187 relations: Aachen, Abbey of Saint-Arnould, Abbey of Saint-Médard de Soissons, Abbey of Saint-Vaast, Adalard of Corbie, Agobard, Alamannia, Angeac-Charente, Anjou, Antwerp, Aquitaine, Archbishop of Cologne, Ardennes, Arnulf of Sens, Attigny, Ardennes, Austrasia, Ébreuil, Barcelona, Basques, Battle of Roncevaux Pass, Bavaria, Benedict of Aniane, Benedict of Nursia, Bera, Count of Barcelona, Bernard of Italy, Bernard of Septimania, Bertrada of Laon, Bertrada of Prüm, Borna (duke), Bretons, Brittany, Bulgaria, Burgundy, Cadolah of Friuli, Camille Jullian, Carolingian dynasty, Córdoba, Spain, Chalon-sur-Saône, Charibert of Laon, Charlemagne, Charles Martel, Charles Oman, Charles the Bald, Charles the Younger, Chasseneuil-du-Poitou, Clermont-Ferrand, Compiègne, Corbie, Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor, Council of Paderborn, ..., Crémieu, Dalmatia, Danes (Germanic tribe), Dorestad, Doué-la-Fontaine, Drava, Drogo of Metz, Duchy of Aquitaine, Duchy of Benevento, Duchy of Gascony, Duchy of Swabia, Dukes and margraves of Friuli, East Francia, Ebbo, Eberhard of Friuli, Einhard, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, Field of Lies, François-Louis Ganshof, Francia, Frankfurt, Free Imperial City of Aachen, Frisia, Gallo-Roman culture, Garonne, Gascony, Gerold of Vinzgau, Gisela, daughter of Louis the Pious, Grimoald IV of Benevento, Hildebold, Hildegard of the Vinzgau, Hilduin, Hnabi, Holy Roman Emperor, Hugh (abbot of Saint-Quentin), Hugh of Tours, Hunald II, Huoching, Imperial Palace, Ingelheim, Ingelheim am Rhein, Ingerman, Count of Hesbaye, Iron Crown of Lombardy, Judith of Bavaria (died 843), King of Italy, Lake Geneva, Leibulf of Provence, List of Dukes and Princes of Benevento, List of Frankish kings, Ljudevit, Loire, Lothair I, Louis the German, Low Countries, Lupo III Centule of Gascony, Marca Hispanica, March of Pannonia, Matfrid, Maundy Thursday, Metz, Middle Francia, Missus dominicus, Muslim, Neustria, New Testament military metaphors, Nijmegen, Noirmoutier, Obotrites, Omurtag of Bulgaria, Orléans, Paderborn, Paganism, Pamplona, Pannonia, Penance, Pepin I of Aquitaine, Pepin II of Aquitaine, Pepin of Herstal, Pepin of Italy, Pepin the Short, Placitum, Poitiers, Pope Gregory IV, Pope Leo III, Pope Paschal I, Pope Stephen IV, Prüm, Prosopography, Provence, Pyrenees, Questia Online Library, Quierzy, Rabanus Maurus, Regent, Reims, Rhine, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lyon, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reims, Roman Catholic Diocese of Amiens, Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz, Roman villa, Rorik of Dorestad, Rotrude of Hesbaye, Rule of Saint Benedict, Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, Sancho I of Gascony, Sava, Saxony, Seguin I of Gascony, Sens, Septimania, Sico of Benevento, Slavs, Slovenes, Sorbs, Southern Italy, Synod of Thionville, Thegan of Trier, Theodosius I, Theodulf of Orléans, Thionville, Tortona, Tours, Treaty of Verdun, Trier, Umayyad Caliphate, Utrecht, Verberie, Vikings, Visigoths, Vita Hludovici, Waiofar, Wala of Corbie, Weingarten, Württemberg, Welf (father of Judith), Weregild, West Francia, Worms, Germany. Expand index (137 more) » « Shrink index
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
The Abbey of Saint-Arnould, St.
The Abbey of Saint-Médard de Soissons was a Benedictine monastery, at one time held to be the greatest in France.
The Abbey of Saint-Vaast was a Benedictine monastery situated in Arras, département of Pas-de-Calais, France.
Saint Adalard of Corbie (Adalhardus Corbeiensis; c. 751, Huise – 1 January 827) was son of Bernard the son of Charles Martel and half-brother of Pepin; Charlemagne was his cousin.
Agobard of Lyon (–840) was a Spanish-born priest and archbishop of Lyon, during the Carolingian Renaissance.
Alamannia or Alemannia was the territory inhabited by the Germanic Alemanni after they broke through the Roman limes in 213 CE.
Angeac-Charente is a commune in the Charente department in southwestern France.
Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
The Archbishop of Cologne is an archbishop representing the Archdiocese of Cologne of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany and was ex officio one of the electors of the Holy Roman Empire, the Elector of Cologne, from 1356 to 1801.
The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.
Arnulf of Sens (c.794 – April, 841) was a Frankish noble, an illegitimate son of the Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne.
Attigny is a French commune in the Ardennes department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France.
Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries.
Ébreuil is a commune in the Allier department in central France.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Battle of Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) in 778 saw a large force of Basques ambush a part of Charlemagne's army in Roncevaux Pass, a high mountain pass in the Pyrenees on the present border between France and Spain, after his invasion of the Iberian Peninsula.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Saint Benedict of Aniane (Benedictus Anianensis; Benedikt von Aniane; 747 – 12 February 821 AD), born Witiza and called the Second Benedict, was a Benedictine monk and monastic reformer, who left a large imprint on the religious practice of the Carolingian Empire.
Benedict of Nursia (Benedictus Nursiae; Benedetto da Norcia; Vulgar Latin: *Benedecto; Benedikt; 2 March 480 – 543 or 547 AD) is a Christian saint, who is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches.
Bera (died 844) was the first count of Barcelona from 801 until his deposition in 820.
Bernard (797, Vermandois, Picardy – 17 April 818, Milan, Lombardy) was the King of the Lombards from 810 to 818.
Bernard (or Bernat) of Septimania (795–844), son of William of Gellone, was the Frankish Duke of Septimania and Count of Barcelona from 826 to 832 and again from 835 to his execution.
Bertrada of Laon (born between 710 and 727 – 12 July 783), also known as Bertrada the Younger or Bertha Broadfoot (cf. Latin: Regina pede aucae i.e. the queen with the goose-foot), was a Frankish queen.
Bertrada (b. ca. 670; d. after 721), also called Berthe or Bertree, is known to be the mother of Charibert of Laon, with whom she is co-founder and benefactor of the Prüm Abbey.
Borna was the Duke (dux, Slavic knez) of Dalmatia, a vassal of the Frankish Empire, mentioned in the Royal Frankish Annals in entries regarding 818–821.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Cadolah (or Cadalaus) (also Cadolach, Chadalhoh or Chadolah) (died 819) was the Duke of Friuli from 817 to his death.
Camille Jullian (15 March 1859 – 12 December 1933) was a French historian, philologist, archaeologist and historian of French literature, student of Fustel de Coulanges, whose posthumous work he published.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
Chalon-sur-Saône is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.
Charibert (also spelled Caribert and Heribert), Count of Laon, was the maternal grandfather of Charlemagne.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman, KBE, FBA (12 January 1860 – 23 June 1946) was a British military historian.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
Charles the Younger or Charles of Ingelheim (c. 772 – 4 December 811) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty, the second son of Charlemagne and the first by his second wife, Hildegard of Swabia and brother of Louis the Pious and Pepin Carloman.
Chasseneuil-du-Poitou is a commune in the Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergnat Clharmou, Augustonemetum) is a city and commune of France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, with a population of 141,569 (2012).
Compiègne is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.
Corbie is a commune of the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
The Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor was a ceremony in which the ruler of Europe's then-largest political entity received the Imperial Regalia at the hands of the Pope, symbolizing both the pope's alleged right to crown Christian sovereigns and also the emperor's role as protector of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Council of Paderborn of 785, debating the matter of the Christianization of the Saxons, resolved to make punishable by law all sorts of idolatry, as well as the belief in the existence of witchcraft.
Crémieu is a commune in the Isère department in southeastern France.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Danes were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting southern Scandinavia, including the area now comprising Denmark proper, during the Nordic Iron Age and the Viking Age.
Dorestad was an early medieval emporium, located in the southeast of the province of Utrecht in the Netherlands, close to the modern-day town of Wijk bij Duurstede.
Doué-la-Fontaine is a former commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
The Drava or Drave by Jürgen Utrata (2014).
Drogo (17 June 801 – 8 December 855), also known as Dreux or Drogon, was an illegitimate son of Frankish emperor Charlemagne by the concubine Regina.
The Duchy of Aquitaine (Ducat d'Aquitània,, Duché d'Aquitaine) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.
The Duchy of Benevento (after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard duchy in the Italian peninsula, centered on Benevento, a city in Southern Italy.
The Duchy of Gascony or Duchy of Vasconia (Baskoniako dukerria; ducat de Gasconha; duché de Gascogne, duché de Vasconie) was a duchy in present southwestern France and northeastern Spain, part corresponding to the modern region of Gascony after 824.
The Duchy of Swabia (German: Herzogtum Schwaben) was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom.
The dukes and margraves of Friuli were the rulers of the Duchy and March of Friuli in the Middle Ages.
East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Ebbo or Ebo (– 20 March 851) was archbishop of Rheims from 816 until 835 and again from 840 to 841.
Eberhard (c. 815 – 16 December 866) was the Frankish Duke of Friuli from 846.
Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart; Einhardus; 775 – March 14, 840 AD) was a Frankish scholar and courtier.
Ermengarde (or Irmingard) of Hesbaye (c. 778 – 3 October 818), probably a member of the Robertian dynasty, was Holy Roman Empress from 813 and Queen of the Franks from 814 until her death as the wife of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious.
Lügenfeld, Lugenfeild, or Field of Lies(833 CE) was the name for a battle/encounter that took place between Louis the Pious, the Carolingian Emperor and his rebellious sons.
François-Louis Ganshof (14 March 1895, Bruges – 26 July 1980, Brussels) was a Belgian medievalist.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The Free Imperial City of Aachen, known in English by its French name of Aix-la-Chapelle, was a Free Imperial City and spa of the Holy Roman Empire west of Cologne and southeast of the Low Countries, in the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle.
Frisia (Fryslân, Dutch and Friesland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Gerold of Vinzgau (also Vintzgouw or Anglachgau; d. 799) was a count in Kraichgau and Anglachgau.
Gisela (born c.821) was the youngest daughter of Louis the Pious and his second wife, Judith of Bavaria.
Grimoald IV (assassinated 817), son of Ermenrih, called Falco, was the Lombard Prince of Benevento from 806 until his death.
Hildebold (died 3 September 818) was the Bishop of Cologne from 787 until 795 and the first Archbishop of Cologne thereafter.
Hildegard (ca. 754 – 30 April 783 at Thionville, Moselle), was the second wife of Charlemagne and mother of Louis the Pious.
Hilduin (775 – c. 855) was Bishop of Paris, chaplain to Louis I, reforming Abbot of the Abbey of St. Denis and an author.
Hnabi or Nebi (c. 710 – c. 788) was an Alemannian duke.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
Hugh (802–844) was the illegitimate son of Charlemagne and his concubine Regina, with whom he had one other son: Bishop Drogo of Metz (801–855).
Hugh (or Hugo) (c. 780 – 837) was the count of Tours and Sens during the reigns of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, until his disgrace in February 828.
Hunald II, also spelled Hunold, Hunoald, Hunuald or Chunoald (French: Hunaud), was the Duke of Aquitaine from 768 until 769.
Huoching of Alamannia (c. 675–744) was an Alemannic nobleman.
The Imperial Palace Ingelheim (Ingelheimer Kaiserpfalz) is an important Imperial Palace erected in the second half of the 8th century in Germany.
Ingelheim am Rhein is a town in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany on the Rhine’s west bank.
Ingerman (Ingram, Enguerrand) (c. 750-818), was a Frankish noble and Count of Hesbaye, son of Sigram of Hesbaye.
The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea; Corona Ferrea Langobardiae) is both a reliquary and one of the oldest royal insignias of Christendom.
Queen Judith (797– 19 April 843), also known as Judith of Bavaria, was the daughter of Count Welf of Bavaria and Saxon noblewoman, Hedwig.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
Lake Geneva (le lac Léman or le Léman, sometimes le lac de Genève, Genfersee) is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France.
Leibulf, Leybulf, or Letibulf was the Count of Provence in the early ninth century.
This is a list of the Dukes and Princes of Benevento.
The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).
Ljudevit or Liudewit (Liudewitus, often also Ljudevit Posavski), was the Duke of Lower Pannonia from 810 to 823.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch and Medieval Latin: Lotharius, German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).
Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) "the German" (c. 805-876), also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lupo III Centule (Basque: Otsoa Wasco, French: Loup Centulle, Gascon: Lop Centullo, Latin: Lupus Centullus, Spanish: Lope or Lobo Centulo, Catalan: Llop Centoll) (died ca. 820) was the Duke of Gascony briefly from 818 until his deposition by Pepin I of Aquitaine in 819.
The Marca Hispanica (Marca Hispánica, Marca Hispànica, Aragonese and Marca Hispanica, Hispaniako Marka, Marche d'Espagne), also known as the March of Barcelona, was a military buffer zone beyond the former province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Carolingian Empire (Duchy of Gascony, the Duchy of Aquitaine and Carolingian Septimania).
The Eastern March (marcha orientalis) or March of Pannonia was a frontier march of the Carolingian Empire, named after the former Roman province of Pannonia.
Matfrid (died 836) was the Frankish count of Orléans in the reign of Emperor Louis the Pious.
Maundy Thursday (also known as Holy Thursday, Covenant Thursday, Great and Holy Thursday, Sheer Thursday, and Thursday of Mysteries, among other names) is the Christian holy day falling on the Thursday before Easter.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.
A missus dominicus (plural missi dominici), Latin for "envoy of the lord " or palace inspector, also known in Dutch as Zendgraaf (German: Sendgraf), meaning "sent Graf", was an official commissioned by the Frankish king or Holy Roman Emperor to supervise the administration, mainly of justice, in parts of his dominions too remote for frequent personal visits.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Neustria, or Neustrasia, (meaning "western land") was the western part of the Kingdom of the Franks.
The New Testament uses a number of military metaphors in discussing Christianity, especially in the Pauline epistles.
Nijmegen (Nijmeegs: Nimwegen), historically anglicized as Nimeguen, is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland.
Noirmoutier (also in French: Île de Noirmoutier) is an island off the Atlantic coast of France in the Vendée department.
The Obotrites (Obotriti) or Obodrites (Obodrzyce meaning: at the waters), also spelled Abodrites (Abodriten), were a confederation of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern Mecklenburg and Holstein in northern Germany (see Polabian Slavs).
Omurtag (or Omortag) (Омуртаг; original ΜορτάγωνTheophanes Continuatus, p.64 and George Kedrenos and Ομουρτάγ, Inscription No.64. Retrieved 10 April 2012.) was a Great Khan (Kanasubigi) of Bulgaria from 814 to 831.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
Paderborn is a city in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Pamplona (Pampelune) or Iruña (alternative spelling: Iruñea) is the historical capital city of Navarre, in Spain, and of the former Kingdom of Navarre.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.
Pepin I or Pepin I of Aquitaine (797 – 13 December 838) was King of Aquitaine and Duke of Maine.
Pepin II, called the Younger (823 – after 864 in Senlis), was King of Aquitaine from 838 as the successor upon the death of his father, Pepin I. Pepin II was eldest son of Pepin I and Ingeltrude, daughter of Theodobert, count of Madrie.
Pepin II (c. 635 – 16 December 714), commonly known as Pepin of Herstal, was a Frankish statesman and military leader who de facto ruled Francia as the Mayor of the Palace from 680 until his death.
Pepin or Pippin (or Pepin Carloman, Pepinno, April 773 – 8 July 810), born Carloman, was the son of Charlemagne and King of the Lombards (781–810) under the authority of his father.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
In the early Middle Ages, a placitum (Latin for "plea") was a public judicial assembly.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
Pope Gregory IV (Gregorius IV; d. 25 January 844) was Pope from October 827 to his death in 844.
Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
Pope Saint Paschal I (Paschalis I; born Pascale Massimi; died 824) was Pope from 25 January 817 to his death in 824.
Pope Stephen IV (Stephanus IV; c. 770 – 24 January 817) was Pope from June 816 to his death in 817.
Prüm is a town in the Westeifel (Rhineland-Palatinate), Germany.
In historical studies, prosopography is an investigation of the common characteristics of a historical group, whose individual biographies may be largely untraceable, by means of a collective study of their lives, in multiple career-line analysis.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
Quierzy (also known as Quierzy-sur-Oise, formerly: Cariciacum, Carisiacum, Charisagum, Karisiacum) is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France, straddling the Oise River between Noyon and Chauny.
Rabanus Maurus Magnentius (780 – 4 February 856), also known as Hrabanus or Rhabanus, was a Frankish Benedictine monk and theologian who became archbishop of Mainz in Germany.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lyon (Latin: Archidioecesis Lugdunensis; French: Archidiocèse de Lyon), formerly the Archdiocese of Lyon–Vienne–Embrun, is a Roman Catholic Metropolitan archdiocese in France.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reims (Archidioecesis Remensis; French: Archidiocèse de Reims) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Amiens (Latin: Dioecesis Ambianensis; French: Diocèse d'Amiens) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz (Latin: Dioecesis Metensis; French: Diocèse de Metz) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
A Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, similar in form to the hacienda estates in the colonies of the Spanish Empire.
Rorik (Roricus, Rorichus; Old Norse HrœrekR, c. 810 – c. 880) was a Danish Viking, who ruled over parts of Friesland between 841 and 873, conquering Dorestad and Utrecht in 850.
Rotrude (Chrodtrudis) (died 724) was the first wife of Charles Martel, Mayor of the Palace and de facto ruler of Francia from 718 to 741.
The Rule of Saint Benedict (Regula Benedicti) is a book of precepts written by Benedict of Nursia (AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot.
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France.
Sancho I López or Lupus Sancho (also Lupo; Antso Otsoa, French: Sanche Loup, Gascony: Sans Lop, Sancho Lobo or Lope) was a Duke of Gascony between the years 801 and 812.
The Sava (Сава) is a river in Central and Southeastern Europe, a right tributary of the Danube.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Seguin I Lupo was Duke of Gascony from 812 until 816, when Louis the Pious deposed him "because of his boundless arrogance and wicked ways", according to the contemporary Frankish chroniclers.
Sens is a commune in the Yonne department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in north-central France, 120 km from Paris.
Septimania (Septimanie,; Septimània,; Septimània) was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II.
Sico (758 – 832) was the Lombard Prince of Benevento from the 817 to his own death.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
The Slovenes, also called as Slovenians (Slovenci), are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovenian as their first language.
Sorbs (Serbja, Serby, Sorben), known also by their former autonyms Lusatians and Wends, are a West Slavic ethnic group predominantly inhabiting their homeland in Lusatia, a region divided between Germany (the states of Saxony and Brandenburg) and Poland (the provinces of Lower Silesia and Lubusz).
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
The Synod of Thionville was an important synod (or council) of ecclesiastic dignitaries of the Carolingian Empire in 835.
Thegan of Trier (or Degan of Treves) (before 800 – ca. 850) was a Frankish Roman Catholic prelate and the author of Gesta Hludowici imperatoris which is a principal source for the life of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Pious, the son and successor of Charlemagne.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Theodulf of Orléans (750(/60) – 18 December 821) was a writer, poet and the Bishop of Orléans (c. 798 to 818) during the reign of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.
Thionville (Diedenhofen) is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Tortona is a comune of Piemonte, in the Province of Alessandria, Italy.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Utrecht is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, capital and most populous city of the province of Utrecht.
Verberie is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Vita Hludovici or Vita Hludovici Imperatoris (The Life of Louis or the Life of the Emperor Louis) is an anonymous biography of Louis the Pious, Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks from AD 814 to 840.
Waiofar, also spelled Waifar, Waifer or Waiffre (died 768), was the last independent Duke of Aquitaine from 745 to 768.
Wala (c. 755 – 31 August 836) was a son of Bernard, son of Charles Martel, and one of the principal advisers of his cousin Charlemagne, of Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious, and of Louis's son Lothair I. He succeeded his brother Adalard as abbot of Corbie and its new daughter foundation, Corvey, in 826 or 827.
(German for "wine garden") is a town with a population of 24,000 in Württemberg, in the District of Ravensburg, in the valley of the Schussen River.
Welf I (or Hwelf; died about 825) is the first documented ancestor of the Elder House of Welf.
Weregild (also spelled wergild, wergeld (in archaic/historical usage of English), weregeld, etc.), also known as man price, was a value placed on every being and piece of property, for example in the Frankish Salic Code.
In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, situated on the Upper Rhine about south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main.
Emperor Louis I, Emperor of the West Louis I, French king Louis I, Le Debonnaire Louis I, Louis Debonnaire, Louis Débonnaire, Louis I (Holy Roman Emperor), Louis I (Holy Roman Empire), Louis I of France, Louis I of Germany, Louis I of Italy, Louis I of the Holy Roman Empire, Louis I the Fair, Louis I the Pious, Louis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Louis The Fair, Louis le Debonnaire, Louis le Débonnaire, Louis le Pieux, Louis the Debonair, Louis the Debonaire, Louis the Debonnaire, Louis the Débonnaire, Louis the Pius, Louis the pious, Louis, King of the Franks, Ludovico I of Italy, Ludovico Pio, Ludovico Pío, Ludwig I der Fromme, Ludwig I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ludwig der Fromme, Ludwig the Pious.