319 relations: Absolution, Adam Smith, Adélaïde of France (1732–1800), Adrien Maurice de Noailles, Age of Enlightenment, Amélie Florimond de Norville, Ancient Diocese of Narbonne, André-Hercule de Fleury, Ange-Jacques Gabriel, Anita Louise, Annales school, Anne Couppier de Romans, Anne Marie d'Orléans, Anne of Austria, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1610–1665), Asia Argento, Augustine of Hippo, Austrian Netherlands, École Militaire, Élisabeth de Bourbon, Étienne de Silhouette, Étienne François, duc de Choiseul, Baptism, Basilica of St Denis, Battle of Dettingen, Battle of Fontenoy, Battle of Fort Duquesne, Battle of Lauffeld, Battle of Minorca (1756), Battle of Ponte Novu, Battle of Rocoux, Battle of Rossbach, Bergerac, Dordogne, Black Magic (1949 film), Blaise Pascal, Bordeaux, Brittany, Cabriole leg, Cancale, Cape Breton Island, Capetian dynasty, Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire, Catherine I of Russia, Catholic Church, César-François Cassini de Thury, Charles Amadeus, Duke of 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Absolution is a traditional theological term for the forgiveness experienced in the Sacrament of Penance.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Marie Adélaïde de France, (23 March 1732 in Versailles – 27 February 1800 in Trieste), was a French princess, the fourth daughter and sixth child of King Louis XV of France and his consort, Marie Leszczyńska.
Adrien Maurice de Noailles, 3rd Duke of Noailles (29 September 1678 – 24 June 1766) was a French nobleman and soldier.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Amélie Florimond de Norville or Amélie Florimond, after her marriage Amélie de Faure (11 January 1753 — 27 September 1790) was probably an illegitimate daughter of Louis XV, king of France.
The former Catholic diocese of Narbonne existed from early Christian times until the French Revolution.
André-Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus, Archbishop of Aix (22 June or 26 June 165329 January 1743) was a French cardinal who served as the chief minister of Louis XV.
Ange-Jacques Gabriel (23 October 1698 – 4 January 1782) was the principal architect of King Louis XV of France.
Anita Louise (born Anita Louise Fremault, January 9, 1915 – April 25, 1970) was an American film and television actress best known for her performances in A Midsummer Night's Dream (1935), The Story of Louis Pasteur (1935), Anthony Adverse (1936), Marie Antoinette (1938) and The Little Princess (1939).
The Annales school is a group of historians associated with a style of historiography developed by French historians in the 20th century to stress long-term social history.
Anne Couppier de Romans (1737-1808), was a French noble, mistress to Louis XV of France from 1760 to 1765.
Anne Marie d'Orléans (27 August 1669 – 26 August 1728) was the first Queen consort of Sardinia by marriage to Victor Amadeus II of Savoy.
Anne of Austria (22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651.
Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (German: Maria Anna von Habsburg, Erzherzogin von Österreich, also known as Maria Anna von Bayern or Maria-Anna, Kurfürstin von Bayern; 13 January 1610 – 25 September 1665), was a German regent, Electress of Bavaria by marriage to Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, and co-regent of the Electorate of Bavaria during the minority of her son Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria from 1651 to 1654.
Asia Argento (born Aria Maria Vittoria Rossa Argento; 20 September 1975) is an Italian actress, singer, model, activist and director.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
The Austrian Netherlands (Oostenrijkse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas Autrichiens; Österreichische Niederlande; Belgium Austriacum) was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands between 1714 and 1797.
The École Militaire ("military school") is a vast complex of buildings housing various military training facilities in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, southeast of the Champ de Mars.
Élisabeth de Bourbon (August 1614 – 19 May 1664) was a granddaughter of King Henry IV of France.
Étienne de Silhouette (5 July 1709 – 20 January 1767) was a French Ancien Régime Controller-General of Finances under Louis XV.
Étienne-François, Marquis de Stainville, 1er Duc de Choiseul (28 June 1719 – 8 May 1785) was a French military officer, diplomat and statesman.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
The Battle of Dettingen (Schlacht bei Dettingen) took place on 27 June 1743 at Dettingen on the River Main, Germany, during the War of the Austrian Succession.
The Battle of Fontenoy, 11 May 1745,This article uses the Gregorian calendar (unless otherwise stated).
The Battle of Fort Duquesne was a British assault on the eponymous French fort (later the site of Pittsburgh) that was repulsed with heavy losses on 14 September 1758, during the French and Indian War.
The Battle of Lauffeld, also known as Lafelt, Laffeld, Lawfeld, Lawfeldt, Maastricht or Val, took place on 2 July 1747, during the French invasion of the Netherlands.
The Battle of Minorca (20 May 1756) was a naval battle between French and British fleets.
The Battle of Ponte Novu took place on May 8 and 9 1769 between royal French forces under the Comte de Vaux, a seasoned professional soldier with an expert on mountain warfare on his staff, and the native Corsicans under Carlo Salicetti.
The Battle of Rocoux (11 October 1746) was a French victory over an allied Austrian, British, Hanoveran and Dutch army in Rocourt (or Rocoux), outside Liège during War of the Austrian Succession.
The Battle of Rossbach took place on 5 November 1757 during the Third Silesian War (1756–1763, part of the Seven Years' War) near the village of Rossbach (Roßbach), in the Electorate of Saxony.
Bergerac is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Dordogne department in southwestern France.
Black Magic is a 1949 film adaptation of Alexandre Dumas's novel Joseph Balsamo.
Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
A cabriole leg is one of (usually) four vertical supports of a piece of furniture shaped in two curves; the upper arc is convex, while lower is concave; the upper curve always bows outward, while the lower curve bows inward; with the axes of the two curves in the same plane.
Cancale (Gallo: Cauncall) is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale; Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Breatainn; Unama'kik; or simply Cape Breton, Cape is Latin for "headland" and Breton is Latin for "British") is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.
The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, founded by Hugh Capet.
Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire were contracts between the Ottoman Empire and European powers, particularly France.
Catherine I (Yekaterina I Alekseyevna, born, later known as Marta Samuilovna Skavronskaya; –) was the second wife of Peter the Great and Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
César-François Cassini de Thury (17 June 1714 – 4 September 1784), also called Cassini III or Cassini de Thury, was a French astronomer and cartographer.
Charles Amadeus of Savoy (Charles-Amédée de Savoie), Duke of Nemours (12 April 162430 July 1652) was a French military leader and magnate.
Charles Clary (March 24, 1873 – March 24, 1931) was an American actor of the silent film era.
Charles de Vintimille (1741-1814), marquis du Luc, was a French aristocrat and governor.
Charles Emmanuel II (Carlo Emanuele II di Savoia); 20 June 1634 – 12 June 1675) was the Duke of Savoy from 1638 to 1675 and under regency of his mother Christine of France until 1648. He was also Marquis of Saluzzo, Count of Aosta, Geneva, Moriana and Nice, as well as claimant king of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia. At his death in 1675 his second wife Marie Jeanne of Savoy acted as Regent for their nine-year-old son.
Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector, comte d'Estaing (24 November 1729 – 28 April 1794) was a French general and admiral.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand.
Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, duc de Belle-Isle (22 September 1684 – 26 January 1761) was a French general and statesman.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
Charles X (Charles Philippe; 9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836) was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830.
Charles de Rohan (16 July 17151 July 1787), duke of Rohan-Rohan, seigneur of Roberval, and marshal of France from 1758, was a military man, and a minister to the kings Louis XV and Louis XVI.
The Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France, is one of the most recognisable châteaux in the world because of its very distinctive French Renaissance architecture which blends traditional French medieval forms with classical Renaissance structures.
The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal fortress in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Christine Marie of France (10 February 1606 – 27 December 1663) was the sister of Louis XIII and the Duchess of Savoy by marriage.
A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
Colin David Hugh Jones (born December 12 1947) CBE is a British historian of France and professor of history at Queen Mary University of London.
The Collège de France, founded in 1530, is a higher education and research establishment (grand établissement) in France and an affiliate college of PSL University.
Colorno (Parmigiano: Colórni) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Parma in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about northwest of Bologna and about north of Parma.
The Controller-General or Comptroller-General of Finances (Contrôleur général des finances) was the name of the minister in charge of finances in France from 1661 to 1791.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
In November 1755, Pasquale Paoli proclaimed Corsica a sovereign nation, the Corsican Republic, independent from the Republic of Genoa.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Daniel Ivernel (3 June 1920 – 11 November 1999) was a French film actor.
The Dauphin of France (Dauphin de France)—strictly The Dauphin of Viennois (Dauphin de Viennois)—was the dynastic title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Dolores del Río (born María de los Dolores Asúnsolo López-Negrete; 3 August 1904 – 11 April 1983) was a Mexican actress.
The don graduit or "free gift" in English, was a voluntary contribution to royal finances paid by the First Estate (the clergy) under France's ancien regime.
Douai (Dowaai; historically "Doway" in English) is a commune in the Nord département in northern France.
Du Barry Was a Lady is a 1943 American musical comedy film, starring Red Skelton, Lucille Ball, Gene Kelly and Tommy Dorsey and his Orchestra.
The County of Bar, from 1354 the Duchy of Bar, was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire encompassing the pays de Barrois and centred on the city of Bar-le-Duc.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.
Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg (12 January 1721, Wolfenbüttel – 3 July 1792, Vechelde), was a German-Prussian field marshal (1758–1766) known for his participation in the Seven Years' War.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Edmé Bouchardon (29 May 1698 – 27 July 1762) was a French sculptor esteemed and valued as well as a painter and draughtsman.
Elisabeth Farnese (Italian: Elisabetta Farnese, Spanish: Isabel de Farnesio; 25 October 1692 – 11 July 1766) was Queen of Spain by marriage to King Philip V. She exerted great influence over Spain's foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746.
Elisabeth of France (22 November 1602 – 6 October 1644) was Queen consort of Spain (1621 to 1644) and Portugal (1621 to 1640) as the first spouse of King Philip IV of Spain.
Emil Jannings (born Theodor Friedrich Emil Janenz, 23 July 1884 – 2 January 1950) was a German actor, popular in 1920s film in Hollywood.
Emmanuel Bernard Le Roy Ladurie (born 19 July 1929) is a French historian whose work is mainly focused upon Languedoc in the Ancien Régime, particularly the history of the peasantry.
Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian who, after settling in England in 1936, became a naturalised British citizen in 1947 and spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom.
In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General (French: États généraux) or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
The Falklands Crisis of 1770 was a diplomatic standoff between Great Britain and Spain over possession of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Ferdinand Maria (31 October 1636 – 26 May 1679) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire from 1651 to 1679.
Fort Necessity National Battlefield is a National Battlefield Site in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, United States, which preserves the site of the Battle of Fort Necessity.
François Boucher (29 September 1703 – 30 May 1770) was a French painter, draughtsman and etcher, who worked in the Rococo style.
François Couperin (10 November 1668 – 11 September 1733) was a French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist.
François de Neufville, (2nd) Duke of Villeroy (7 April 164418 July 1730) was a French soldier.
François Quesnay (4 June 1694 – 16 December 1774) was a French economist and physician of the Physiocratic school.
François-Hubert Drouais (December 14, 1727 – October 21, 1775) was a French painter and the father of Jean-Germain Drouais.
Françoise de Chalus (bap. Chalus, 24 February 1734 - Paris, 7 July 1821), was a French noblewoman and courtier.
Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart de Mortemart, Marquise of Montespan (5 October 1640 – 27 May 1707), better known as Madame de Montespan, was the most celebrated maîtresse-en-titre of King Louis XIV of France, by whom she had seven children.
Franche-Comté (literally "Free County", Frainc-Comtou dialect: Fraintche-Comtè; Franche-Comtât; Freigrafschaft; Franco Condado) is a former administrative region and a traditional province of eastern France.
Francis I (Franz Stefan, François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.
The Franco-Ottoman alliance, also Franco-Turkish alliance, was an alliance established in 1536 between the king of France Francis I and the Turkish sultan of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I) (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (Soldatenkönig), was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740 as well as the father of Frederick the Great.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
The French Crown Jewels (Joyaux de la Couronne de France) comprise the crowns, orb, sceptres, diadems and jewels that were symbols of Royal power between 752 and 1825.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Germain Louis Chauvelin (26 March 1685 – 1 April 1762, Paris), marquis de Grosbois, was a French politician, serving as garde des sceaux and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs under Louis XV.
Gladys George (September 13, 1904 – December 8, 1954) was an American actress of stage and screen..
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
The Grand Trianon is a château (palace) situated in the northwestern part of the Domain of Versailles.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
Gustav III (– 29 March 1792) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792.
Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.
Henri Léonard Jean Baptiste Bertin (born March 24, 1720, Périgueux – September 16, 1792, Spa (Belgium)) was a French statesman, and controller general of finances of Louis XV (1759–1763).
Henrietta Maria of France (Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II/VII.
Henrietta of England (16 June 1644 O.S. (26 June 1644 N.S.) – 30 June 1670) was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France.
Anne Henriette of France(14 August 1727 – 10 February 1752) was a French princess, the twin of Louise Élisabeth of France, and the second child of King Louis XV of France and queen consort Marie Leszczyńska.
A herald, or a herald of arms, is an officer of arms, ranking between pursuivant and king of arms.
High heels are a type of shoe in which the heel, compared to the toe, is significantly higher off of the ground.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
Jacques Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay (28 May 1712, Saint-Malo – 27 June 1759, Cádiz) was a French economist and intendant of commerce.
Jansenism was a Catholic theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination.
Jay Hickman is an American actor, best known for his prolific voice work on English language dubs of Japanese anime shows for ADV Films, Sentai Filmworks and Funimation.
Jean-Baptiste de Machault d'Arnouville, comte d'Arnouville, seigneur de Garge et de Gonesse, was born in Paris on 13 December 1701 and died on 12 July 1794 in a French Revolutionary prison.
Jean-Baptiste Oudry (17 March 1686 – 30 April 1755) was a French Rococo painter, engraver, and tapestry designer.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jean-Marc Nattier (17 March 1685 – 7 November 1766), French painter, was born in Paris, the second son of Marc Nattier (1642–1705), a portrait painter, and of Marie Courtois (1655–1703), a miniaturist.
Jean-Philippe Rameau (–) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the 18th century.
John Barrymore (born John Sidney Blyth; February 14 or 15, 1882 – May 29, 1942) was an American actor on stage, screen and radio.
John Law (baptised 21 April 1671 – 21 March 1729) was a Scottish economist who believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself and that national wealth depended on trade.
Joseph Coulon de Villiers, Sieur de Jumonville (8 September 1718 – May 28, 1754) was a French Canadian military officer.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
Kirsten Caroline Dunst (born April 30, 1982) is an American actress.
Languedoc (Lengadòc) is a former province of France.
is a 24-episode anime television series produced by Production I.G based on an original story by Tow Ubukata.
Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.
Linz (Linec) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich).
This is a list of famous big-game hunters who gained fame largely or solely because of their big-game hunting exploits.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
In France under the Ancien Régime, the lit de justice ("bed of justice") was a particular formal session of the Parlement of Paris, under the presidency of the king, for the compulsory registration of the royal edicts.
The livre tournois (Tours pound) was.
The Loire Valley (Vallée de la Loire), spanning, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire.
Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.
Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine (31 March 1670 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye – 14 May 1736 in Sceaux) was a legitimised son of the French king Louis XIV and his official mistress, Madame de Montespan.
Louis Charles César Le Tellier, Duke d'Estrées (2 July 1695 – 2 January 1771) was a French military commander and Marshal of France.
Louis Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon, or Louis Henri I, Prince of Condé (18 August 1692 – 27 January 1740), was head of the Bourbon-Condé cadet branch of the France's reigning House of Bourbon from 1710 to his death, and served as prime minister to his kinsman Louis XV from 1723 to 1726.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Louis Philippe d'Orléans known as le Gros (the Fat) (12 May 1725 – 18 November 1785), was a French prince, a member of a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, the dynasty then ruling France.
Louis Philippe Joseph d'Orléans (13 April 17476 November 1793), most commonly known as Philippe, was born at the Château de Saint-Cloud.
The Louis XV style or Louis Quinze is a style of architecture and decorative arts which appeared during the reign of Louis XV of France.
Louis Racine (born 6 November 1692, Paris; died 29 January 1763, Paris) was a French poet of the Age of the Enlightenment.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
The furniture of the Louis XV period (1715-1774) is characterized by curved forms, lightness, comfort and symmetry; it replaced the more formal, boxlike and massive furniture of the Style Louis XIV.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
Louis Marie Jacques Amalric, comte de Narbonne-Lara (17, 23 or 24 August 1755 – 17 November 1813) was a French nobleman, soldier and diplomat.
Louis, Dauphin of France (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765) was the elder and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie Leszczyńska.
Louis, Duke of Brittany (8 January 1707 – 8 March 1712), was the first son of Louis of France, Duke of Burgundy, and Marie Adélaïde of Savoy.
Louis, Duke of Burgundy and later Dauphin of France (16 August 1682 – 18 February 1712) was the eldest son of Louis, Grand Dauphin, and father of Louis XV, and briefly heir to the throne from his father's death in April 1711 to his own death 10 months later.
Louis Joseph Xavier, Duke of Burgundy (13 September 1751 – 22 March 1761), was a French prince of the House of Bourbon.
Louis, Duke of Orléans (4 August 1703 – 4 February 1752) was a member of the royal family of France, the House of Bourbon, and as such was a prince du sang.
Louis of France (1 November 1661 – 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of Louis XIV, King of France, and his spouse, Maria Theresa of Spain.
Louisbourg is an unincorporated community and former town in Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia.
Marie Louise Élisabeth of France (Marie Louise Élisabeth; 14 August 1727 – 6 December 1759) was a French princess, the eldest daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort, Maria Leszczyńska, and the elder twin of Anne Henriette de France.
Louise Julie de Mailly-Nesle, comtesse de Mailly (1710–1751) was the eldest of the five famous de Nesle sisters, four of whom would become the mistress of King Louis XV of France.
The Venerable Louise-Marie of France (15 July 1737 – 23 December 1787) was a French princess and Carmelite, the youngest of the ten children of Louis XV and Maria Leszczyńska.
Louise-Jeanne Tiercelin de La Colleterie (1746-1779), was a French noble, mistress to Louis XV of France from 1762 to 1765.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an American actress, comedian, model, film-studio executive, and producer.
Maastricht (Limburgish: Mestreech; French: Maestricht; Spanish: Mastrique) is a city and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands.
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour (29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764), commonly known as Madame de Pompadour, was a member of the French court and was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to 1751, and remained influential as court favourite until her death.
Jeanne Bécu, Comtesse du Barry (19 August 1743 – 8 December 1793) was the last Maîtresse-en-titre of Louis XV of France and one of the victims of the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution.
Madame Du Barry or Du Barry is a 1917 American silent historical drama film directed by J. Gordon Edwards and starring Theda Bara.
Madame DuBarry is a 1934 American historical film directed by William Dieterle and starring Dolores del Rio, Reginald Owen, Victor Jory and Osgood Perkins.
Maréchal de camp (sometimes incorrectly translated as field marshal) was a general officer rank used by the French Army until 1848.
Marc-Pierre de Voyer de Paulmy, Comte d'Argenson (16 August 1696, Paris22 August 1764, Paris) was a French politician.
Margot Grahame (born Margaret Clark, 20 February 1911 – 1 January 1982) was an English actress most noted for starring in The Informer (1935) and The Three Musketeers (1935).
Marguerite-Catherine Haynault (1736-1823), was a French noble, mistress to Louis XV of France from 1760 to 1766.
Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, Dauphine of France (Maria Anna Christina Victoria; 28 November 1660 – 20 April 1690) was Dauphine of France by marriage to Louis, Grand Dauphin, son and heir of Louis XIV.
Maria Josepha of Saxony (Maria Josepha Karolina Eleonore Franziska Xaveria; 4 November 1731 – 13 March 1767) was a Dauphine of France from the age of fifteen through her marriage to Louis de France, the son and heir of Louis XV.
Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain (María Teresa Antonia Rafaela; 11 June 1726 – 22 July 1746) was an Infanta of Spain by birth and Dauphine of France by marriage to Louis, Dauphin of France, son of Louis XV of France.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Maria Theresa of Spain (María Teresa de Austria; Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche; 10 September 1638 – 30 July 1683), was by birth Infanta of Spain and Portugal (until 1640) and Archduchess of Austria as member of the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Queen of France.
Mariana Victoria of Spain (Mariana Vitória; 31 March 1718 – 15 January 1781) was an Infanta of Spain by birth and was later the Queen of Portugal as wife of King Joseph I. The eldest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, she was engaged to the young Louis XV of France at the age of seven.
Marie Adélaïde of Savoy (6 December 1685 – 12 February 1712) was the wife of Louis, Dauphin of France, Duke of Burgundy.
Marie Anne de Mailly-Nesle, duchesse de Châteauroux (5 October 1717 – 8 December 1744) was the youngest of the five famous de Nesle sisters, four of whom would become the mistress of King Louis XV of France.
Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution.
Marie Antoinette is a 1938 American historical drama film produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
Marie Antoinette is a 2006 historical drama film written and directed by Sofia Coppola and starring Kirsten Dunst.
Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné (5 February 1626 – 17 April 1696) was a French aristocrat, remembered for her letter-writing.
Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours (11 April 1644 – 15 March 1724) was born a Princess of Savoy and became the Duchess of Savoy by marriage.
Maria Karolina Zofia Felicja Leszczyńska (23 June 1703 – 24 June 1768) also known as Marie Leczinska, was a Polish noblewoman and French Queen consort.
Marie Louise of France (28 July 1728 – 19 February 1733) was a French princess, daughter of Louis XV of France and queen Marie Leszczyńska.
Marie-Galante is an island of the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea located south of Guadeloupe and north of Dominica.
Marie-Louise O'Murphy (also variously called Mademoiselle de Morphy, La Belle Morphise, Louise Morfi or Marie-Louise Morphy de Boisfailly; 21 October 1737 – 11 December 1814) was one of the lesser mistresses (petites maîtresses) of King Louis XV of France, and a model for the famous painting of François Boucher.
Martine Carol (16 May 1920 – 6 February 1967) was a French film actress.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
Maurice, Count of Saxony (Hermann Moritz Graf von Sachsen, Maurice de Saxe; 28 October 1696 – 20 November 1750) was a German soldier and officer of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire, the Imperial Army, and at last in French service who became a Marshal and later also Marshal General of France.
Maurice Quentin de La Tour (5 September 1704 – 17 February 1788) was a French Rococo portraitist who worked primarily with pastels.
Maximilian I (17 April 157327 September 1651), occasionally called "the Great", a member of the House of Wittelsbach, ruled as Duke of Bavaria from 1597.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Mesdames (My Ladies) is a form of address for several adult females.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
The Mississippi Company (Compagnie du Mississippi; founded 1684, named the Company of the West from 1717, and the Company of the Indies from 1719) was a corporation holding a business monopoly in French colonies in North America and the West Indies.
A mistress is a relatively long-term female lover and companion who is not married to her partner, especially when her partner is married to someone else.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Montjoie Saint Denis! was the battle cry and motto of the Kingdom of France.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Nancy Guild (October 11, 1925 – August 16, 1999) was an American film actress of the 1940s and 1950s.
Nancy (Nanzig) is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
Edith Norma Shearer (August 11, 1902 – June 12, 1983) was a Canadian-American actress and Hollywood star from 1925 through 1942.
Norma Marie Talmadge (May 2, 1894 – December 24, 1957) was an American actress and film producer of the silent era.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Oise is a river of Belgium and France, flowing for from its source in the Belgian province of Hainaut, south of Chimay.
The Order of Saint Michael (Ordre de Saint-Michel) is a French dynastic order of chivalry, founded by Louis XI of France on 1 August 1469, in competitive response to the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece founded by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, Louis' chief competitor for the allegiance of the great houses of France, the Dukes of Orléans, Berry, and Brittany.
The Order of the Holy Spirit, also known as the Order of the Knights of the Holy Spirit (Ordre du Saint-Esprit or Ordre des chevaliers du Saint-Esprit; sometimes translated into English as the Order of the Holy Ghost), is a French order of chivalry founded by Henry III of France in 1578.
The Oriflamme (from Latin aurea flamma, "golden flame") was the battle standard of the King of France in the Middle Ages.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Outlander is a television drama series based on the historical time travel ''Outlander'' series of novels by Diana Gabaldon.
The following outline is provided as an overview and topical guide of France: France – country in Western Europe with several overseas regions and territories.
The Pacte de Famille (Family Compact; Pacto de Familia) is one of three separate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain.
The Palace of Fontainebleau or Château de Fontainebleau, located southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
The Palais de la Cité, located on the Île de la Cité in the Seine River in the center of Paris, was the residence of the Kings of France from the sixth century until the 14th century.
The Palais-Royal, originally called the Palais-Cardinal, is a former royal palace located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France.
The Panthéon (pantheon, from Greek πάνθειον (ἱερόν) '(temple) to all the gods') is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court.
Filippo Antonio Pasquale di Paoli FRS (Pascal Paoli; 6 April 1725 – 5 February 1807) was a Corsican patriot and leader, the president of the Executive Council of the General Diet of the People of Corsica.
Pau is a commune on the northern edge of the Pyrenees, and capital of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Département in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France.
Pauline Félicité de Mailly-Nesle (1712–1741), marquise de Vintimille, was the second of the five famous de Nesle sisters, four of whom would become mistresses of King Louis XV of France.
Peter III (21 February 1728 –) (Пётр III Фëдорович, Pyotr III Fyodorovich) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
The Petit Trianon (French for "small Trianon"), built between 1762 and 1768 during the reign of Louis XV of France, is a small château located on the grounds of the Palace of Versailles in Versailles, France.
Philibert Orry, count of Vignory and lord of La Chapelle-Godefroy (born in Troyes on 22 January 1689 – died at La Chapelle-Godefroy on 9 November 1747), was a French statesman.
Philip IV of Spain (Felipe IV; 8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665) was King of Spain (as Philip IV in Castille and Philip III in Aragon) and Portugal as Philip III (Filipe III).
Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 15 January 1724, and from his reascendancy of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.
Philippe de Courcillon, Marquis de Dangeau (21 September 1638 – 9 September 1720) was a French officer and author.
Philippe, Duke of Orléans (21 September 1640 – 9 June 1701) was the younger son of Louis XIII of France and his wife, Anne of Austria.
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans (Philippe Charles; 2 August 1674 – 2 December 1723), was a member of the royal family of France and served as Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723.
Philippe de France, Duke of Anjou (30 August 1730 – 7 April 1733) was a French prince and second son of king Louis XV of France and Marie Leszczyńska.
The public square in the 4th arrondissement of Paris that is now the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville (City Hall Plaza) was, before 1802, called the Place de Grève.
The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France.
A French invasion of Great Britain was planned to take place in 1759 during the Seven Years' War, but due to various factors (including naval defeats at the Battle of Lagos and the Battle of Quiberon Bay) was never launched.
Pola Negri (born Barbara Apolonia Chałupec; 3 January 18971 August 1987) was a Polish stage and film actress who achieved worldwide fame during the silent and golden eras of Hollywood and European film for her tragedienne and femme fatale roles.
Pondicherry (or; French: Pondichéry) is the capital city and the largest city of the Indian union territory of Puducherry.
Porquerolles, also known as the Île de Porquerolles, is an island in the Îles d'Hyères, Var, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France.
Port Louis (Port-Louis, Mauritian Creole: Porlwi poːrlwi) is the capital city of Mauritius.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.
Henriette Adelaide of Savoy (Enrichetta Adelaide Maria; 6 November 1636 – 13 June 1676), was Electress of Bavaria by marriage to Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria.
ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (PQDT) is an online database that indexes, abstracts, and provides full-text access to dissertations and theses.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
The Régence (Regency) was the period in French history between 1715 and 1723, when King Louis XV was a minor and the land was governed by Philippe d'Orléans, a nephew of Louis XIV of France, as prince regent.
Richard "Red" Skelton (July 18, 1913September 17, 1997) was an American comedy entertainer.
John Reginald Owen (5 August 1887 – 5 November 1972) was an English character actor.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
Reims Cathedral (Our Lady of Reims, Notre-Dame de Reims) is a Roman Catholic church in Reims, France, built in the High Gothic style.
René-Louis de Voyer de Paulmy, Marquis d'Argenson (18 October 169426 January 1757) was a French statesman.
René Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou (25 February 1714 – 29 July 1792) was a French lawyer, politician, and chancellor of France, whose attempts at reform signalled the failure of enlightened despotism in France.
Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
Elmore Rual Torn Jr. (born February 6, 1931), known within his family and professionally as Rip Torn, is an American actor, voice artist, and comedian.
Sir (Alexander) Robert Atkins, CBE (10 August 1886 – 9 February 1972) was an English actor, producer and director.
Robert-François Damiens (9 January 1715 – 28 March 1757) was a French domestic servant whose attempted assassination of King Louis XV of France in 1757 culminated in his notorious and controversial public execution.
Rocaille was a French style of exuberant decoration, with an abundance of curves, counter-curves, undulations and elements modeled on nature, that appeared in furniture and interior decoration during the early reign of Louis XV of France.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
"Santa Lucia" is a traditional Neapolitan song.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
The Siege of Brussels took place between January and February 1746 during the War of the Austrian Succession.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
Sophie Philippine Élisabeth Justine de France, (27 July 1734 – 2 March 1782) was a French princess, a fils de France; she was the sixth daughter and eighth child of Louis XV of France and his queen consort Marie Leszczyńska.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).
Stanisław I Leszczyński (also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, Stanislovas Leščinskis, Stanislas Leszczynski; 20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766) was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.
The precise style of French Sovereigns varied over the years.
The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire (1759), France (1764), the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma, the Spanish Empire (1767) and Austria and Hungary (1782) is a complex topic.
A tabard is a short coat common for men during the Middle Ages.
Thérèse de France, (Marie Thérèse Félicité; 16 May 1736 – 28 September 1744) was a French princess, daughter of Louis XV of France and Marie Leszczyńska.
, also known as Lady Oscar or La Rose de Versailles, is one of the best-known titles in ''shōjo'' manga and a media franchise created by Riyoko Ikeda.
Theda Bara (born Theodosia Burr Goodman, July 29, 1885 – April 7, 1955) was an American silent film and stage actress.
Tobago is an autonomous island within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.
Torgau is a town on the banks of the Elbe in northwestern Saxony, Germany.
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748, sometimes called the Treaty of Aachen, ended the War of the Austrian Succession following a congress assembled on 24 April 1748 at the Free Imperial City of Aachen, called Aix-la-Chapelle in French and then also in English, in the west of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Treaty of Belgrade, known as the Belgrade peace was the peace treaty signed on September 18, 1739 in Belgrade, Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia (today Serbia), by the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Habsburg Monarchy on the other, that ended the Austro–Turkish War (1737–39).
The Treaty of Versailles, also known as the First Treaty of Versailles, was a diplomatic agreement between Austria and France.
The Treaty of Versailles was concluded on May 15, 1768 at Versailles between the Republic of Genoa and France.
The Triple Alliance was a treaty between the Dutch Republic, France and Great Britain, against Spain, attempting to maintain the agreement of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht.
The Tuileries Palace (Palais des Tuileries) was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine.
Unigenitus (named for its Latin opening words Unigenitus dei filius, or "Only-begotten son of God"), an apostolic constitution in the form of a papal bull promulgated by Pope Clement XI in 1713, opened the final phase of the Jansenist controversy in France.
Victoire de France, (Marie Louise Thérèse Victoire; 11 May 1733 – 7 June 1799) was a French princess, the seventh child and fifth daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Maria Leszczyńska.
Victor Amadeus I (Vittorio Amedeo I di Savoia; 8 May 1587 – 7 October 1637) was the Duke of Savoy from 1630 to 1637.
Victor Amadeus II (Vittorio Amedeo Francesco; 14 May 1666 – 31 October 1732) was Duke of Savoy from 1675 to 1730.
Victor de Riqueti, Marquis de Mirabeau (5 October 1715, Pertuis – 13 July 1789, Argenteuil) was a French economist of the Physiocratic school.
Victor François de Broglie, 2nd duc de Broglie (19 October 171830 March 1804) was a French aristocrat and soldier and a marshal of France.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
The War of the Polish Succession (1733–35) was a major European war sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus II, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests.
William Farnum (July 4, 1876 – June 5, 1953) was an American stage and film actor.
William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.