326 relations: Agriculture, Agronomy, Alfred Kubel, Aller, Alliance 90/The Greens, Allied Commission, Allied-occupied Germany, Altes Land, Ammerland, Amt Neuhaus, Apple, Artland (region), Asse II mine, Aurich (district), Baltrum, Beef, Bielefeld, Biotechnology, Bog, Borkum, Bramgau, Brandenburg, Braunschweig, Braunschweig (region), Bremen, Bremen (state), Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, Bremerhaven, Brunswick Land, Buddhism, Calenberg Land, Calvörde, Catholic Church, Celle (district), Central German, Central Uplands, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Wulff, Cloppenburg (district), Coalition, Coat of arms, Congress of Vienna, Continental climate, County of Bentheim, County of Bentheim (district), County of Blankenburg, County of Hoya, County of Schaumburg, Cuxhaven, Cuxhaven (district), ..., David McAllister, Dümmer Nature Park, Deep geological repository, Delmenhorst, Diepholz (district), Duchy of Brunswick, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duchy of Oldenburg, Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, Duchy of Saxony, Duchy of Westphalia, Dutch annexation of German territory after World War II, East Frisia, East Frisian Islands, East Germany, East Prussia, Eastern Europe, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastphalia, Eichsfeld, Elbe, Elbe–Weser triangle, Elbhöhen-Wendland Nature Park, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Electorate of Saxony, Elm (hills), Elm-Lappwald Nature Park, Emden, Ems (river), Emsland, Emsland (region), Enclave and exclave, Environmental protection, Ernst Albrecht (politician), European Union, Evangelical Church in Germany, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Brunswick, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg, Evangelical Lutheran Church of Schaumburg-Lippe, Evangelical Reformed Church in Germany, Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Hanover, Frankfurt, Free church, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free State of Brunswick, Free State of Lippe, Free State of Oldenburg, Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe, Freepsum, Friesland (district), Frisian languages, Gau (territory), Göttingen, Göttingen (district), Geest, Georg Diederichs, Gerhard Glogowski, Gerhard Schröder, Germanic peoples, Germany, Gifhorn (district), Gorleben, Goslar (district), Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, Grönegau, Greater Hamburg Act, Gruner + Jahr, Hamburg, Hamelin-Pyrmont, Hannover Re, Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region, Hanover, Hanover (region), Hanover Region, Harburg (district), Harz, Höfer, Germany, Hümmling, Heidekreis, Heinrich Hellwege, Helmstedt (district), Helmstedt–Marienborn border crossing, Herford (district), Hesse, Hesse-Nassau, Hessisch Oldendorf, Hildesheim, Hildesheim (district), Hildesheim Börde, Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf, History of Saxony, Holstein, Holy Roman Empire, Holzminden (district), Horse, House of Welf, Hunte, Imperial Circle, Internationaler Naturpark Bourtanger Moor-Bargerveen, Iron ore, Irreligion, Islam, Jesus, Judaism, Juist, Kassel, Kehdingen, Kingdom of Hanover, Konrad mine, Land Hadeln, Land Wursten, Landeskirche, Landtag of Lower Saxony, Langeoog, Lappwald, Lüchow-Dannenberg, Lüneburg, Lüneburg (district), Lüneburg (region), Lüneburg Heath, Lüneburg Heath Nature Park, Leer (district), Leine Uplands, Lignite, Lindwedel, List of mountains and hills of Lower Saxony, List of places in Lower Saxony, Loam, Local history, Loess, Lordship of Diepholz, Low German, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle, Lower Saxon Asparagus Road, Lower Saxon Circle, Lower Saxon Hills, Lower Saxony state election, 2008, Lower Saxony state election, 2013, Lower Saxony state election, 2017, Manufacturing, Münden Nature Park, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Meyer Werft, Middle Weser Region, Migration Period, Military occupation, Minden-Ravensberg, Netherlands, Nienburg (district), Norderney, North German Plain, North Rhine-Westphalia, North Sea, Northeim (district), Northern Germany, Northern Low Saxon, Oat, Oceanic climate, Old Saxony, Oldenburg, Oldenburg (district), Oldenburg Land, Oldenburg Münsterland, Ordinance No. 46, Osnabrück, Osnabrück (district), Osnabrück Land, Osterholz, Ottobock, Outline of Germany, Peine (district), Personal union, Poland, Pork, Port, Potato, Poultry, Precipitation types, Preselection, Prince-Bishopric of Münster, Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück, Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe, Prosthesis, Province of Hanover, Province of Westphalia, Prussia, Quaternary glaciation, Radioactive waste, Referendum, Refugee, Regierungsbezirk, Rinteln, Road of Weser Renaissance, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne, Roman Catholic Diocese of Hildesheim, Roman Catholic Diocese of Münster, Roman Catholic Diocese of Osnabrück, Rotenburg (district), Route of Megalithic Culture, Rye, Salt mining, Salzgitter, Sand, Saterland Frisian language, Saxe-Lauenburg, Saxon Steed, Saxons, Saxony-Anhalt, Südheide Nature Park, Schaumburg, Schaumburg Land, Schleswig-Holstein, Sigmar Gabriel, Silesia, Silver, Small and medium-sized enterprises, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Solling, Solling-Vogler Nature Park, South Lower Saxony, Soviet occupation zone, Soviet Union, Spiekeroog, Stade (district), Stade (region), Stade Geest, State of Hanover, States of Germany, Steel, Steinhuder Meer Nature Park, Stephan Weil, Sugar beet, Sumte, Lower Saxony, Germany, Talanx, Telecommunication, Temperate climate, TERRA.vita Nature Park, The Left (Germany), Thuringia, Trade, TUI Group, Uelzen (district), United Kingdom, Unterelbe, Upper Saxony, Vechta (district), Verden (district), Verden (state), Volkswagen, Volkswagen Act, Wangerooge, War reparations, Wümme Depression, Weser, Weser Uplands, Weser Uplands-Schaumburg-Hamelin Nature Park, Weser-Ems, Wesermarsch, West Berlin, West Germany, West Low German, Westerlies, Western Europe, Westphalia, Wheat, Widukind, Wiesbaden, Wildeshausen Geest, Wilhelmshaven, Windward and leeward, Wittmund (district), Wolfenbüttel, Wolfenbüttel (district), Wolfsburg, World War II, Wurmberg (Harz). 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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agronomy (Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.
Alfred Kubel (25 May 1909 in Braunschweig – 22 May 1999 in Bad Pyrmont) was a German politician; in his later career, he was a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany.
The Aller is a long river in the states of Saxony-Anhalt and Lower Saxony in Germany.
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne), is a green political party in Germany that was formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.
Following the termination of hostilities in World War II, the Allied Powers were in control of the defeated Axis countries.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
Altes Land is an area of reclaimed marshland straddling parts of Lower Saxony and Hamburg.
Ammerland is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Amt Neuhaus is a municipality in the District of Lüneburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
The Artland lies in the North German district of Osnabrück in the state of Lower Saxony and covers an area of around 180 km² that, today, includes the collective municipality of Artland (which in turn consist of the municipalities of Quakenbrück, Badbergen, Menslage and Nortrup) as well as the municipality of Gehrde.
The Asse II mine (Schacht Asse II) is a former salt mine used as a deep geological repository for radioactive waste in the Asse Mountains of Wolfenbüttel, Lower Saxony, Germany.
Aurich is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Baltrum is a barrier island off the coast of East Frisia, in Germany, and is a municipality in the district of Aurich, Lower Saxony.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Bielefeld is a city in the Ostwestfalen-Lippe Region in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
Borkum is an island and a municipality in the Leer District in Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany.
The Bramgau is the historic name for the region of settlement around the independent municipality of Bramsche in the north of the district of Osnabrück in the German federal state of Lower Saxony.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
Braunschweig (Low German: Brunswiek), also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser rivers.
Braunschweig (German Regierungsbezirk Braunschweig) was one of the eight former administrative regions (Regierungsbezirke) of Lower Saxony, Germany.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states.
The European Metropolitan Region of Bremen/Oldenburg (Metropolregion Bremen/Oldenburg) is one of the eleven metropolitan regions in Germany.
Bremerhaven (literally "Bremen's harbour", Low German: Bremerhoben) is a city at the seaport of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Brunswick Land (Braunschweiger Land) is a historical region in the Southeast of the German state of Lower Saxony, centred around the city of Braunschweig.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Calenberg Land (Calenberger Land) is a historic landscape southwest of Hanover in Germany, roughly formed by the countryside between the Leine and the Deister hills.
Calvörde is a municipality in the Börde district of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Celle is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Central German (Mitteldeutsche Dialekte) is a group of High German dialects spoken from the Rhineland in the west to the former eastern territories of Germany.
The Central UplandsDickinson (1964), p.18 ff.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
Christian Wilhelm Walter Wulff (born 1959) is a German politician and lawyer.
Cloppenburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more persons, faction, states, political parties, militaries etc.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
The County of Bentheim (Grafschaft Bentheim, Low German Benthem) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the south-west corner of today's Lower Saxony, Germany.
County of Bentheim (Grafschaft Bentheim) is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The County of Blankenburg (Grafschaft Blankenburg) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire.
The County of Hoya (German: Grafschaft Hoya) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the present German state of Lower Saxony.
The County of Schaumburg (Grafschaft Schaumburg), until ca.
Cuxhaven is an independent town and seat of the Cuxhaven district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Cuxhaven is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
David James "Mac" McAllister (born 12 January 1971) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Germany.
The Dümmer Nature Park (Naturpark Dümmer) in North Germany is located in the Lower Saxon districts of Diepholz and Vechta and the North Rhine-Westphalian district of Minden-Lübbecke.
A deep geological repository is a nuclear waste repository excavated deep within a stable geologic environment (typically below 300 m or 1000 feet).
Delmenhorst is an urban district (Kreisfreie Stadt) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Diepholz is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Duchy of Brunswick (Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state.
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Oldenburg (Herzogtum Oldenburg) — named after its capital, the town of Oldenburg — was a state in the north-west of present-day Germany.
The Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg was a medieval duchy of the Holy Roman Empire centered at Wittenberg, which emerged after the dissolution of the stem duchy of Saxony.
The Duchy of Saxony (Hartogdom Sassen, Herzogtum Sachsen) was originally the area settled by the Saxons in the late Early Middle Ages, when they were subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 772 and incorporated into the Carolingian Empire (Francia) by 804.
The Duchy of Westphalia (Herzogtum Westfalen) was a historic territory in the Holy Roman Empire, which existed from 1180.
At the end of World War II, plans were made in the Netherlands to annex German territory as compensation for the damages caused by the war.
East Frisia or Eastern Friesland (Ostfriesland; East Frisian Low Saxon: Oostfreesland; Oost-Friesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony.
The East Frisian Islands (German: Ostfriesische Inseln, West Frisian: Eastfryske eilannen) are a chain of islands in the North Sea, off the coast of East Frisia in Lower Saxony, Germany.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastphalia (Ostfalen; Eastphalian: Oostfalen) is a historical region in northern Germany, encompassing the eastern Gaue (shires) of the historic stem duchy of Saxony, roughly confined by the River Leine in the west and the Elbe and Saale in the east.
The Eichsfeld (English: Oaksfield) is a historical region in the southeast of Lower Saxony (which is called "Untereichsfeld".
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
The region between the Elbe and Weser rivers (the triangle of Bremen, Hamburg, and Cuxhaven) forms the Elbe–Weser triangle (Elbe-Weser-Dreieck), also rendered Elbe-Weser Triangle, in northern Germany.
The Elbhöhen-Wendland Nature Park (Naturpark Elbhöhen-Wendland), formerly known as the Elbufer-Drawehn Nature Park (Naturpark Elbufer-Drawehn) is a German nature park east of Lüneburg in Lower Saxony.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.
The Elm is a range of hills north of the Harz mountains in the Helmstedt and Wolfenbüttel districts of Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Elm-Lappwald Nature Park (Naturpark Elm-Lappwald) is a nature park in southwest Lower Saxony, east of Brunswick in central Germany.
Emden is an independent city and seaport in Lower Saxony in the northwest of Germany, on the river Ems.
The Ems (Ems; Eems) is a river in northwestern Germany.
Landkreis Emsland is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany named after the river Ems.
Emsland is the name of a region on the Ems River in western Lower Saxony and northern North Rhine-Westphalia.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans.
Ernst Carl Julius Albrecht (29 June 1930 – 13 December 2014) was a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union and a former high-ranking civil servant of the European Commission.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (Prussian Union) Protestant regional churches and denominations in Germany, which collectively encompasses the vast majority of Protestants in that country.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Brunswick (Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche in Braunschweig) is a Lutheran church in the German states of Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt.
Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg (Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche in Oldenburg) is a Lutheran church in the German state of Lower Saxony.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Schaumburg-Lippe is a Lutheran member church (Landeskirche) of the Evangelical Church in Germany.
The Evangelical Reformed Church (Evangelisch-reformierte Kirche), until 2009 Evangelical Reformed Church – Synod of Reformed Churches in Bavaria and Northwestern Germany (Evangelisch-reformierte Kirche – Synode evangelisch-reformierter Kirchen in Bayern und Nordwestdeutschland) is a Reformed member church of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD).
The Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Hanover (Evangelisch-lutherische Landeskirche Hannovers) is a Lutheran church body (Landeskirche) in the German state of Lower Saxony and the city of Bremerhaven covering the territory of the former Kingdom of Hanover.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
A "free church" is a Christian denomination or independent church that is intrinsically separate from government (as opposed to a theocracy, or an "established" or state church).
The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.
The Free State of Brunswick was a state of the German Reich in the time of the Weimar Republic.
The Free State of Lippe (Freistaat Lippe) was a German state formed after the Principality of Lippe was abolished following the German Revolution of 1918.
The Free State of Oldenburg (Freistaat Oldenburg) was a federated state of the Weimar Republic.
The Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe (Freistaat Schaumburg-Lippe) was created following the abdication of Prince Adolf II of Schaumburg-Lippe on 15 November 1918.
Freepsum is a village in the municipality of Krummhörn in the district of Aurich in East Frisia in North Germany.
Friesland is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
Gau (Dutch: gouw, Frisian: gea or goa) is a Germanic term for a region within a country, often a former or actual province.
Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Göttingen is a district (German: Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Geest is a type of landform, slightly raised above the surrounding countryside, that occurs on the plains of Northern Germany, the Northern Netherlands and Denmark.
Georg Diederichs (2 September 1900, Northeim – 19 June 1983) was a German politician, a member of the SPD, who served as Minister President of Lower Saxony.
Gerhard Glogowski (born February 11, 1943 in Hanover) is a German politician (SPD).
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gifhorn is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Gorleben is a small municipality (Gemeinde) in the Gartow region of the Lüchow-Dannenberg district in the far north-east of Lower Saxony, Germany, a region also known as the Wendland.
Goslar is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Grand Duchy of Oldenburg (also known as Holstein-Oldenburg) was a grand duchy within the German Confederation, North German Confederation and German Empire which consisted of three widely separated territories: Oldenburg, Eutin and Birkenfeld.
The Grönegau (also Graingau) is the historic regional name for one of the many Saxon Gaus that have survived to the present day.
The Greater Hamburg Act (Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz), in full the Law Regarding Greater Hamburg and Other Territorial Readjustments (Gesetz über Groß-Hamburg und andere Gebietsbereinigungen), was passed by the government of Nazi Germany on 26 January 1937, and mandated the exchange of territories between Hamburg and the Free State of Prussia.
Gruner + Jahr is one of the largest publishing houses in Europe.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hamelin-Pyrmont (Landkreis Hameln-Pyrmont) is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Hannover Re (in German Hannover Rück) SE, with a gross premium of around €17.8 billion, is a European and third-largest reinsurance company in the world.
The Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region (German: Metropolregion Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg) is an economic and cultural region in Northern Germany.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Hanover was a Regierungsbezirk of the German state of Lower Saxony from 1946 until 2004.
Hanover Region (Region Hannover) is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Harburg is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Harz is a Mittelgebirge that has the highest elevations in Northern Germany and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia.
Höfer is a village and a former municipality in the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Hümmling (Homelinghen, from hömil.
Heidekreis ("Heath district") is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Heinrich Peter Hellwege (born 18 August 1908 in Neuenkirchen; died 4 October 1991 in Neuenkirchen) was a German politician (DHP, DP and CDU).
Helmstedt is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Border checkpoint Helmstedt–Marienborn (Grenzübergang Helmstedt-Marienborn), named Grenzübergangsstelle Marienborn (GÜSt) (border crossing Marienborn) by the German Democratic Republic (GDR), was the largest and most important border crossing on the Inner German border during the division of Germany.
Herford is a Kreis (district) in the northeastern part of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
The Province of Hesse-Nassau was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1868 to 1918, then a province of the Free State of Prussia until 1944.
Hessisch Oldendorf is a town in the Hamelin-Pyrmont district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Hildesheim (Eastphalian: Hilmessen) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany with 103,804 inhabitants.
Hildesheim is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Hildesheim Börde (Hildesheimer Börde or Braunschweig-Hildesheimer Lössbörde) is a natural region, 272 km2 in area, in the northern part of Hildesheim district, which is known for its especially rich black earth loess soil.
Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf 1948 Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf (6 May 1893 – 21 December 1961) was a German politician (SPD).
The history of Saxony consists of what was originally a small tribe living on the North Sea between the Elbe and Eider River in the present Holstein.
Holstein (Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen, Holsten, Latin and historical Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Holzminden is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.
The Hunte is a long river in north-western Germany (Lower Saxony), a left tributary of the Weser.
During the Early Modern period the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Imperial Circles (Circuli imperii, Reichskreise; singular Circulus imperii, Reichskreis), administrative groupings whose primary purposes were the organization of common defensive structure and the collection of imperial taxes.
The Internationaler Naturpark Bourtanger Moor-Bargerveen (engl. Bourtanger Moor-Bargerveen International Nature Park) is a nature reserve in the west of the German state Lower Saxony as well as in the North-East of the Netherlands.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Juist is an island and municipality in the district of Aurich in Lower Saxony in Germany.
Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.
Kehdingen is the name of a landscape in the north German district of Stade on the Lower Elbe, the lower reaches of the River Elbe.
The Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era.
The pit Konrad (Schacht Konrad) is a former iron ore mine proposed as a deep geological repository for medium- and low level radioactive waste in the city Salzgitter in the Metropolitan region Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg in southeast Lower Saxony, Germany, located between Hildesheim and Braunschweig.
Land Hadeln is a historic landscape and former administrative district in Northern Germany with its seat in Otterndorf on the Lower Elbe, the lower reaches of the River Elbe, in the Elbe-Weser Triangle between the estuaries of the Elbe and Weser.
Land Wursten is a former Samtgemeinde ("collective municipality") in the district of Cuxhaven, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
In Germany and Switzerland, a Landeskirche (plural: Landeskirchen) is the church of a region.
The Lower Saxon Landtag (Niedersächsischer Landtag) or the Parliament of Lower Saxony is the state diet of the German state of Lower Saxony.
Langeoog is one of the seven inhabited East Frisian Islands at the edge of the Lower Saxon Wadden Sea in the southern North Sea, located between Baltrum Island (west), and Spiekeroog (east).
The Lappwald is a heavily wooded range of hills, 20 km long and up to 5 km wide, in central Germany.
Lüchow-Dannenberg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany, which is usually referred to as Hanoverian Wendland (Hannoversches Wendland) or Wendland.
Lüneburg (officially the Hanseatic City of Lüneburg, German: Hansestadt Lüneburg,, Low German Lümborg, Latin Luneburgum or Lunaburgum, Old High German Luneburc, Old Saxon Hliuni, Polabian Glain), also called Lunenburg in English, is a town in the German state of Lower Saxony.
Lüneburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Lüneburg was one of the four Regierungsbezirke of Lower Saxony, Germany, located in the north of the federal state between the three cities Bremen, Hamburg and Hanover.
Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide) is a large area of heath, geest, and woodland in the northeastern part of the state of Lower Saxony in northern Germany.
Lüneburg Heath Nature Park (German: Naturpark Lüneburger Heide) is a nature park, a form of protected environment, located in the Lüneburg Heath in northern Germany.
Leer is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Leine Uplands (Leinebergland) is a region in Germany's Central Uplands which forms a part of the Lower Saxon Hills and lies along the River Leine between Göttingen and Hanover.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
Lindwedel is a municipality in the administrative division of Schwarmstedt, in the Heidekreis region of Lower Saxony, Germany.
This List of mountains and hills in Lower Saxony shows a selection of high or well-known mountains and hills in the German state of Lower Saxony (in order of height).
This is a list of geographical features in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany.
Loam is soil composed mostly of sand (particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size These proportions can vary to a degree, however, and result in different types of loam soils: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam. In the USDA textural classification triangle, the only soil that is not predominantly sand, silt, or clay is called "loam". Loam soils generally contain more nutrients, moisture, and humus than sandy soils, have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silt and clay-rich soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. The different types of loam soils each have slightly different characteristics, with some draining liquids more efficiently than others. The soil's texture, especially its ability to retain nutrients and water are crucial. Loam soil is suitable for growing most plant varieties. Bricks made of loam, mud, sand, and water, with an added binding material such as rice husks or straw, have been used in construction since ancient times.
Local history is the study of history in a geographically local context and it often concentrates on the local community.
Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.
The County of Diepholz (West Low German: Diepholt), that was first known as the Lordship of Diepholz, was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire in the Lower-Rhenish-Westphalian Circle.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
The Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle (Niederrheinisch-Westfälischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Lower Saxon Asparagus Road (Niedersächsische Spargelstraße) is a tourist route in North Germany that confers recognition of the asparagus as a delicacy in the region.
The Lower Saxon Circle (Niedersächsischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Lower Saxon Hills (Niedersächsisches Bergland) are one of the 73 natural regions in Germany defined by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN).
The 2008 Lower Saxony state election was held in Lower Saxony in north-western Germany on 27 January 2008.
A state election was held in Lower Saxony on 20 January 2013 to elect the 137 members of the Landtag.
A state election was held on 15 October 2017 to elect the 18th Landtag of Lower Saxony.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
The Münden Nature Park lies within the district of Göttingen, in south Lower Saxony in Germany.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (often Mecklenburg-West Pomerania in English and commonly shortened to "Meck-Pomm" or even "McPom" or "M-V" in German) is a federal state in northern Germany.
The Meyer Werft GmbH & Co.
The Middle Weser Region (Mittelweserregion) includes, in its fullest sense, the land along the Middle Weser between Minden and Bremen.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
Minden-Ravensberg was a Prussian administrative unit consisting of the Principality of Minden and the County of Ravensberg from 1719–1807.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nienburg is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Norderney is one of the seven populated East Frisian Islands off the North Sea coast of Germany.
The North German Plain or Northern Lowland (Norddeutsches Tiefland) is one of the major geographical regions of Germany.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Northeim is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Northern Germany (Norddeutschland) is the region in the north of Germany whose exact area is not precisely or consistently defined.
Northern Low Saxon (in Low German: Noordneddersassisch) is a West Low German dialect.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Old Saxony is the original homeland of the Saxons in the northwest corner of modern Germany and roughly corresponds today to the modern German state of Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Nordalbingia (Holstein, southern part of Schleswig-Holstein) and western Saxony-Anhalt.
Oldenburg is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany.
The district of Oldenburg (German: Landkreis Oldenburg, not to be confused with the cities of Oldenburg and Oldenburg in Holstein) is a district in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany.
Oldenburg Land (Oldenburger Land) is a region and regional association in the German state of Lower Saxony in the area of the former Grand Duchy of Oldenburg (1815-1918), the later Free State of Oldenburg (1918-1946) and administrative district of Oldenburg (1946 to 1978), without its exclaves, along the rivers Hunte and Hase.
The Oldenburg Münsterland (Oldenburger Münsterland) is the southern, predominantly Catholic portion of the former Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, now a part of Lower Saxony in Germany.
Osnabrück (Ossenbrügge; archaic Osnaburg) is a city in the federal state of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany.
Osnabrück is a district (Landkreis) in the southwest of Lower Saxony, Germany.
Osnabrück Land (Osnabrücker Land) is a region in southwest Lower Saxony in Germany, which extends into the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Osterholz is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Ottobock is a German prosthetics company situated in Duderstadt.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Germany: Germany – federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe consisting of 16 constituent states, which retain limited sovereignty.
Peine is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
In meteorology, "precipitation types" can include the character or phase of the precipitation which is falling to ground level.
Preselection is the process by which a candidate is selected, usually by a political party, to contest an election for political office.
The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony.
The Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Hochstift Osnabrück) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1225 until 1803.
Schaumburg-Lippe was created as a county in 1647, became a principality in 1807, a free state in 1918, and was until 1946 a small state in Germany, located in the present day state of Lower Saxony, with its capital at Bückeburg.
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
The Province of Hanover (Provinz Hannover) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1868 to 1946.
The Province of Westphalia was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1946.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
A German Regierungsbezirk (often abbreviated to Reg.-Bez.; administrative district) is an administrative district of one of the nation's federal states.
Rinteln is a small town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Road of Weser Renaissance (Straße der Weserrenaissance) is a well-known tourist route in North Germany.
The Archdiocese of Cologne (Archidioecesis Coloniensis; Erzbistum Köln) is an archdiocese of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
The Diocese of Hildesheim (Latin:Dioecesis Hildesiensis) is a diocese or ecclesiastical territory of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in Germany.
The Diocese of Münster is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany.
The Diocese of Osnabrück is a diocese of the Catholic church in Germany; Catholic-Hierarchy.org.
Rotenburg is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Route of Megalithic Culture (Straße der Megalithkultur) was first created as a tourist route that meanders from Osnabrück to Oldenburg in North-West Germany.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
A salt mine is a mine from which halite, commonly known as rock salt, is extracted from evaporite formations.
Salzgitter is an independent city in southeast Lower Saxony, Germany, located between Hildesheim and Braunschweig.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Saterland Frisian, also known as Sater Frisian or Saterlandic (Seeltersk), is the last living dialect of the East Frisian language.
The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg (Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg, called Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony) between the 14th and 17th centuries), was a reichsfrei duchy that existed 1296–1803 and 1814–1876 in the extreme southeast region of what is now Schleswig-Holstein.
The Saxon Steed (Sachsenross, Niedersachsenross, Welfenross, Westfalenpferd;; Low Saxon: Witte Peerd) is a heraldic motif associated with Lower Saxony and Westphalia.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt,, official: Land Sachsen-Anhalt) is a landlocked federal state of Germany surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony and Thuringia.
The Südheide Nature Park ("Southern Heath Nature Park", German: Naturpark Südheide) is a large protected area of forest and heathland in the southern part of the Lüneburg Heath in North Germany.
Schaumburg is a district (Landkreis) of Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Schaumburg Land (Schaumburger Land) is a strip of land in the German federal state of Lower Saxony lying between Lake Steinhude, Schaumburg Forest, Minden Land, the Weser Hills and the Deister.
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.
Sigmar Hartmut Gabriel (born 12 September 1959) is a German politician who was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2017 to 2018 and Vice-Chancellor of Germany from 2013 to 2018.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, also small and medium enterprises) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
The Solling is a range of hills up to high in the Weser Uplands in the German state of Lower Saxony, whose extreme southerly foothills extend into Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia.
The Solling-Vogler Nature Park (Naturpark Solling-Vogler) is a nature park in South Lower Saxony in Germany.
South Lower Saxony (Südniedersachsen) refers to the southern part of the German federal state of Lower Saxony.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spiekeroog is one of the East Frisian Islands, off the North Sea coast of Germany.
Stade is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Stade Region emerged in 1823 by an administrative reorganisation of the dominions of the Kingdom of Hanover, a sovereign state, whose then territory is almost completely part of today's German federal state of Lower Saxony.
The Stade Geest (German: Stader Geest) is a natural region of low, sandy heath (geest) in the North German Plain.
The State of Hanover (Land Hannover) was a short-lived state within the British zone of Allied-occupied Germany.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
The Steinhuder Meer Nature Park (Naturpark Steinhuder Meer), with northwest Germany's largest inland lake, the Steinhuder Meer, at its heart, covers an area of within the districts of Nienburg and Schaumburg and the region of Hanover.
Stephan Weil (born 15 December 1958) is a German politician and the leader of the Social Democratic Party in Lower Saxony.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
Sumte is a village in the municipality of Amt Neuhaus, located 30 km east of the county town Lüneburg in the state of Lower Saxony in northern Germany.
Talanx is a German insurance company based in Hannover, specialising in provision of business-to-business insurance.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The TERRA.vita Nature Park (Naturpark TERRA.vita) is located in the German states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia and is divided into northern and southern areas.
The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
TUI Group (TUI (Touristik Union International) Aktiengesellschaft) is an Anglo-German travel and tourism company headquartered in Hannover, Germany.
Uelzen is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Unterelbe (lit. Underelbe) or, in English often the Lower Elbe, names to the lower reaches of the river Elbe in Germany swayed by the tides.
Upper Saxony (Obersachsen) was the name given to the majority of the German lands held by the House of Wettin, in what is now called Central Germany (Mitteldeutschland).
Vechta is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Verden is a ''Kreis'' (district) in the centre of Lower Saxony, Germany.
The historic territory of Verden emerged from the Monarchs of the Frankish Diocese of Verden in the area of present-day central and northeastern Lower Saxony and existed as such until 1648.
Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.
The Volkswagen Act is a set of German federal laws enacted in 1960, regulating the privatization of Volkswagenwerk GmbH into Volkswagen AG.
Wangerooge is one of the 32 Frisian Islands in the North Sea located close to the coasts of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
The Wümme Depression (Wümmeniederung) is a bog, geest and forest landscape within the Elbe-Weser Triangle in the German state of Lower Saxony.
The Weser is a river in Northwestern Germany.
The Weser Uplands (German: Weserbergland) is a hill region (Bergland.
The Weser Uplands-Schaumburg-Hamelin Nature Park (Naturpark Weserbergland Schaumburg-Hameln) lies on the northern edge of the German Central Uplands where it transitions to the North German Plain, about southwest of Hanover.
The Regierungsbezirk Weser-Ems was the most westerly of the four administrative regions of Lower Saxony, Germany, bordering on the Dutch provinces of Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel.
Wesermarsch is a Kreis (district) in the northwestern part of Lower Saxony, Germany.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
West Low German, also known as Low Saxon (Niedersächsisch or Westniederdeutsch; literally: Nether-saxon; Nedersassisch, Nedersaksies, Platduuts, Plat(t); Nedersaksisch) is a group of Low German (also Low Saxon; German: Niederdeutsch or Plattdeutsch, Dutch: Nederduits) dialects spoken in parts of the Netherlands, northwestern Germany and southern Denmark (in North Schleswig by the German minority).
The westerlies, anti-trades, or prevailing westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Widukind, also known as Widuking or Wittekind, was a leader of the Saxons and the chief opponent of the Frankish king Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 777 to 785.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
The Wildeshausen Geest (Wildeshauser Geest) is part of the northwest Germany's geest ridge, that begins near Meppen on the river Ems with the Hümmling, is broken by the Weser depression, continues with the Osterholz Geest and reaches the marshes of Kehdingen by the river Elbe with the ridges of the Wingst and Stade Geest.
Wilhelmshaven (meaning William's Harbour) is a coastal town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Windward is the direction upwind from the point of reference, alternatively the direction from which the wind is coming.
Wittmund is a Landkreis (district) in the northwestern part of Lower Saxony, Germany.
Wolfenbüttel is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, the administrative capital of Wolfenbüttel District.
Wolfenbüttel is a district in southeastern Lower Saxony, Germany.
Wolfsburg is the fifth largest city in the German state of Lower Saxony.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
At the Wurmberg is the second highest mountain in the Harz and the highest in Lower Saxony (Germany).