154 relations: Acupuncture, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Alexander Technique, Alternative medicine, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Physicians, Ankylosing spondylitis, Antidepressant, Anxiety, Aortic aneurysm, Back belt, Behaviour therapy, Biliary colic, Bone metastasis, Brainstem, Bronze Age, Buttocks, Capsicum, Carbamazepine, Cardiovascular disease, Cauda equina syndrome, Cell therapy, Chiropractic, Choosing Wisely, Circulatory system, Classical conditioning, Cochrane (organisation), Cochrane Library, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Coping (psychology), Corticosteroid, COX-2 inhibitor, CT scan, Degenerative disc disease, Depression (mood), Developed country, Differential diagnosis, Discectomy, Dorsal root ganglion, Drug injection, Economic cost, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Endometriosis, Epidural administration, Exercise, Facet joint, Facet joint injection, Female hysteria, Fever, Fibrocartilage, ..., Fibromyalgia, Gabapentin, Galen, Growth factor, Harpagophytum, Harvey Cushing, Heat therapy, Herbalism, Hippocrates, Human back, Immunosuppression, Inflammatory bowel disease, Intervertebral disc, Intervertebral disc arthroplasty, Intervertebral foramen, Job satisfaction, Kidney failure, Kidney stone disease, Limbic system, Lumbar provocative discography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Manipulation under anesthesia, Massage, McKenzie method, Medical history, Medical imaging, Middle Ages, Mindfulness-based stress reduction, Morphine, Multifidus muscle, Muscle relaxant, Musculoskeletal disorder, Naproxen, Neoplasm, Nerve root, Nervous system, Neurasthenia, Neuromodulation, Neuropathic pain, Neuroreflexotherapy, Neurotransmitter, Nociceptor, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Operant conditioning, Opioid, Orthopedic surgery, Osteoarthritis, Osteomyelitis, Osteoporosis, Ovarian cancer, Ovarian cyst, Pain, Peptic ulcer disease, Perception, Physical examination, Physical medicine and rehabilitation, Physical therapy, Posterior grey column, Pregnancy, Prolotherapy, Psoriatic arthritis, Psychotherapy, Pyelonephritis, Radiography, Reactive arthritis, Referred pain, Rheumatology, Sacrum, Saddle anesthesia, Salix alba, Sciatica, Scoliosis, Sham surgery, Shoe insert, Somatic symptom disorder, Spasm, Spinal cord, Spinal disc herniation, Spinal fracture, Spinal fusion, Spinal manipulation, Spinal stenosis, Spondyloarthropathy, Spondylolisthesis, Sprain, Steroid, Stimulus (physiology), Straight leg raise, Strain (injury), Subjectivity, Thalamus, Tissue engineering, Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, Transduction (physiology), Unnecessary health care, Uterine fibroid, Vertebra, Vertebral compression fracture, Waddell's signs, Watchful waiting, Weight loss, Workforce, X-ray, Yoga. Expand index (104 more) » « Shrink index
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), located in Rockville, MD, a suburb of Washington, D.C., is one of 12 Agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
The Alexander Technique (A.T.), named after its creator Frederick Matthias Alexander, is an educational process that was created to retrain habitual patterns of movement and posture.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) was founded in 1947 to promote the science and art of family medicine.
The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internal medicineAmerican Board of Medical Specialties -. Retrieved 20 October 2014 physicians (internists)Mercy Cedar Rapids -. Retrieved 20 October 2014—specialists who apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment, and compassionate care of adults across the spectrum from health to complex illness.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement (dilation) of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal size.
Back belts, or lumbar support belts, are generally lightweight belts worn around the lower back to provide support to the lumbar.
Behaviour therapy is a broad term referring to clinical psychotherapy that uses techniques derived from behaviourism.
Biliary colic, also known as a gallbladder attack or gallstone attack, is when pain occurs due to a gallstone temporarily blocking the bile duct.
Bone metastases, or osseous metastatic disease, is a category of cancer metastases that results from primary tumor invasion to bone.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The buttocks (singular: buttock) are two rounded portions of the anatomy, located on the posterior of the pelvic region of primates (including humans), and many other bipeds or quadrupeds, and comprise a layer of fat superimposed on the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles.
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a condition due to damage to the bundle of nerves below the end of the spinal cord known as the cauda equina.
Cell therapy (also called cellular therapy or cytotherapy) is therapy in which cellular material is injected into a patient; this generally means intact, living cells.
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Coping is the conscious effort to reduce stress.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Selective COX-2 inhibitors are a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Degenerative disc disease (DDD) describes the natural breakdown of an intervertebral disc of the spine.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
A discectomy (also called open discectomy, if done through a 1/2 inch or larger skin opening) is the surgical removal of abnormal disc material that presses on a nerve root or the spinal cord.
A dorsal root ganglion (or spinal ganglion) (also known as a posterior root ganglion), is a cluster of neurons (a ganglion) in a dorsal root of a spinal nerve.
Drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous).
Economic cost is the combination of gains and losses of any goods that have a value attached to them by any one individual.
The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
The facet joints, (or zygapophysial joints, zygapophyseal, apophyseal, or Z-joints) are a set of synovial, plane joints between the articular processes of two adjacent vertebrae.
Facet joint injections are used to alleviate symptoms of Facet syndrome.
Female hysteria was once a common medical diagnosis for women.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
White fibrocartilage consists of a mixture of white fibrous tissue and cartilaginous tissue in various proportions.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Harpagophytum procumbens, also called grapple plant, wood spider and most commonly devil's claw, is a genus of plants in the sesame family, native to southern Africa.
Harvey Williams Cushing (April 8, 1869 – October 7, 1939) was an American neurosurgeon, pathologist, writer and draftsman.
Heat therapy, also called thermotherapy, is the use of heat in therapy, such as for pain relief and health.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
The human back is the large posterior area of the human body, rising from the top of the buttocks to the back of the neck and the shoulders.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column.
Artificial disc replacement (ADR), or total disc replacement (TDR), is a type of arthroplasty.
The intervertebral foramen (also called neural foramen, and often abbreviated as IV foramen or IVF), is a foramen between two spinal vertebrae.
Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction is a measure of workers' contentedness with their job, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
Lumbar provocative discography (also referred to as "discography" or discogram) is an invasive diagnostic procedure for evaluation for intervertebral disc pathology.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) or fibrosis release procedures is a multidisciplinary, chronic pain-related manual therapy modality which is used for the purpose of improving articular and soft tissue movement.
Massage is to work and act on the body with pressure.
The McKenzie method (also MDT.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a program that incorporates mindfulness to assist people with pain and a range of conditions and life issues that were initially difficult to treat in a hospital setting.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
The Multifidus (multifidus spinae: pl. Multifidi) muscle consists of a number of fleshy and tendinous fasciculi, which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, from the sacrum to the axis.
A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries or pain in the human musculoskeletal system, including the joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons, and structures that support limbs, neck and back.
Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
A nerve root (Latin: radix nervi) is the initial segment of a nerve leaving the central nervous system.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neurasthenia is a term that was first used at least as early as 1829 to label a mechanical weakness of the nerves and would become a major diagnosis in North America during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries after neurologist George Miller Beard reintroduced the concept in 1869.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
Neuroreflexotherapy (NRT) is a type of alternative medicine treatment used for some cases of low back pain (LBP).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
A nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.
Osteomyelitis (OM) is an infection of bone.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.
An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac within the ovary.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation, also known as physiatry, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.
The posterior grey column (posterior cornu, dorsal horn, spinal dorsal horn posterior horn) of the spinal cord is one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Prolotherapy, also called proliferation therapy is an injection-based treatment used in chronic musculoskeletal conditions.
Psoriatic arthritis is a long-term inflammatory arthritis that occurs in people affected by the autoimmune disease psoriasis.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
Reactive arthritis, formerly known as Reiter's syndrome, is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in response to an infection in another part of the body (cross-reactivity).
Referred pain, also called reflective pain, is pain perceived at a location other than the site of the painful stimulus.
Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.
The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.
Saddle anesthesia is a loss of sensation (anesthesia) restricted to the area of the buttocks, perineum and inner surfaces of the thighs.
Salix alba, the white willow, is a species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia.
Sciatica is a medical condition characterized by pain going down the leg from the lower back.
Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a sideways curve.
Sham surgery (placebo surgery) is a faked surgical intervention that omits the step thought to be therapeutically necessary.
A removable shoe insert, otherwise known as a foot orthosis, accomplishes many number of purposes, including daily wear comfort, foot and joint pain relief from arthritis, overuse, injuries, and other causes such as orthopedic correction, odor reduction and athletic performance.
A somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a somatoform disorder,(2013) " " dsm5.org.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Spinal disc herniation, also known as a slipped disc, is a medical condition affecting the spine in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings.
A spinal fracture, also called a vertebral fracture or a broken back, is a fracture affecting the vertebrae of the spinal column.
Spinal fusion, also called spondylodesis or spondylosyndesis, is a neurosurgical or orthopedic surgical technique that joins two or more vertebrae.
Spinal manipulation is an intervention performed on spinal articulations which are synovial joints, which is asserted to be therapeutic.
Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal or neural foramen that results in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
Spondyloarthropathy or spondyloarthrosis refers to any joint disease of the vertebral column.
Spondylolisthesis is the slippage or displacement of one vertebra compared to another.
A sprain, also known as a torn ligament, is damage to one or more ligaments in a joint, often caused by trauma or the joint being taken beyond its functional range of motion.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
The straight leg raise, also called Lasègue's sign, Lasègue test or Lazarević's sign, is a test done during a physical examination to determine whether a patient with low back pain has an underlying herniated disc, often located at L5 (fifth lumbar spinal nerve).
A strain (also known colloquially as a pulled muscle or torn muscle) is an acute or chronic soft tissue injury that occurs to a muscle, tendon, or both (contractile components).
Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS or TNS) is the use of electric current produced by a device to stimulate the nerves for therapeutic purposes.
In physiology, sensory transduction is the conversion of a sensory stimulus from one form to another.
Unnecessary health care (overutilization, overuse, or overtreatment) is healthcare provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate.
Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas or fibroids, are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
A compression fracture is a collapse of a vertebra.
Waddell's signs are a group of physical signs, first described in a 1980 article in Spine, and named for the article's principal author, Professor Gordon Waddell (1943–2017), a Scottish Orthopedic Surgeon.
Watchful waiting (also watch and wait or WAW) is an approach to a medical problem in which time is allowed to pass before medical intervention or therapy is used.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.