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Index Lublin

Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland. [1]

263 relations: Academy Awards, Alcalá de Henares, Alter Mojze Goldman, America's Next Top Model (cycle 10), American football, Andrzej Mańka, Anna Langfus, Appeal, Arena Lublin, Arianism, Aryeh Tzvi Frumer, Asseco, Association football, Świdnik, Bełżec extermination camp, Belarus, Biernat of Lublin, Bolesław V the Chaste, Brest, Belarus, Bulgaria, Bypass (road), Calvinism, Canada, Cannes Film Festival, Casimir I the Restorer, Casimir III the Great, Castellan, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Central Powers, Chapel of the Holy Trinity, Lublin Castle, Chełm, Church of St. Josaphat, Lublin, Comarch, Congress Poland, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Council of Europe, Court, Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Crown Tribunal, Daewoo, Debrecen, Delmenhorst, Democratic Left Alliance, Denmark, Dominican Order, Duchy of Warsaw, Early Middle Ages, Ekstraklasa (women's handball), Elżbieta Kruk, ..., English language, Erie, Pennsylvania, European Capital of Culture, European Commission, European Union, Expressway S12 (Poland), Expressway S17 (Poland), Expressway S19 (Poland), Felix Lembersky, Financial Times, Foreign direct investment, Fortification, France, Franciszka Arnsztajnowa, Fresco, FSC Lublin Automotive Factory, Gardzienice, Gazeta Wyborcza, Gdynia, General Government, Germany, Gothic Revival architecture, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grodzka Gate – NN Theatre, Grzegorz Kurczuk, Habsburg Monarchy, Handball in Poland, Henio Zytomirski, Henryk Wieniawski, History of Poland (1945–1989), Humid continental climate, Hungary, III liga, Invasion of Poland, Israel, Israel Defense Forces, IV liga, Ivano-Frankivsk, Izabella Sierakowska, Jacek Bąk, Jacob ben Ephraim, Jacob Glatstein, Jacob Pollak, Jan Kochanowski, Janusz Lewandowski, Józef Czechowicz, Joel Sirkis, Johannes Zukertort, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Joshua D. Zimmerman, Joshua Falk, Kabbalah, Köppen climate classification, Keep, Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, Kitty Hart-Moxon, KM Cross Lublin (speedway team), Kovel, Kraków, Krzysztof Michałkiewicz, KS Lublinianka, Labour United, Labyrinth Gallery, Lancaster, Lancashire, Law and Justice, League of Polish Families, Lena Kolarska-Bobińska, Lendians, Lesser Poland, List of cities and towns in Poland, List of Historic Monuments (Poland), Lithuania, Lithuanians, Lublin Airport, Lublin Castle, Lublin Department, Lublin Ghetto, Lublin Holocaust Memorial, Lublin Museum, Lublin Old Town, Lublin railway station, Lublin Reservation, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin Voivodeship, Lublin, Wisconsin, Luhansk, Lutsk, Lviv, LWS (aircraft manufacturer), Majdanek concentration camp, Majdanek State Museum, Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Münster, Medical University of Lublin, Meir Shapiro, Member of the European Parliament, Missionary Church and Monastery, Lublin, MKS Lublin, Mongols, Mordecai Yoffe, Moses Isserles, Motor Lublin, Motorcycle speedway, Nałęczów, Nancy, France, Nasze Miasto Lublin, National Heritage Board of Poland, Netherlands, Nilüfer, Bursa, Northern Wars, Nykøbing Falster, Old Jewish Cemetery, Lublin, Operation Reinhard, Panevėžys, Partitions of Poland, Pernik, Plage i Laśkiewicz, Podzamcze, Lublin County, Poet, Poland, Poles, Polish Basketball League, Polish Brethren, Polish Committee of National Liberation, Polish language, Polish People's Party, Polish Radio Lublin, Polish Righteous Among the Nations, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polskie Radio, Portugal, Portuguese language, Powiat, Poznań, Rabbi, Rafał Gan-Ganowicz, Reformation, Renaissance in Poland, Rishon LeZion, Rosh yeshiva, Royal elections in Poland, Rugby union, Russia, Ruthenians, Rzeszów, Saint Nicholas, Sandomierz Voivodeship, Sebastian Klonowic, Sejm, Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland, Shalom Shachna, Shneur Zalman Fradkin, Sholom Rokeach, Sister city, Solomon Luria, South Korea, Soviet Army, Spain, Spanish language, Standard of living, Stanisław Kostka Potocki, Starobilsk, Start Lublin, Sumy, Sweden, Szczecin, Szlachta, Talmud, Telewizja Polska, The Holocaust, The Holocaust in Poland, The Reader, Tilburg, Tourism in Poland, Tsardom of Russia, Turkey, TVP Info, TVP3, Ukraine, Ukrainian language, Union of Krewo, Union of Lublin, Union of Lublin (painting), United Kingdom, United States, University of Economics and Innovation, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, University of Oxford, Vehicle registration plates of Poland, Vilnius, Viseu, Vistula, Voivodeships of Poland, Volksdeutsche, Warsaw, Władysław Żmuda, Władysław I the Elbow-high, Władysław II Jagiełło, Western Europe, Wincenty Pol, Windsor, Ontario, Women's EHF Cup, World War II, Wrocław, Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin, Yitzhak Sadeh, Zadok HaKohen, Zamość, Zdzisław Podkański, Zyta Gilowska, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 2006 FIFA World Cup. Expand index (213 more) »

Academy Awards

The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.

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Alcalá de Henares

Alcalá de Henares, meaning Castle on the Henares (river), in Arabic قلعة النار, is a Spanish city located northeast of the country's capital, Madrid.

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Alter Mojze Goldman

Alter Mojze Goldman (17 November 1909 – 1988) was a Polish Jew who was active in the French Résistance during World War II.

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America's Next Top Model (cycle 10)

The tenth cycle of America's Next Top Model was the fourth season of the series to be aired on The CW network.

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American football

American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.

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Andrzej Mańka

Andrzej Mańka (born April 18, 1967 in Lublin) is a Polish politician.

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Anna Langfus

Anna Langfus (born Anna-Regina Szternfinkiel in Lublin on 2 January 1920; died 12 May 1966 in Paris) was an award-winning Polish/French author.

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In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision.

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Arena Lublin

Arena Lublin is a football stadium located in Lublin, Poland.

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Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).

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Aryeh Tzvi Frumer

Aryeh Tzvi Frumer (אריה צבי פרומר; also spelled Fromer or Frommer; 18842 May 1943) was a leading Orthodox rabbi, rosh yeshiva, and posek (halachic authority) in 20th-century Poland.

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Asseco Poland SA is the largest corporation in the technology sector quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Świdnik is a municipality in eastern Poland with 40,186 inhabitants (2012), situated in the Lublin Voivodeship, southeast of the city of Lublin.

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Bełżec extermination camp

Bełżec (in Belzec) was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.

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Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Biernat of Lublin

Biernat of Lublin (Polish: Biernat z Lublina, Latin Bernardus Lublinius, ca. 1465 – after 1529) was a Polish poet, fabulist, translator and physician.

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Bolesław V the Chaste

Bolesław V the Chaste (Bolesław Wstydliwy; 21 June 1226 – 7 December 1279) was a Duke of Sandomierz in Lesser Poland from 1232 and High Duke of Poland from 1243 until his death, as the last male representant of the Piast Lesser Poland branch.

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Brest, Belarus

Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Bypass (road)

A bypass is a road or highway that avoids or "bypasses" a built-up area, town, or village, to let through traffic flow without interference from local traffic, to reduce congestion in the built-up area, and to improve road safety.

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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cannes Film Festival

The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.

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Casimir I the Restorer

Casimir I the Restorer (b. Kraków, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań, 28 November 1058), was Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.

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Casimir III the Great

Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.

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A castellan was the governor or captain of a castellany and its castle.

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Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.

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Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Chapel of the Holy Trinity, Lublin Castle

The Chapel of the Holy Trinity in Lublin (pol. Kaplica Trójcy Świetej), commonly referred to as the Castle Chapel (pol. Kaplica Zamkowa), is a chapel located in the courtyard of Lublin Castle in Lublin, Poland, adjoining the museum portion of the castle complex.

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Chełm (Kulm, Холм) is a city in eastern Poland with 63,949 inhabitants (2015).

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Church of St. Josaphat, Lublin

Church of St.

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Comarch is a Polish multinational software house and systems integrator based in Kraków, Poland.

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Congress Poland

The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.

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Cost-effectiveness analysis

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.

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Crown of the Kingdom of Poland

The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.

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Crown Tribunal

Crown Tribunal (Polish: Trybunał Koronny, Latin Iudicium Ordinarium Generale Tribunalis Regni) – was the highest appeal court in the Crown of the Polish Kingdom for most cases, exceptions being the cases were a noble landowner was threatened with loss of life and/or property - then he could appeal to the Sejm court (parliament court).

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Daewoo (literally "Great Woo", after the first name of founder and chairman Kim Woo-jung) or the Daewoo Group was a major South Korean conglomerate and car manufacturer.

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Debrecen is Hungary's second largest city after Budapest.

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Delmenhorst is an urban district (Kreisfreie Stadt) in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Democratic Left Alliance

Democratic Left Alliance (Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is a social-democratic political party in Poland.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.

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Duchy of Warsaw

The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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Ekstraklasa (women's handball)

The Ekstraklasa is the top women's handball league in Poland.

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Elżbieta Kruk

Elżbieta Kruk (born November 19, 1959 in Lublin) is a Polish politician, a member of Law and Justice (national conservative political party in Poland).

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Erie, Pennsylvania

Erie is a city in and the county seat of Erie County, Pennsylvania, United States.

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European Capital of Culture

The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Expressway S12 (Poland)

Expressway S12 or express road S12 (in Polish droga ekspresowa S12) is a major road in Poland which has been planned to run from Piotrków Trybunalski, through Radom, Lublin and Chełm, to the border crossing with Ukraine at Dorohusk.

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Expressway S17 (Poland)

Expressway S17 or Express Road S17 (in Polish Droga ekspresowa S17) is an important road in Poland which, when completed, will run from Warsaw, through Lublin, to the border crossing with Ukraine at Hrebenne/Rava-Ruska.

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Expressway S19 (Poland)

Expressway S19 or express road S19 (in Polish droga ekspresowa S19) is a major road in Poland which has been planned to run from the border crossing to Belarus in Kuźnica through Białystok, Lublin and Rzeszów, to the border with Slovakia at Barwinek, where it will connect with the future R4 expressway (Slovakia).

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Felix Lembersky

Felix Samoilovich Lembersky (Феликс Самойлович Лемберский) (Lublin, Poland, November 11, 1913 – Leningrad, currently St. Petersburg, December 2, 1970) was a Russian/Soviet painter, artist, teacher, theater stage designer and an organizer of artistic groups.

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Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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Foreign direct investment

A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.

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A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franciszka Arnsztajnowa

Franciszka Arnsztajnowa (in full: Franciszka Hanna Arnsztajnowa; 19 February 1865 – August 1942) was a Polish poet, playwright, and translator of Jewish descent.

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Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.

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FSC Lublin Automotive Factory

The FSC Lublin Automotive Factory (Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych) commonly known as FSC, is a large motor vehicle factory in Poland established while the country was part of the Soviet Bloc.

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Centre for Theatre Practices "Gardzienice" was founded in 1977 by Włodzimierz Staniewski, and formally registered in 1978.

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Gazeta Wyborcza

Gazeta Wyborcza (meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland.

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Gdynia (Gdingen, Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.

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General Government

The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gothic Revival architecture

Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.

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Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.

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Grodzka Gate – NN Theatre

The "Grodzka Gate – NN Theatre" Centre (Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka — Teatr NN") is a cultural institution based in Lublin.

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Grzegorz Kurczuk

Grzegorz Kurczuk (pronounced; born September 20, 1949 in Warsaw) is a Polish politician.

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Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

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Handball in Poland

Handball is a popular team sport in Poland.

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Henio Zytomirski

Henio Zytomirski (Henio Żytomirski, הניו ז'יטומירסקי; 25 March 1933 – 9 November 1942) was a Polish Jew born in Lublin, Poland who was murdered at the age of 9 in a gas chamber at Majdanek concentration camp, during the German Nazi occupation of Poland.

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Henryk Wieniawski

Henryk Wieniawski (10 July 1835 – 31 March 1880) was a Polish violinist and composer.

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History of Poland (1945–1989)

The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet dominance and communist rule imposed after the end of World War II over Poland, as reestablished within new borders.

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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III liga

III Liga (Trzecia Liga) is a Polish football league that sits at the 4th tier of the Polish football league system.

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Invasion of Poland

The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israel Defense Forces

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.

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IV liga

4 liga (Czwarta Liga) lies at the 5th level of the Polish football league system.

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Ivano-Frankivsk (Ivano-Frankivsk; formerly Stanyslaviv, Stanislau, or Stanisławów; see below) is a historic city located in Western Ukraine.

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Izabella Sierakowska

Izabella Antonina Sierakowska (born September 22, 1946; maiden name Kruszyńska) is a Polish politician and one of the leading and the most popular persons of the Polish left.

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Jacek Bąk

Jacek Waldemar Bąk (born 24 March 1973) is a retired Polish footballer who played as a central defender.

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Jacob ben Ephraim

Jacob ben Ephraim (died in Lublin 1648) was a Polish rabbi.

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Jacob Glatstein

Jacob Glatstein (1896–1971) was a Polish-born American poet and literary critic who wrote in the Yiddish language.

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Jacob Pollak

Rabbi Jacob Pollak (other common spelling Yaakov Pollack) was the founder of the Polish method of halakhic and Talmudic study known as the Pilpul; born about 1460; died at Lublin in 1541.

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Jan Kochanowski

Jan Kochanowski (1530 – 22 August 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language.

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Janusz Lewandowski

Janusz Antoni Lewandowski (born 13 June 1951) is a Polish politician and economist belonging to the Gdańsk liberals group, and a former member of the European Parliament (elected on 13 June 2004), Chairman of the Committee on Budgets.

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Józef Czechowicz

Józef Czechowicz (15 March 1903 – 9 September 1939) was an avant-garde Polish poet.

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Joel Sirkis

Joel ben Samuel Sirkis (יואל בן שמואל סירקיש) also known as the Bach - בית חדש) ב"ח)—an abbreviation of his magnum opus, Bayit Chadash—was a prominent Jewish posek and halakhist. He lived in central Europe and held rabbinical positions in Belz, Brest-Litovsk and Kraków. He lived from 1561 to 1640.

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Johannes Zukertort

Johannes Hermann Zukertort (Polish: Jan Hermann Cukiertort; 7 September 1842 – 20 June 1888) was a leading German-Polish chess master.

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John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin

Catholic University of Lublin (in Polish Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, or KUL) is located in Lublin, Poland.

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Joshua D. Zimmerman

Joshua D. Zimmerman (born 1966) is Professor of History at Yeshiva University, where he holds the Eli and Diana Zborowski Professorial Chair in Interdisciplinary Holocaust Studies.

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Joshua Falk

Joshua ben Alexander HaCohen Falk (1555 – 29 March 1614) was a Polish Halakhist and Talmudist, best known as the author of the Beit Yisrael commentary on the Arba'ah Turim as well as Sefer Me'irat Enayim (סמ"ע) on Shulkhan Arukh.

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Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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A keep (from the Middle English kype) is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility.

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Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia

The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.

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Kitty Hart-Moxon

Kitty Hart-Moxon, OBE (born 1 December 1926) is a Polish-English Holocaust survivor.

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KM Cross Lublin (speedway team)

Klub Motorowy Cross Lublin also known as the Speed Car Motor Lublin through sponsorship rights, is a Polish motorcycle speedway team based in Lublin which currently competes in Nice 1.

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Kovel (Polish: Kowel, קאָוועל) is a town in Volyn Oblast (province), in northwestern Ukraine.

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Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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Krzysztof Michałkiewicz

Krzysztof Michałkiewicz (born 26 September 1953 in Oborniki Śląskie) is a Polish politician.

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KS Lublinianka

KS Lublinianka is a professional Polish football (soccer) club based in Lublin.

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Labour United

Labour Union (Unia Pracy, UP) is a minor social-democratic political party in Poland.

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Labyrinth Gallery

The Labyrinth Gallery (Galeria Labirynt) was established in 1956 as the Bureau of Art Exhibitions (Biuro Wystaw Artystycznych or BWA) in Lublin, Poland.

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Lancaster, Lancashire

Lancaster is the county town of Lancashire, England. It is on the River Lune and has a population of 52,234; the wider City of Lancaster local government district has a population of 138,375. Long a commercial, cultural and educational centre, Lancaster gives Lancashire its name. The House of Lancaster was a branch of the English royal family, whilst the Duchy of Lancaster holds large estates on behalf of Elizabeth II, who is also the Duke of Lancaster. Lancaster is an ancient settlement, dominated by Lancaster Castle, Lancaster Priory Church and the Ashton Memorial. It is also home to Lancaster University and a campus of the University of Cumbria.

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Law and Justice

Law and Justice (Polish), abbreviated to PiS, is a national-conservative, and Christian democratic political party in Poland.

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League of Polish Families

The League of Polish Families (Polish: Liga Polskich Rodzin, LPR) is a nationalist conservative political party in Poland, part of the Catholic-National Movement and with many elements of far-right ideology.

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Lena Kolarska-Bobińska

Professor Lena Barbara Kolarska-Bobińska (born 3 December 1947 in Prague) is a Polish academic and political figure.

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The Lendians (Lędzianie) were a West Slavic tribe who lived in the area of East Lesser Poland and Cherven Towns between the 7th and 11th centuries.

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Lesser Poland

Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.

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List of cities and towns in Poland

This page contains a list of cities and towns in Poland, preceded by a table of major Polish cities.

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List of Historic Monuments (Poland)

Historic Monument (pomnik historii) is one of several categories of objects of cultural heritage (in the singular, zabytek) in Poland.

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Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.

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Lublin Airport

Lublin Airport (Port Lotniczy Lublin) is an airport in Poland serving Lublin and the surrounding region.

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Lublin Castle

The Lublin Castle (Zamek Lubelski) is a medieval castle in Lublin, Poland, adjacent to the Old Town district and close to the city center.

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Lublin Department

The Lublin Department (Polish: Departament Lubelski) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1810-1815.

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Lublin Ghetto

The Lublin Ghetto was a World War II ghetto created by Nazi Germany in the city of Lublin on the territory of General Government in occupied Poland.

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Lublin Holocaust Memorial

The Holocaust Memorial in Lublin (Pomnik ku czci masowej eksterminacji ludności żydowskiej, Pomnik ofiar getta) commemorates the Jewish inhabitants of the city who were killed during the Holocaust.

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Lublin Museum

Lublin Museum (Muzeum Lubelskie) is one of the oldest and largest museums in the Eastern Poland, located in Lublin.

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Lublin Old Town

Lublin Old Town is one of the most precious Polish complexes of historic buildings.

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Lublin railway station

Lublin railway station (Polish Stacja Lublin) is the most important railway station in Lublin, Poland.

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Lublin Reservation

The Lublin Reservation (Lublin-Reservat) was a concentration camp complex developed by Nazi German Schutzstaffel (SS) in the early stages of World War II, as the so-called "territorial solution to the Jewish Question".

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Lublin University of Technology

Lublin University of Technology (Politechnika Lubelska) is an engineering university in Lublin, Poland.

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Lublin Voivodeship

Lublin Voivodeship, or Lublin Province (in Polish, województwo lubelskie), is a voivodeship, or province, located in southeastern Poland.

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Lublin, Wisconsin

Lublin is a village in Taylor County, Wisconsin, United States.

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Luhansk (Luhans'k) or Lugansk (Луганск), formerly known as Voroshilovgrad (1935–1958 and 1970–1990) is a city near the eastern border of Ukraine and western Russia.

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Lutsk (Luc'k,, Łuck, Luck) is a city on the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine.

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Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.

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LWS (aircraft manufacturer)

LWS - Lubelska Wytwórnia Samolotów (Lublin Aircraft Factory) was the Polish aerospace manufacturer, located in Lublin, created in 1936 of Plage i Laśkiewicz works and producing aircraft between 1936 and 1939.

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Majdanek concentration camp

Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.

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Majdanek State Museum

The Majdanek State Museum (Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku) is a memorial museum and education centre founded in the fall of 1944 on the grounds of the Nazi Germany Majdanek death camp located in Lublin, Poland.

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Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland

Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland dominated between 1550 and 1650, when it was finally replaced with baroque.

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Maria Curie-Skłodowska University

Maria Curie-Skłodowska University (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, UMCS) was founded October 23, 1944 in Lublin.

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Münster (Low German: Mönster; Latin: Monasterium, from the Greek μοναστήριον monastērion, "monastery") is an independent city (Kreisfreie Stadt) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Medical University of Lublin

Medical University of Lublin dates back to 1944 in Lublin, Poland.

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Meir Shapiro

Yehuda Meir Shapiro (or Shapira) (March 3, 1887 – October 27, 1933), was a prominent Polish Hasidic rabbi and rosh yeshiva, also known as the Lubliner Rav.

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Member of the European Parliament

A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.

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Missionary Church and Monastery, Lublin

Post-missionary church and monastery in Lublin - the church of the Transfiguration of Our Lord in Lublin was erected in the years 1717–1730 for a seminary of the Congregation of the Mission, after the suppression of the monastery by Russians during the time of the Partitions of Poland taken over by the diocese.

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MKS Lublin

MKS Lublin is a Polish women's handball club from Lublin, that plays in the Ekstraklasa, the top division for handball in Poland, in which they finished runners-up in the past season.

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The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Mordecai Yoffe

Mordecai ben Avraham Yoffe (or Jaffe or Joffe) (1530 – 7 March 1612; Hebrew: מרדכי בן אברהם יפה) was a Rabbi, Rosh yeshiva and posek.

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Moses Isserles

Moses Isserles (משה בן ישראל איסרלישׂ, Mojżesz ben Israel Isserles) (February 22, 1530 / Adar I, 5290 – May 11, 1572 / Iyar), was an eminent Polish Ashkenazic rabbi, talmudist, and posek.

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Motor Lublin

Motor Lublin is a Polish professional football team based in Lublin.

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Motorcycle speedway

Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.

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Nałęczów is a spa town (population 4,800) situated on the Nałęczów Plateau in Poland's Lublin Province.

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Nancy, France

Nancy (Nanzig) is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.

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Nasze Miasto Lublin

Nasze Miasto Lublin (Our City Lublin) is a free polish language local newspaper about Lublin.

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National Heritage Board of Poland

The National Heritage Board of Poland (Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa,NID) is a Polish governmental institution responsible for the objects considered most important to the nation's cultural heritage.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Nilüfer, Bursa

Nilüfer is a district of Bursa Province of Turkey.

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Northern Wars

Northern Wars is a term used for a series of wars fought in northern and northeastern Europe in the 16th and 17th century.

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Nykøbing Falster

Nykøbing Falster (originally named Nykøbing) is a southern Danish city, seat of the Guldborgsund ''kommune''.

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Old Jewish Cemetery, Lublin

The Old Jewish Cemetery (Stary Cmentarz Żydowski w Lublinie), in Lublin, Poland, is located on a hill between Kalinowszczyzna and Sienna Streets.

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Operation Reinhard

Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename given to the secretive German Nazi plan to exterminate the majority of Polish Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland during World War II.

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Panevėžys (Latin: Panevezen, Poniewież, פּאָנעװעזש Ponevezh) see also other names, is the fifth largest city in Lithuania. As of 2011, it occupied with 113,653 inhabitants. The largest multifunctional arena in Panevėžys, Cido Arena, hosted the Eurobasket 2011 group matches.

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Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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Pernik (Перник) is a city in western Bulgaria (about south-west of Sofia) with a population of 80,191.

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Plage i Laśkiewicz

Plage i Laśkiewicz (Plage & Laśkiewicz) was the first Polish aerospace manufacturer, located in Lublin and manufacturing aircraft under Lublin name.

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Podzamcze, Lublin County

Podzamcze is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Bychawa, within Lublin County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland.

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A poet is a person who creates poetry.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.

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Polish Basketball League

Polska Liga Koszykówki (PLK) (English: Polish Basketball League) is a professional men's club basketball league in Poland.

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Polish Brethren

The Polish Brethren (Polish: Bracia Polscy) were members of the Minor Reformed Church of Poland, a Nontrinitarian Protestant church that existed in Poland from 1565 to 1658.

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Polish Committee of National Liberation

The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish: Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN), also known as the Lublin Committee, was a puppet provisional government of Poland,.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Polish People's Party

The Polish People's Party (Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, abbreviated to PSL (traditionally translated as Polish Peasants' Party), often shortened to ludowcy ('the populars') is an agrarian and Christian democratic political party in Poland. It has 14 members of the Sejm and four Members of the European Parliament. It was the junior partner in a coalition with Civic Platform. It is a member of the European People's Party and the European People's Party group in the European Parliament. The party was formed in 1990 as a left-wing party. The PSL formed a coalition with the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) after winning 132 seats in the Sejm at the 1993 election, with PSL leader Waldemar Pawlak as Prime Minister until 1995. The party fell to 27 at the next election, and moved towards the centre at the end of the 1990s. In 2001, the party re-entered a coalition with the SLD, but withdrew in 2003. After the 2007 election, the PSL entered a coalition with the centre-right Civic Platform (PO). The party's name traces its tradition to an agrarian party in Austro-Hungarian-controlled Galician Poland, which sent MPs to the parliament in Vienna. Until the 2014 local election, the PSL formed self-government coalition in fifteen to sixteen regional assemblies.

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Polish Radio Lublin

Radio Lublin (Polskie Radio Lublin S.A.) - Polish public, regional broadcaster based in Lublin in east Poland.

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Polish Righteous Among the Nations

The citizens of Poland have the world's highest count of individuals who have been recognized by Yad Vashem of Jerusalem as the Polish Righteous Among the Nations, for saving Jews from extermination during the Holocaust in World War II.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Polskie Radio

Polskie Radio Spółka Akcyjna (PR S.A.; English: Polish Radio) is Poland's state-owned national publicly funded radio broadcasting organization.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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A powiat (pronounced; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries.

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Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.

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In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.

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Rafał Gan-Ganowicz

Rafał Gan-Ganowicz (23 April 1932 in Wawer – 22 November 2002 in Lublin) was a Polish soldier-in-exile, mercenary, journalist, member of the National Council of Poland, and a political and social activist.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Renaissance in Poland

The Renaissance in Poland (Renesans, Odrodzenie; literally: the Rebirth) lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and is widely considered to have been the Golden Age of Polish culture.

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Rishon LeZion

Rishon LeZion (רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן, lit. First to Zion) is the fourth largest city in Israel, located along the central Israeli coastal plain south of Tel Aviv.

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Rosh yeshiva

Rosh Yeshiva (ראש ישיבה; pl. Heb.; pl. Yeshivish: rosh yeshivahs) is the title given to the dean of a Talmudical academy (yeshiva).

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Royal elections in Poland

Royal elections in Poland (wolna elekcja, lit. free election) was the election of individual kings, rather than of dynasties, to the Polish throne.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Ruthenians and Ruthenes are Latin exonyms which were used in Western Europe for the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples, Rus' people with Ruthenian Greek Catholic religious background and Orthodox believers which lived outside the Rus'.

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Rzeszów (Ряшiв, Ŕašiv; Resche (antiquated); Resovia; ריישע, rayshe) is the largest city in southeastern Poland, with a population of 189,637 (01.03.2018).

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Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.

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Sandomierz Voivodeship

Sandomierz Voivodeship (Województwo Sandomierskie, Palatinatus Sandomirensis) was a unit of administration and local government in Poland from the 14th century to the partitions of Poland in 1772–1795.

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Sebastian Klonowic

Sebastian Fabian Klonowic (1545 Sulmierzyce – August 29, 1602 Lublin) was a Polish poet and composer.

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The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.

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Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland

Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland (Samoobrona Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej, SRP) is a populist, agrarian, and nationalist political party and trade union in Poland.

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Shalom Shachna

Shalom Shachna (1510 – 1558) was a rabbi and Talmudist, and Rosh yeshiva of several great Acharonim including Moses Isserles, who was also his son-in-law.

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Shneur Zalman Fradkin

Shneur Zalman Ladier Fradkin of Lublin (1830–1902), also known as the Toras Chessed (after his main work) or The Liader (after his place of birth), was a famous Chabad posek and gaon.

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Sholom Rokeach

Sholom Rokeach (1781 – 10 September 1855), also known as the Sar Sholom (שר שלום, "Angel of Peace"), was the first Belzer Rebbe.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Solomon Luria

Solomon Luria (1510 – November 7, 1573) (שלמה לוריא) was one of the great Ashkenazic poskim (decisors of Jewish law) and teachers of his time.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Soviet Army

The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Standard of living

Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.

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Stanisław Kostka Potocki

Count Stanisław Kostka Potocki (November 1755 – 14 September 1821) was a Polish noble, politician, writer, publicist, collector and patron of art.

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Starobilsk (Старобільськ, Starobelsk Старобельск) is a city near Luhansk in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine.

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Start Lublin

Start Lublin, for sponsorship reasons Wikana Start S.A. Lublin, is a Polish basketball team, based in Lublin, playing in the Polish PLK since the 2014–15 season.

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Sumy (Суми, Сумы) is a city in north-eastern Ukraine, and the capital of Sumy Oblast (region).

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.

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The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.

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The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.

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Telewizja Polska

Telewizja Polska S.A. (TVP S.A., or Polish Television) is a public broadcasting corporation, the only public TV broadcaster in the territory of the Republic of Poland.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.

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The Holocaust in Poland

The Holocaust in German-occupied Poland was the last and most lethal phase of Nazi Germany's "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" (Endlösung der Judenfrage), marked by the construction of death camps on German-occupied Polish soil.

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The Reader

The Reader (Der Vorleser) is a novel by German law professor and judge Bernhard Schlink, published in Germany in 1995 and in the United States in 1997.

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Tilburg is a city in the Netherlands, in the southern province of North Brabant.

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Tourism in Poland

Poland is a part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors.

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Tsardom of Russia

The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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TVP Info

TVP Info is a Polish news channel, run by the public broadcaster TVP.

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TVP3 (formerly TVP Regionalna, known also as Regionalna Trójka or Program 3 Telewizji Polskiej) is a Polish TV channel, run by the public broadcaster, TVP and dedicated to the country's regions.

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Ukrainian language

No description.

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Union of Krewo

In a strict sense, the Union of Krewo or "Act of Krėva" (also spelled "Union of Krevo", "Act of Kreva"; Krėvos sutartis) was a set of prenuptial promises made in the Kreva Castle on 14 August 1385 by Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in exchange for marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland.

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Union of Lublin

The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Union of Lublin (painting)

Union of Lublin (Unia lubelska) is an oil painting by the Polish artist Jan Matejko, finished in 1869, depicting the Union of Lublin.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Economics and Innovation

The University of Economics and Innovation (also called: 'Higher School of Economics and Innovation of Lublin' in Polish: 'Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomii i Innowacjii w Lublinie', commonly shortened to WSEI) was founded on October 24, 2000 in Lublin.

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University of Life Sciences in Lublin

The University of Life Sciences in Lublin (Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Lublinie) is a multi-profile higher education institution, which integrates a wide range of agricultural, biological, veterinary, technical and socioeconomic sciences in Poland.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Vehicle registration plates of Poland

Vehicle registration plates of Poland indicate the region of registration of the vehicle encoded in the number plate.

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Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.

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Viseu is a city and municipality in the Centro Region of Portugal and the capital of the district of the same name, with a population of 99.274 inhabitants, and center of the Viseu Dão Lafões intermunipical community, with 267.633 inhabitants.

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The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).

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Voivodeships of Poland

A województwo (plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries.

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In Nazi German terminology, Volksdeutsche were "Germans in regard to people or race" (Ethnic Germans), regardless of citizenship.

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Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Władysław Żmuda

Władysław Antoni Żmuda (born 6 June 1954 in Lublin) is a former Polish footballer, who played as a defender for Śląsk Wrocław, Widzew Łódź, Hellas Verona, New York Cosmos and US Cremonese.

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Władysław I the Elbow-high

Władysław I the Elbow-high or the Short (Władysław I Łokietek; c. 1260 – 2 March 1333) was the King of Poland from 1306 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years.

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Władysław II Jagiełło

Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Wincenty Pol

Wincenty Pol (20 April 1807 – 2 December 1872) was a Polish poet and geographer.

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Windsor, Ontario

Windsor is a city in Ontario and the southernmost city in Canada.

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Women's EHF Cup

The Women's EHF Cup (Women's IHF Cup until 1993) is an official competition for women's handball clubs of Europe.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.

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Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin

Jacob Isaac Horowitz (יעקב יצחק הורוביץ), known as The Seer of Lublin", ha-Chozeh MiLublin; c. 1745 - August 15, 1815) was a Hasidic rebbe from Poland. "Rabbi Yaacov Yitzchak, the Chozeh of Lublin, is one of the truly beloved figures of Chassidism. He merited the title of Chozeh, which means seer or visionary..." A leading figure in the early Hasidic movement, he became known as the "seer" or "visionary" due to his purported ability to gaze across great distance by supernatural means. He was a disciple of the Maggid of Mezritch. He continued his studies under Rabbi Shmelke of Nilkolsburg and Rabbi Elimelech of Lizhensk. He lived for a while in Lantzut before moving to Lublin. After Yaakov Yitzchak moved to Lublin, thousands of Hasidim flocked to learn from him. Among his disciples were such Hasidic luminaries as the Yid Hakodesh ("The Holy Jew"), Rabbi Simcha Bunim of Peshischa, Rabbi Meir of Apta, Rabbi David of Lelov, the Yismach Moshe, Rabbi Tzvi Elimelech of Dinov, Rabbi Naftali Zvi of Ropshitz, the Ma'or Vashemesh, and Sar Shalom of Belz. The Seer of Lublin also gained a reputation as a miracle-worker who could accomplish the tikkun, or repair of the soul, of those who sought his assistance and guidance. During his stay in Lublin, Yaakov Yitzchak was opposed by a prominent rabbi, Rabbi Ezriel Horowitz. Yaakov Yitzchak was a descendant of Isaiah Horowitz (Hebrew: ישעיה הלוי הורוביץ), also known as the Shelah ha-Kadosh (Hebrew: של"ה הקדוש), a prominent Levite rabbi and mystic, and his maternal grandfather, Rabbi Yaakov Koppel Likover, also a prominent rabbi, a scholar, and a contemporary of the Ba'al Shem Tov. He was injured in a fall from a window on Simchat Torah night, following HaKaFos, and died almost a year later on Tisha B'av from injuries relating to this fall. He is buried at Old Jewish Cemetery, Lublin.

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Yitzhak Sadeh

Yitzhak Sadeh (יצחק שדה, born Izaak Landoberg, August 10, 1890 – August 20, 1952), was the commander of the Palmach, one of the founders of the Israel Defense Forces at the time of the establishment of the State of Israel and a cousin of British philosopher Isaiah Berlin.

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Zadok HaKohen

Rabbi Zadok ha-Kohen Rabinowitz of Lublin (in Hebrew: צדוק הכהן מלובלין) (Kreisburg, 1823 - Lublin, Poland, 1900), (or Tzadok Hakohen or Tzadok of Lublin), was a significant Jewish thinker and Hasidic leader.

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Zamość (Yiddish: זאמאשטש Zamoshtsh) is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship (since 1999), about from Lublin, from Warsaw and from the border with Ukraine.

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Zdzisław Podkański

Zdzisław Zbigniew Podkański (born 18 October 1949 in Guzówka, Poland) is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Lublin Voivodship with the Polish People's Party, part of the European People's Party and sits on the European Parliament's Committee on Culture and Education.

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Zyta Gilowska

Zyta Gilowska (7 July 1949 – 5 April 2016) was a Polish economist, academic, and politician.

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1997 Asian financial crisis

The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.

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2006 FIFA World Cup

The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament.

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Redirects here:

Fidelitatem et Constantiam, Liublin, Liublinas, Lublin, Poland, Lublinum, Lyublin, UN/LOCODE:PLLUL.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lublin

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