdnica. Matilde was a member of the House of Wittelsbach.
Matilda of England (Mathilde von England, also called Maud; 6 January 1156 – 28 June 1189) was the eldest daughter of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Matilda of Habsburg or Melchilde (1253 in Rheinfelden – 23 December 1304 in Munich, Bavaria) was the eldest daughter of Rudolph I of Germany and Gertrude of Hohenburg.
Meissen (in German orthography: Meißen) is a town of approximately 30,000 about northwest of Dresden on both banks of the Elbe river in the Free State of Saxony, in eastern Germany.
Messe Frankfurt (literally "Frankfurt Trade Fair") is the world’s largest trade fair, congress and event organiser with its own exhibition grounds.
Michael of Cesena (Michele di Cesena or Michele Fuschi) (c. 1270 – 29 November 1342) was an Italian Franciscan, general of that Order, and theologian.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The Frauenkirche (Full name: Dom zu Unserer Lieben Frau, Cathedral of Our Dear Lady) is a church in the Bavarian city of Munich that serves as the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising and seat of its Archbishop.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Traditionally an oath (from Anglo-Saxon āð, also called plight) is either a statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of verity.
Otto I (1117 – 11 July 1183), called the Redhead (der Rotkopf), was Duke of Bavaria from 1180 until his death.
Otto II of Bavaria (Otto II der Erlauchte, Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, 7 April 1206 in Kelheim – 29 November 1253) known as Otto the Illustrious was the Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Electorate of the Palatinate).
Otto III (11 February 1261 – 9 November 1312), a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was the Duke of Lower Bavaria from 1290 to 1312 and the King of Hungary and Croatia between 1305 and 1307.
Otto IV (January 3, 1307 – December 14, 1334 in Munich) was a Duke of Lower Bavaria.
Otto V the Bavarian, Duke of Bavaria (1340/42 – 15 November 1379), was a Duke of Bavaria and Elector of Brandenburg as Otto VII.
Otto, the Merry (der Fröhliche; 23 July 1301 – 17 February 1339), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1330, as well as Duke of Carinthia from 1335 until his death.
Peter of Aspelt (aka Peter von Aichspelt, Peter von Basel, Peter von Mainz; born 1240/45, died June 5, 1320 in Mainz) was Archbishop of Mainz from 1306 to 1320, and an influential political figure of the period.
Philip VI (Philippe VI) (1293 – 22 August 1350), called the Fortunate (le Fortuné) and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois.
Philippa of Hainault (Middle French: Philippe de Hainaut; 24 June c.1310/15 – 15 August 1369) was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward III.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Benedict XII (Benedictus XII; 1285 – 25 April 1342), born Jacques Fornier, was Pope from 30 December 1334 to his death in April 1342.
Clement VI (Clemens VI; 1291 – 6 December 1352), born Pierre Roger, was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352.
Pope John XXII (Ioannes XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
Rhenish guilder (Rheinischer Gulden; florenus Rheni) is the name of the golden, base currency coin of the Rhineland in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Robert of Anjou (Roberto d'Angiò), known as Robert the Wise (Roberto il Saggio; 1275 – 20 January 1343), was King of Naples, titular King of Jerusalem and Count of Provence and Forcalquier from 1309 to 1343, the central figure of Italian politics of his time.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.
Rudolf I of Bavaria, called "the Stammerer" (Rudolf der Stammler; 4 October 1274 – 12 August 1319), a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1294 until 1317.
Rudolf I (– 12 March 1356), a member of the House of Ascania, was Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg from 1298 until his death.
Rudolf II "the blind" (8 August 1306 in Wolfratshausen – 4 October 1353 in Neustadt) was Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Palatinate) from 1329 to 1353.
Rudolph II (or Rudolph the Kind) (died 10 April 1232) was Count of Habsburg in the Aargau and a progenitor of the royal House of Habsburg.
Rudolph II, Count Palatine of Tübingen (died 1 November 1247) was Count Palatine of Tübingen and Vogt of Sindelfingen.
Rupert I "the Red", Elector Palatine (9 June 1309, Wolfratshausen – 16 February 1390, Neustadt an der Weinstraße) was Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1353 to 1356, and Elector Palatine from 10 January 1356 to 16 February 1390.
Rupert of the Palatinate (Ruprecht von der Pfalz; 5 May 1352 – 18 May 1410), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was Elector Palatine from 1398 (as Rupert III) and King of Germany (rex Romanorum) from 1400 until his death.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sachsenhausen-Nord and Sachsenhausen-Süd are two city districts of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Salzburg (literally "Salt Fortress") is a state (Land) of Austria.
Schwandorf is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the eastern part of Bavaria, Germany.
Giacomo Colonna (1270-1329), more commonly known by his bynames Sciarrillo or Sciarra, was a member of the powerful Colonna family.
Stephen II (1319 – 13 May 1375, Landshut; Stephan) was Duke of Bavaria from 1347 until his death.
Stephen (István; 20 August 1332 – 9 August 1354) was a Hungarian royal prince of the Capetian House of Anjou.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Trausnitz is a municipality in the district of Schwandorf in Bavaria, Germany.
The Treaty of Pavia which divided the House of Wittelsbach into two branches, was signed in Pavia in 1329.
A tutor is a person who provides assistance or tutelage to one or more people on certain subject areas or skills.
Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube.
Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern) is one of the seven administrative districts of Bavaria, Germany.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Waldemar the Great (Waldemar der Große; – 14 August 1319), a member of the House of Ascania, was Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal from 1308 until his death.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
William I, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing (Frankfurt am Main, 12 May 1330 – 15 April 1389, Le Quesnoy), was the second son of the emperor Louis IV the Bavarian from his second wife Margaret of Holland and Hainaut.
William II, Count of Hainaut (1307 – 26 September 1345) was William IV of Avesnes, William IV of Holland and William III of Zeeland from 1337 to his death, succeeding his father, William I. He married Joanna, Duchess of Brabant and Limburg in 1334, but had no issue.
William of Ockham (also Occam, from Gulielmus Occamus; 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey.
Zeeland (Zeelandic: Zeêland, historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands.
Emperor Louis IV, Emperor Louis the Bavarian, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV, Holy Roman emperor Louis IV, Lewis of Bavaria, Lewis the Bavarian, Louis IV (HRR), Louis IV of Bavaria, Louis IV the Bavarian, Louis V of Germany, Louis the Bavarian, Ludwig IV (HRR), Ludwig IV der Baier, Ludwig IV the Bavarian, Ludwig IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Ludwig the Bavarian, Schism of Louis of Bavaria, Schism of Louis the Bavarian.