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Louis Pasteur

Index Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. [1]

211 relations: ABDO Publishing Company, Abdul Hamid II, Académie française, Académie Nationale de Médecine, Agostino Bassi, Alès, Albert Medal (Royal Society of Arts), Alfred Vulpian, Algeria, Alternative medicine, Animal rights, Anthrax, Antiseptic, Antoine Béchamp, Antoine Jérôme Balard, Arbois, Ardèche, Argentina, Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Asymmetry, Axel Munthe, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, École normale supérieure (Paris), Élie Metchnikoff, Émile Duclaux, Émile Littré, Bacillus anthracis, Bacteria, Bacteriology, Bandung, Besançon, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Biologist, Biology, Bloemfontein, Bombyx mori, Boston, Bucharest, Calgary, Cambodia, Catholic Church, Cattle, Charles Cagniard de la Tour, Charles Chamberland, Charles Friedel, Chemical synthesis, Chemist, Chemistry, Chicken, Chirality (chemistry), ..., Christian, Claude Bernard, Clinical trial, Cluj-Napoca, Copley Medal, Cowpox, Crystal, Crystallography, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Disease, Dole, Jura, Eduard Buchner, Edward Jenner, Epizootic, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Félix Archimède Pouchet, Fellow of the Royal Society, Ferdinand Cohn, Fermentation, Fishing, Flacherie, Fowl cholera, Franc, France, Francesco Redi, French Academy of Sciences, French people, Friedrich Traugott Kützing, Friedrich Wöhler, Gerald L. Geison, Germ theory of disease, Great Yarmouth, Hans Ernst August Buchner, Ho Chi Minh City, Hygiene, Ignaz Semmelweis, Immunity (medical), Indonesia, Infection, Infection control, Invertase, Iran, Irvine, California, Isomer, Jacques-Joseph Grancher, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Jean Joseph Henri Toussaint, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Joseph Lister, Joseph Meister, Justus von Liebig, Kaiser Permanente, Košice, Lactic acid fermentation, Lactobacillales, Lazzaro Spallanzani, Leeuwenhoek Medal, Legion of Honour, Lille University of Science and Technology, List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1869, List of things named after Louis Pasteur, List of works by Alexandre Falguière, Longwood Medical and Academic Area, Louis Pasteur University, Louis Thuillier, Louis-Pasteur Vallery-Radot, Lycée Louis Pasteur (Calgary), Lycée Pasteur (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Lycée Saint-Louis, Marcellin Berthelot, Marie Pasteur, Marnes-la-Coquette, Marnoz, Massachusetts, Max Perutz, Medical ethics, Medical license, Microbiologist, Microbiology, Microsporidia, Milan, Milk, Montyon Prize, Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Rouen, Muscardine, Nadar, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Notre-Dame de Paris, Odessa, Optical rotation, Order of the Medjidie, Order of the Rose, Palo Alto, California, Pasteur effect, Pasteur Institute, Pasteurella, Pasteurization, Pébrine, Phenol, Phnom Penh, Physician, Pierre Paul Émile Roux, Plane of polarization, Poland, Polarization (waves), Postpartum infections, Potassium dichromate, Pretoria, Quotation, Rabies, Racemic mixture, Racemization, Rector (academia), Robert Koch, Romania, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Royal Society, Royal Society of Arts, Rumford Medal, San Francisco, San Rafael High School, San Rafael, California, Science History Institute, Secondary education in France, Sketch (drawing), Slovakia, Smallpox, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Spontaneous generation, State funeral, Succinic acid, Swan neck flask, Tartaric acid, Tartrate, Tehran, The BMJ, The New York Review of Books, The Story of Louis Pasteur, The Story of San Michele, Theodor Schwann, Timișoara, Typhoid fever, Ukraine, UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal, University of Lille Nord de France, University of Montpellier, University of Paris, University of Strasbourg, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, University of Warsaw, Uremia, Vaccination, Vaccine, Vaccinia, Variolation, Veterinary surgery, Warsaw, Wine, World Rabies Day, Zymase, Zymotic disease. Expand index (161 more) »

ABDO Publishing Company

ABDO Publishing Company is a book publishing company, specializing in non-fiction books for the school library market.

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Abdul Hamid II

Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.

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Académie française

The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

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Académie Nationale de Médecine

Situated at 16 rue Bonaparte in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, the Académie nationale de médecine (National Academy of Medicine) was created in 1820 by king Louis XVIII at the urging of baron Antoine Portal.

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Agostino Bassi

Agostino Bassi, sometimes called de Lodi (25 September 1773 – 8 February 1856), was an Italian entomologist.

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Alès (Alès) is a commune in the Gard department in the Occitanie region in southern France.

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Albert Medal (Royal Society of Arts)

The Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts (RSA) was instituted in 1864 as a memorial to Prince Albert, who had been President of the Society for 18 years.

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Alfred Vulpian

Edmé Félix Alfred Vulpian (5 January 1826 – 18 May 1887) was a French physician and neurologist.

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Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Alternative medicine

Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.

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Animal rights

Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.

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Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.

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Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.

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Antoine Béchamp

Pierre Jacques Antoine Béchamp (October 16, 1816 – April 15, 1908) was a French scientist now best known for breakthroughs in applied organic chemistry and for a bitter rivalry with Louis Pasteur.

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Antoine Jérôme Balard

Antoine Jérôme Balard (30 September 180230 April 1876) was a French chemist and one of the discoverers of bromine.

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Arbois is a commune in the Jura department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Ardèche (Occitan and Arpitan: Ardecha) is a département in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-central France.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology

Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology is a history of science by Isaac Asimov, written as the biographies of over 1500 scientists.

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Asymmetry is the absence of, or a violation of, symmetry (the property of an object being invariant to a transformation, such as reflection).

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Axel Munthe

Axel Martin Fredrik Munthe (31 October 1857 – 11 February 1949) was a Swedish-born medical doctor and psychiatrist, best known as the author of The Story of San Michele, an autobiographical account of his life and work.

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École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts

The École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts (ENSBA) is a fine arts grand school of PSL Research University in Paris, France.

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École normale supérieure (Paris)

The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup', Ulm, ENS Paris, l'École and most often just as ENS) is one of the most selective and prestigious French grandes écoles (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system) and a constituent college of Université PSL.

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Élie Metchnikoff

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.

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Émile Duclaux

Émile Duclaux (24 June 1840 – May 2, 1904) was a French microbiologist and chemist born in Aurillac, Cantal.

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Émile Littré

Émile Maximilien Paul Littré (1 February 1801 – 2 June 1881) was a French lexicographer, freemason and philosopher, best known for his Dictionnaire de la langue française, commonly called "The Littré".

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Bacillus anthracis

Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.

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Bandung (Sundanese:, Bandung, formerly Dutch: Bandoeng), is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia and Greater Bandung made up of 2 municipalities and 38 districts, making it Indonesia's 2nd largest metropolitan area with over 8.5 millions inhabitants listed in the 2015 Badan Pusat Statistik data.

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Besançon (French and Arpitan:; archaic Bisanz, Vesontio) is the capital of the department of Doubs in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

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Bibliothèque nationale de France

The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.

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A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Bloemfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.

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Bombyx mori

The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.

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Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta.

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Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Charles Cagniard de la Tour

Baron Charles Cagniard de la Tour (31 March 1777 – 5 July 1859) was a French engineer and physicist.

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Charles Chamberland

Charles Chamberland (12 March 1851 – 2 May 1908) was a French microbiologist from Chilly-le-Vignoble in the department of Jura who worked with Louis Pasteur.

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Charles Friedel

Charles Friedel (12 March 1832 – 20 April 1899) was a French chemist and mineralogist.

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Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.

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Chirality (chemistry)

Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.

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Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg; Kolozsvár,; Medieval Latin: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; and קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country.

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Copley Medal

The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.

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Cowpox is an infectious disease caused by the cowpox virus.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).

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Dextrorotation and levorotation

Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Dole, Jura

Dole (sometimes pronounced) is a commune in the Jura department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France, of which it is a subprefecture (sous-préfecture).

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Eduard Buchner

Eduard Buchner (20 May 1860 – 13 August 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation.

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Edward Jenner

Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.

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In epizoology, an epizootic (from Greek: epi- upon + zoon animal) is a disease event in a nonhuman animal population, analogous to an epidemic in humans.

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Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped, nonspore-forming, nonacid-fast, nonmotile bacterium.

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Félix Archimède Pouchet

Félix-Archimède Pouchet (26 August 1800 – 6 December 1872) was a French naturalist and a leading proponent of spontaneous generation of life from non-living materials, and as such an opponent of Louis Pasteur's germ theory.

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Fellow of the Royal Society

Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".

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Ferdinand Cohn

Ferdinand Julius Cohn (24 January 1828 – 25 June 1898) was a German biologist.

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Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.

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Flacherie (literally: "flaccidness") is a disease of silkworms, caused by silkworms eating infected or contaminated mulberry leaves.

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Fowl cholera

Fowl cholera is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia. It is the most common pasteurellosis of poultry.

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The franc (₣) is the name of several currency units.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francesco Redi

Francesco Redi (18 February 1626 – 1 March 1697) was an Italian physician, naturalist, biologist and poet.

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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French people

The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.

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Friedrich Traugott Kützing

Friedrich Traugott Kützing (8 December 1807 in Ritteburg – 9 September 1893) was a German pharmacist, botanist and phycologist.

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Friedrich Wöhler

Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.

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Gerald L. Geison

Gerald Lynn Geison, historian, born 1943 in Savanna, Illinois, died at 58 in 2001.

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Germ theory of disease

The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.

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Great Yarmouth

Great Yarmouth, often known to locals as Yarmouth, is a coastal town in Norfolk, England.

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Hans Ernst August Buchner

Hans Ernst August Buchner (16 December 1850 – 5 April 1902) was a German bacteriologist who was born and raised in Munich.

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Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.

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Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.

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Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp; 1 July 1818 – 13 August 1865) was a Hungarian physician of ethnic-German ancestry, now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures.

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Immunity (medical)

In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Infection control

Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology.

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Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar) into fructose and glucose.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Irvine, California

Irvine is a master-planned city in Orange County, California, United States.

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An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

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Jacques-Joseph Grancher

Jacques-Joseph Grancher (29 September 1843 in Felletin, Creuse – 13 July 1907) was a French pediatrician born in Felletin.

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Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.

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Jean Joseph Henri Toussaint

Jean Joseph Henri Toussaint (30 April 1847 – 3 August 1890) was a French veterinarian born in Rouvres-la-Chétive, department of Vosges.

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Jean-Baptiste Dumas

Jean Baptiste André Dumas (14 July 180010 April 1884) was a French chemist, best known for his works on organic analysis and synthesis, as well as the determination of atomic weights (relative atomic masses) and molecular weights by measuring vapor densities.

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Joseph Lister

Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, (5 April 182710 February 1912), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.

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Joseph Meister

Joseph Meister (21 February 1876 – 24 June 1940) was the first person to be inoculated against rabies by Louis Pasteur, and the first person to be successfully treated for the infection.

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Justus von Liebig

Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.

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Kaiser Permanente

Kaiser Permanente (KP) is an American integrated managed care consortium, based in Oakland, California, United States, founded in 1945 by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and physician Sidney Garfield.

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Košice is the largest city in eastern Slovakia and in 2013 was the European Capital of Culture (together with Marseille, France).

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Lactic acid fermentation

Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.

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Lactobacillales or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an order of Gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring, either rod- or coccus-shaped bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has, throughout history, linked LAB with food fermentations, as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. Proteinaceous bacteriocins are produced by several LAB strains and provide an additional hurdle for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evidenced by their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microflora of human mucosal surfaces. The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as the more peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella; these belong to the order Lactobacillales.

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Lazzaro Spallanzani

Lazzaro Spallanzani (10 January 1729 – 12 February 1799) was an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and animal echolocation.

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Leeuwenhoek Medal

The Leeuwenhoek Medal, established in 1877 by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, (KNAW), in honor of the 17th- and 18th-century microscopist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, is granted every ten years to the scientist judged to have made the most significant contribution to microbiology during the preceding decade.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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Lille University of Science and Technology

The Lille University of Science and Technology (Université Lille 1: Sciences et Technologies) was a French university located on a dedicated main campus in Villeneuve d'Ascq with 20,000 full-time students plus 14,500 students in continuing education (2004).

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List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1869

Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1869.

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List of things named after Louis Pasteur

This article is a list of things named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).

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List of works by Alexandre Falguière

This is a list of some of the works by the French artist Alexandre Falguière.

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Longwood Medical and Academic Area

The Longwood Medical and Academic Area (also known as Longwood Medical Area, LMA, or simply Longwood) is a medical campus in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Louis Pasteur University

Louis Pasteur University (Université Louis-Pasteur), also known as Strasbourg I or ULP was a large university in Strasbourg, Alsace, France.

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Louis Thuillier

Louis Thuillier (4 May 1856 – 19 September 1883) was a French biologist from Amiens.

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Louis-Pasteur Vallery-Radot

Louis Pasteur Vallery-Radot (3 May 1886, Paris - 9 October 1970, Paris) was a French physician, biographer of his grandfather Louis Pasteur and editor of Pasteur's complete works.

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Lycée Louis Pasteur (Calgary)

Lycée Louis Pasteur is a private international French school in Calgary, Alberta.

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Lycée Pasteur (Neuilly-sur-Seine)

The Lycée Pasteur (French: Lycée Pasteur de Neuilly-sur-Seine) is a French state-run secondary school in Neuilly-sur-Seine, on the outskirts of Paris.

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Lycée Saint-Louis

The lycée Saint-Louis is a secondary education establishment located in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, in the Latin Quarter.

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Marcellin Berthelot

Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot FRS FRSE (25 October 1827 – 18 March 1907) was a French chemist and politician noted for the ThomsenendashBerthelot principle of thermochemistry.

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Marie Pasteur

Marie Pasteur, née Laurent (15 January 1826 in Clermont-Ferrand, France – 28 September 1910 in Paris), was the scientific assistant and co-worker of her spouse, the famous French chemist and bacteriologist Louis Pasteur.

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Marnes-la-Coquette (pronounced) is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France.

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Marnoz is a commune in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Max Perutz

Max Ferdinand Perutz (19 May 1914 – 6 February 2002) was an Austrian-born British molecular biologist, who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with John Kendrew, for their studies of the structures of haemoglobin and myoglobin.

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Medical ethics

Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.

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Medical license

A medical license is an occupational license that permits a person to legally practice medicine.

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A microbiologist (from Greek μῑκρος) is a scientist who studies microscopic life forms and processes.

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Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

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Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming unicellular parasites.

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Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

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Montyon Prize

The Montyon Prize (Prix Montyon) is a series of prizes awarded annually by the French Academy of Sciences and the Académie française.

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Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Rouen

The Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Rouen (Natural History Museum) is a museum in Rouen, northern France, founded in 1828 by Félix Archimède Pouchet.

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Muscardine is a disease of insects.

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Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (6 April 1820 – 20 March 1910), known by the pseudonym Nadar, was a French photographer, caricaturist, journalist, novelist, and balloonist (or, more accurately, proponent of manned flight).

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Neuilly-sur-Seine is a French commune just west of Paris, in the department of Hauts-de-Seine.

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Notre-Dame de Paris

Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.

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Optical rotation

Optical rotation or optical activity (sometimes referred to as rotary polarization) is the rotation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light as it travels through certain materials.

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Order of the Medjidie

Medjidie or Mejidie (Mecidiye Nişanı, August 29, 1852 – 1922) is the name of a military and knightly order of the Ottoman Empire.

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Order of the Rose

The Imperial Order of the Rose (Imperial Ordem da Rosa) is a Brazilian order of chivalry, instituted by Emperor Pedro I of Brazil on 17 October 1829 to commemorate his marriage to Amélie of Leuchtenberg.

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Palo Alto, California

Palo Alto is a charter city located in the northwest corner of Santa Clara County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States.

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Pasteur effect

The Pasteur effect is an inhibiting effect of oxygen on the fermentation process.

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Pasteur Institute

The Pasteur Institute (Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines.

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Pasteurella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria.

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Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.

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Pébrine, or "pepper disease," is a disease of silkworms, which is caused by protozoan microsporidian parasites, mainly Nosema bombycis and, to a lesser extent, Vairimorpha, Pleistophora and Thelohania species.

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Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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Phnom Penh

Phnom Penh (or; ភ្នំពេញ phnum pɨñ), formerly known as Krong Chaktomuk or Krong Chaktomuk Serimongkul (ក្រុងចតុមុខសិរិមង្គល), is the capital and most populous city in Cambodia.

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A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Pierre Paul Émile Roux

Pierre Paul Émile Roux FRS (17 December 1853, Confolens, Charente – 3 November 1933, Paris) was a French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist.

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Plane of polarization

The term plane of polarization refers to the direction of polarization of linearly-polarized light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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Postpartum infections

Postpartum infections, also known as childbed fever and puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.

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Potassium dichromate

Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, is a common inorganic chemical reagent, most commonly used as an oxidizing agent in various laboratory and industrial applications. As with all hexavalent chromium compounds, it is acutely and chronically harmful to health. It is a crystalline ionic solid with a very bright, red-orange color. The salt is popular in the laboratory because it is not deliquescent, in contrast to the more industrially relevant salt sodium dichromate.Gerd Anger, Jost Halstenberg, Klaus Hochgeschwender, Christoph Scherhag, Ulrich Korallus, Herbert Knopf, Peter Schmidt, Manfred Ohlinger, "Chromium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005.

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Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng, South Africa.

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A quotation is the repetition of one expression as part of another one, particularly when the quoted expression is well-known or explicitly attributed by citation to its original source, and it is indicated by (punctuated with) quotation marks.

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Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.

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Racemic mixture

In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.

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In chemistry, racemization is the conversion of an enantiomerically pure mixture (one where only one enantiomer is present) into a mixture where more than one of the enantiomers are present.

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Rector (academia)

A rector ("ruler", from meaning "ruler") is a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school.

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Robert Koch

Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Royal Society of Arts

The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges.

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Rumford Medal

The Rumford Medal is an award bestowed by Britain's Royal Society every alternating year for "an outstandingly important recent discovery in the field of thermal or optical properties of matter made by a scientist working in Europe".

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San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

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San Rafael High School

San Rafael High School is a public high school located at 150 Third St.

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San Rafael, California

San Rafael ("Saint Raphael") is a city and the county seat of Marin County, California, United States.

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Science History Institute

The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science.

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Secondary education in France

In France, secondary education is in two stages.

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Sketch (drawing)

A sketch (ultimately from Greek σχέδιος – schedios, "done extempore") is a rapidly executed freehand drawing that is not usually intended as a finished work.

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Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Smithsonian American Art Museum

The Smithsonian American Art Museum (commonly known as SAAM, and formerly the National Museum of American Art) is a museum in Washington, D.C., part of the Smithsonian Institution.

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Spontaneous generation

Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.

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State funeral

A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance.

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Succinic acid

Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2.

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Swan neck flask

A swanneck (or gooseneck) flask is a particular shape of normally plastic or glass tube leading into a test tube or other vessel.

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Tartaric acid

Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds and citrus.

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A tartrate is a salt or ester of the organic compound tartaric acid, a dicarboxylic acid.

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Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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The Story of Louis Pasteur

The Story of Louis Pasteur is a 1936 American black-and-white biographical film from Warner Bros., produced by Henry Blanke, directed by William Dieterle, that stars Josephine Hutchinson, Anita Louise, and Donald Woods, and Paul Muni as the renowned scientist who developed major advances in microbiology, which revolutionized agriculture and medicine.

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The Story of San Michele

The Story of San Michele is a book of memoirs by Swedish physician Axel Munthe (October 31, 1857 – February 11, 1949) first published in 1929 by British publisher John Murray.

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Theodor Schwann

Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.

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Timișoara (Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Temesvár,; טעמשוואר; Темишвар / Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Temeşvar; Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.

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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal

The UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal is a biennial international science prize created jointly by UNESCO and the Pasteur Institute in 1995 "to be awarded in recognition of outstanding research contributing to a beneficial impact on human health and to the advancement of scientific knowledge in related fields such as medicine, fermentations, agriculture and food." Its creation marked the centenary of the death of Louis Pasteur.

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University of Lille Nord de France

The University of Lille Nord de France (Université Lille Nord de France) is a French Groups of Universities and Institutions (COMUE) spread over multiple campuses and centered in Lille.

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University of Montpellier

The University of Montpellier (Université de Montpellier) is a French public research university in Montpellier in south-east of France.

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University of Paris

The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.

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University of Strasbourg

The University of Strasbourg (Université de Strasbourg, Unistra or UDS) in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is the second largest university in France (after Aix-Marseille University), with about 46,000 students and over 4,000 researchers.

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University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, d/b/a UT Health San Antonio is an institute of health science education and research located in the South Texas Medical Center, the medical district of the U.S. city of San Antonio, Texas.

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University of Warsaw

The University of Warsaw (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland.

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Uremia is the condition of having "urea in the blood".

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Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.

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A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.

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Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex, enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family.

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Variolation or inoculation was the method first used to immunize an individual against smallpox (Variola) with material taken from a patient or a recently variolated individual in the hope that a mild, but protective infection would result.

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Veterinary surgery

Veterinary surgery is surgery performed on animals by veterinarians, whereby the procedures fall into three broad categories: orthopaedics (bones, joints, muscles), soft tissue surgery (skin, body cavities, cardiovascular system, GI/urogenital/respiratory tracts), and neurosurgery. Advanced surgical procedures such as joint replacement (total hip, knee and elbow replacement), fracture repair, stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, oncologic (cancer) surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, minimally invasive procedures (arthroscopy, laparoscopy, thoracoscopy) are performed by veterinary surgeons (as registered in their jurisdiction). Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery, some also perform additional procedures. The goal of veterinary surgery may be quite different in pets and in farm animals. In the former, the situation is more close to that with human beings, where the benefit to the patient is the important factor. In the latter, the economic benefit is more important.

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Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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World Rabies Day

World Rabies Day is an international awareness campaign coordinated by the Global Alliance for Rabies Control, a non-profit organization with headquarters in the United States.

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Zymase is an enzyme complex that catalyzes the fermentation of sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

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Zymotic disease

Zymotic disease was a 19th-century medical term for acute infectious diseases, especially "chief fevers and contagious diseases (e.g. typhus and typhoid fevers, smallpox, scarlet fever, measles, erysipelas, cholera, whooping-cough, diphtheria, &c.)".

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Redirects here:

L Pasteur, L. Pasteur, Louis Pastuer, Luis Pasteur, Pasteur, Pasteur (scientist), Pasteur, Louis.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Pasteur

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