137 relations: Academic Ranking of World Universities, Age of Enlightenment, Anti-fascism, Arnold Sommerfeld, Aurora, Bachelor's degree, Bad Tölz, Bavaria, Bertolt Brecht, Biology, Bologna Process, Business, Business administration, Catholic Church, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich, Center of excellence, Chancellor of Germany (1949–present), Chemistry, Cold War, College and university rankings, Computer science, Conrad Celtes, Counter-Reformation, Deputy Führer, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Deutsches Museum, Diplom, Doctor of Philosophy, Earth science, Economics, Education in Germany, Englischer Garten, Environmental science, Europaeum, Ferdinand Sauerbruch, Friedrich von Gärtner, Fritz Hommel, Garching bei München, Gerhard Ertl, German Universities Excellence Initiative, Germany, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz, Graduate school, Großhadern, Habilitation, Hans-Werner Sinn, Heidelberg University, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstadt, Johann Eck, ..., Johann Nepomuk von Ringseis, Kingdom of Bavaria, Klinikum Großhadern, Konrad Adenauer, Landshut, Law, League of European Research Universities, Leipzig University, List of forestry universities and colleges, List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945), List of Nobel laureates, List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation, List of universities in Germany, Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria, Ludwig I of Bavaria, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Ludwigstrasse, Maisach, Management, Martinsried, Master of Arts, Master's degree, Mathematics, Max Planck, Max Weber, Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, Maximilian von Montgelas, Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund, Medicine, Muhammad Iqbal, Munich, Munich U-Bahn, Nanosystems Initiative Munich, Napoleonic Wars, Natural science, Nazi Germany, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize in Physics, Oberschleißheim, Old Academy (Munich), Otto Hahn, Pakistan Today, Parmenides Foundation, Peter Canisius, Petrus Apianus, Pharmacy, Philosophy, Physical chemistry, Physics, Pope Benedict XVI, Protestantism, Psychology, Public university, QS World University Rankings, Quantum mechanics, Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society, Renaissance humanism in Northern Europe, Research university, Richard Willstätter, Roman Catholic Diocese of Chiemsee, Rudolf Hess, Scholarship, Social science, Society of Jesus, Statistics, Studentenwerk, Technical University of Munich, The Development of Metaphysics in Persia, Theodor W. Hänsch, Thomas Mann, Times Higher Education, Universität (Munich U-Bahn), University of Freiburg, University of Greifswald, University of Ingolstadt, University of Rostock, Valdas Adamkus, Veterinary medicine, Weimar Republic, Werner Heisenberg, West Germany, White Rose, Wilhelm Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Wolfgang Pauli, World War II. Expand index (87 more) » « Shrink index
Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.
Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
Bad Tölz is a town in Bavaria, Germany and the administrative center of the district of Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht (10 February 1898 – 14 August 1956), known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner, playwright, and poet.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
Business administration is management of a business.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM) is a cluster of excellence in sciences located in Munich.
A center of excellence (COE) is a team, a shared facility or an entity that provides leadership, best practices, research, support and/or training for a focus area.
The Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in), meaning "Federal Chancellor", or in) for short) is, under the German 1949 Constitution, the head of government of Germany.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
College and university rankings are rankings of institutions in higher education which have been ranked on the basis of various combinations of various factors.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Conrad Celtes (Konrad Celtes; Conradus Celtis (Protucius); 1 February 1459 – 4 February 1508) was a German Renaissance humanist scholar and Neo-Latin poet.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
Deputy Führer (German: Stellvertreter des Führers, more faithfully translated as "Deputy of the Führer") was the title for the deputy head of the Nazi Party.
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; German Research Foundation) is a German research funding organization.
The Deutsches Museum (German Museum) in Munich, Germany, is the world's largest museum of science and technology, with about 28,000 exhibited objects from 50 fields of science and technology.
A Diplom (from δίπλωμα diploma) is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Bulgaria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland (only for engineers), France, Greece, Hungary, Russia, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Ukraine.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The responsibility for the education system in Germany lies primarily with the states (Länder), while the federal government plays a minor role.
The Englischer Garten (English Garden) is a large public park in the centre of Munich, Bavaria, stretching from the city centre to the northeastern city limits.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
The Europaeum is an organisation of thirteen leading European universities.
Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch (3 July 1875 – 2 July 1951) was a German surgeon.
Friedrich von Gärtner (December 10, 1791 in Koblenz – April 21, 1847 in Munich) was a German architect.
Fritz Hommel (31 July 1854 – 17 April 1936) was a German Orientalist.
Garching bei München or Garching is a city in Bavaria, Germany near Munich.
Gerhard Ertl (born 10 October 1936) is a German physicist and a Professor emeritus at the Department of Physical Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin, Germany.
The Excellence Initiative of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the German Research Foundation aims to promote cutting-edge research and to create outstanding conditions for young scholars at universities, to deepen cooperation between disciplines and institutions, to strengthen international cooperation of research, and to enhance the international appeal of excellent German universities.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Geschwister-Scholl-Platz (Scholl Siblings Plaza) is a short semi-circular plaza located in front of the main building of the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München), located on the Ludwigstraße in Munich, Germany.
A graduate school (sometimes shortened as grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.
Großhadern (in the town district Hadern) is a districtin the south-west of the Bavarian state capital Munich.
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries.
Hans-Werner Sinn (born 7 March 1948) is a German economist and was President of the Ifo Institute for Economic Research from 1999-2016.
Heidelberg University (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Universitas Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis) is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Helmholtz Zentrum München is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres and is responsible for studying environmental health issues.
Ingolstadt (Austro-Bavarian) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Johann Maier von Eck (13 November 1486 – 13 February 1543), often Anglicized as John Eck, was a German Scholastic theologian, Catholic prelate, and early counterreformer who was among Martin Luther's most important interlocutors and theological opponents.
Johann Nepomuk von Ringseis (16 May 1785 – 22 May 1880) was a German physician born in Schwarzhofen, Oberpfalz.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Klinikum Großhadern of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich in the Großhadern district of Hadern is the largest hospital complex in Munich, owing to its affiliated institutions and 1,418 beds.
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963.
Landshut (Landsad) is a town in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
The League of European Research Universities (LERU) is a consortium of European research universities.
Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig), in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany.
This is a list of tertiary educational institutions around the world offering bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees in forestry or related fields.
The list of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945) contains all universities which existed in Europe between the French Revolution and the end of World War II.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
This list of Nobel laureates by university affiliation shows comprehensively the university affiliations of individual winners of the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences since 1901 (as of 2017, 892 individual laureates in total).
This is a list of the universities in Germany, of which there are about seventy.
Louis IX (also known as Louis the Rich; 23 February 1417 – 18 January 1479), (German: Ludwig IX, Herzog von Bayern-Landshut) was Duke of Bavaria-Landshut from 1450.
Ludwig I (also rendered in English as Louis I; 25 August 1786 – 29 February 1868) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.
The Ludwigstraße in Munich is one of the city's four royal avenues next to the Brienner Straße, the Maximilianstraße and the Prinzregentenstraße.
Maisach is a municipality in the district of Fürstenfeldbruck, in Bavaria, Germany.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Martinsried is a Munich's science suburb.
A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Maximilian I Joseph (27 May 1756 – 13 October 1825) was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, Prince-Elector of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph) from 1799 to 1806, then King of Bavaria (as Maximilian I Joseph) from 1806 to 1825.
Maximilian I (17 April 157327 September 1651), occasionally called "the Great", a member of the House of Wittelsbach, ruled as Duke of Bavaria from 1597.
Maximilian Josef Garnerin, Count von Montgelas (12 September 1759 Munich – 14 June 1838 Munich) was a Bavarian statesman, a member of a noble family from the Duchy of Savoy.
The Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund (German for Munich Transport and Tariff Association) or MVV is the transit authority of the city of Munich, the capital of the German state of Bavaria.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اِقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The Munich U-Bahn (U-Bahn München) system is an electric rail rapid transit network in Munich, Germany.
The Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM) is a German research cluster in the field of nano sciences.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Oberschleißheim is a municipality in the district of Munich, in Bavaria, Germany.
The Old Academy (German: Alte Akademie), also called Wilhelminum, is a building in the center of Munich, Germany.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Pakistan Today is a Pakistani English-language daily newspaper, published by Nawa Media Corporation from three Pakistani cities Lahore, Punjab; Karachi, Sindh; and Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory.
The Parmenides Foundation was founded by Albrecht von Müller in 2000 to support interdisciplinary research on thinking.
Peter Canisius, S.J. (Pieter Kanis, 8 May 1521 – 21 December 1597) was a renowned Dutch Jesuit Catholic priest.
Petrus Apianus (April 16, 1495 – April 21, 1552), also known as Peter Apian, Peter Bennewitz, and Peter Bienewitz was a German humanist, known for his works in mathematics, astronomy and cartography.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS).
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
The Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society (RCC) is an international, interdisciplinary center for research and education in the environmental humanities located in Munich, Germany.
Renaissance Humanism came much later to Germany and Northern Europe in general than to Italy, and when it did, it encountered some resistance from the scholastic theology which reigned at the universities.
A research university is a university that expects all its tenured and tenure-track faculty to continuously engage in research, as opposed to merely requiring it as a condition of an initial appointment or tenure.
Richard Martin Willstätter, (13 August 1872 – 3 August 1942) was a German organic chemist whose study of the structure of plant pigments, chlorophyll included, won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
The Bishopric of Chiemsee was a Roman Catholic diocese.
Rudolf Walter Richard Hess (Heß in German; 26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987), was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany.
A scholarship is an award of financial aid for a student to further their education.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
The Studentenwerk (plural: Studentenwerke) or Studierendenwerk is a state-run non-profit organization for student affairs in Germany.
Technical University of Munich (TUM) (Technische Universität München) is a research university with campuses in Munich, Garching and Freising-Weihenstephan.
The Development of Metaphysics in Persia is the book form of Muhammad Iqbal's PhD thesis in philosophy at the University of Munich submitted in 1908 and published in the same year.
Theodor Wolfgang Hänsch (born 30 October 1941) is a German physicist.
Paul Thomas Mann (6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate.
Times Higher Education (THE), formerly The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES), is a weekly magazine based in London, reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education.
Universität is an Munich U-Bahn station located in the Munich borough of Maxvorstadt.
The University of Freiburg (colloquially Uni Freiburg), officially the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg), is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The University of Greifswald (Universität Greifswald) is a public research university located in Greifswald, Germany, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The University of Ingolstadt was founded in 1472 by Louis the Rich, the Duke of Bavaria at the time, and its first Chancellor was the Bishop of Eichstätt.
The University of Rostock (Rostock University, Universität Rostock) is a public university located in Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Valdas Adamkus (born Voldemaras Adamkavičius; 3 November 1926) is a Lithuanian politician.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The White Rose (die Weiße Rose) was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany led by a group of students and a professor at the University of Munich.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (13 January 1864 – 30 August 1928) was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at any one reference temperature.
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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