55 relations: Altitude, Apollo program, Apsis, Arecibo Observatory, Atmosphere of Earth, Communications satellite, Comparison of orbital launch systems, Delta-v, Domino effect, Drag (physics), Earth, Earth observation satellite, Envisat, Exosphere, Gas, Gemini 11, Geocentric orbit, Geostationary orbit, Gravity, Gravity drag, Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, Heavy-lift launch vehicle, High Earth orbit, Highly elliptical orbit, Hubble Space Telescope, Human spaceflight, Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee, International Space Station, Iridium Communications, Joint Space Operations Center, Kessler syndrome, Latency (engineering), List of orbits, Medium Earth orbit, Medium-lift launch vehicle, Orbit, Orbital decay, Orbital period, Polar orbit, Radiation, Reconnaissance satellite, Regulatory agency, Remote sensing, Satellite, Satellite constellation, Space debris, Space station, Sub-orbital spaceflight, Sun-synchronous orbit, ..., Thermosphere, Tiangong-2, United States Strategic Command, Van Allen radiation belt, Weightlessness. Expand index (5 more) » « Shrink index
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
The Arecibo Observatory is a radio telescope in the municipality of Arecibo, Puerto Rico.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
This is a comparison of orbital launch systems.
Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.
A domino effect or chain reaction is the cumulative effect produced when one event sets off a chain of similar events.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed for Earth observation from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc.
Envisat ("Environmental Satellite") is a large inactive Earth-observing satellite which is still in orbit.
The exosphere (ἔξω éxō "outside, external, beyond", σφαῖρα sphaĩra "sphere") is a thin, atmosphere-like volume surrounding a planet or natural satellite where molecules are gravitationally bound to that body, but where the density is too low for them to behave as a gas by colliding with each other.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gemini 11 (officially Gemini XI) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting Planet Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.
A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
In astrodynamics and rocketry, gravity drag (or gravity losses) is a measure of the loss in the net performance of a rocket while it is thrusting in a gravitational field.
The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) was the first of ESA's Living Planet Programme satellites intended to map in unprecedented detail the Earth's gravity field.
The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) was a joint mission of NASA and the German Aerospace Center.
A heavy-lift launch vehicle, HLV or HLLV, is an orbital launch vehicle capable of lifting between 20,000 to 50,000 kg to low Earth orbit (LEO).
A high Earth orbit is a geocentric orbit with an altitude entirely above that of a geosynchronous orbit.
A highly elliptical orbit (HEO) is an elliptic orbit with high eccentricity, usually referring to one around Earth.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) is an inter-governmental forum whose aim is to co-ordinate efforts to deal with debris in orbit around the Earth founded in 1993.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
Iridium Communications Inc. (formerly Iridium Satellite LLC) is a publicly traded American company headquartered in McLean, Virginia.
Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is a command and control (C2) weapon system focused on planning and executing US Strategic Command's Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC SPACE) mission.
The Kessler syndrome (also called the Kessler effect, collisional cascading or ablation cascade), proposed by the NASA scientist Donald J. Kessler in 1978, is a scenario in which the density of objects in low earth orbit (LEO) is high enough that collisions between objects could cause a cascade where each collision generates space debris that increases the likelihood of further collisions.
Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.
The following is a list of types of orbits.
Medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around Earth above low Earth orbit (altitude of above sea level) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of above sea level).
A medium-lift launch vehicle - MLV a rocket orbital launch vehicle that is capable of lifting between of payload into Low Earth orbit - LEO.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
In orbital mechanics, decay is a process that leads to gradual decrease of the distance between two orbiting bodies at their closest approach (the periapsis) over many orbital periods.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
A polar orbit is one in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body being orbited (usually a planet such as the Earth, but possibly another body such as the Moon or Sun) on each revolution.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.
A regulatory agency (also regulatory authority, regulatory body or regulator) is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A satellite constellation is a group of artificial satellites working in concert.
Space debris (also known as space junk, space waste, space trash, space litter or space garbage) is a term for the mass of defunct, artificially created objects in space, most notably in Earth orbit, such as old satellites and spent rocket stages.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
A Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO, also called a heliosynchronous orbit) is a nearly polar orbit around a planet, in which the satellite passes over any given point of the planet's surface at the same local mean solar time.
The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere.
Tiangong-2 is a Chinese space laboratory and part of the Project 921-2 space station program.
United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), is one of ten unified commands in the United States Department of Defense.
A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.
Weightlessness, or an absence of weight, is an absence of stress and strain resulting from externally applied mechanical contact-forces, typically normal forces (from floors, seats, beds, scales, etc.). Counterintuitively, a uniform gravitational field does not by itself cause stress or strain, and a body in free fall in such an environment experiences no g-force acceleration and feels weightless.