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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Index Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. [1]

310 relations: A Philosophical Investigation, A. C. Grayling, Absolute pitch, Action theory (philosophy), Adolf Hitler, Adolf Loos, Aeronautics, Agnosticism, Alan Turing, Alan Turing: The Enigma, Alexander Waugh, Alfred North Whitehead, Alice Crary, Allies of World War I, Alvin Plantinga, Analytic philosophy, Anthony Gottlieb, Apostolos Doxiadis, Arthur Schopenhauer, Arthur Schuster, Ascension Parish Burial Ground, Ashkenazi Jews, Atheism, Auguste Rodin, Augustine of Hippo, Austria, Austria-Hungary, Austrians, Austro-Hungarian Army, Austro-Hungarian krone, Éamon de Valera, Øystese, Bad Laasphe, Barry Stroud, Baruch Spinoza, Bertrand Russell, Blue and Brown Books, Brigitte Hamann, British people, British Psychological Society, British subject, Bruce Duffy, Bruno Walter, Brusilov Offensive, Bundesrealgymnasium Linz Fadingerstraße, C. D. Broad, Cambridge, Cambridge Apostles, Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club, Cambridge University Press, ..., Casimir Lewy, Catholic Church, Charles Kay Ogden, Charlottenburg, Chesapeake Bay, Christos Papadimitriou, City and Guilds of London Institute, Clarinet, Cogito, ergo sum, Cognitive science, Confession, Connemara, Conrad Pepler, Contemporary classical music, Continuum International Publishing Group, Cora Diamond, County Wicklow, Czechs, Dalkey Archive Press, Daniel Dennett, Danish language, David Edmonds (philosopher), David Foster Wallace, David Hume, David Markson, David Pears, David Pinsent, Derek Jarman, Dewi Zephaniah Phillips, Diploma, Doppler effect, Dublin, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, E. L. Doctorow, Edward Vaughan Bevan, England, Epistemology, Eric Harold Neville, European Journal of Philosophy, Family resemblance, First class travel, Form of life (philosophy), Foundations of mathematics, Francis Skinner, Frank P. Ramsey, Friedrich Hayek, Fyodor Dostoevsky, G. E. M. Anscombe, G. E. Moore, Georg Henrik von Wright, Georg Trakl, Gilbert Ryle, Glossop, Goethe-Institut, Gordon Park Baker, Gottlob Frege, Great Depression, Gustav Klimt, Gustav Mahler, Guy's Hospital, Gymnasium (school), Hans Sluga, Hans-Johann Glock, Harold Arthur Prichard, Heinrich Hertz, Hermann von Helmholtz, High German languages, Howitzer, Iain King, Ian Hacking, Imperial and Royal, International Wittgenstein Symposium, Ireland, Italian Front (World War I), Ithaca, New York, Jacques Bouveresse, James F. Conant, James Tully (philosopher), Jürgen Habermas, Jean-François Lyotard, Jesús Padilla Gálvez, Jesmond, Jewish surname, Jews, Jim Holt (philosopher), Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Brahms, John Maynard Keynes, John McDowell, John Ryle (physician), John Searle, John Wisdom, Jon Stewart (philosopher), Joseph Joachim, Jules Vuillemin, Kari Jormakka, Karl Kraus (writer), Karl Popper, Karl Sigmund, Karlskirche, Key signature, King's College, Cambridge, Kraków, L. E. J. Brouwer, Lady Ottoline Morrell, Language game (philosophy), Last Judgment, Laurence Goldstein, Leo Tolstoy, Leukemia, Linguistic turn, Linz, Logic, Logical atomism, Logical truth, Logicomix, Ludwig Boltzmann, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittgenstein's philosophy of mathematics, Margaret Stonborough-Wittgenstein, Mark Goldie, Martin Kusch, Maurice O'Connor Drury, Medal for Bravery (Austria-Hungary), Metaphysics, Michael Fitzgerald (psychiatrist), Michael Nedo, Military awards and decorations, Military Merit Medal (Austria-Hungary), Mind (journal), Mischling, Nachlass, Napoleon, Netherlands, Newcastle upon Tyne, Norbert Davis, Norman Malcolm, Norwegian language, Nuremberg Laws, Oets Kolk Bouwsma, On Certainty, Orderly, Ordinary language philosophy, Orgelbüchlein, Oswald Hanfling, Oswald Spengler, Otterthal, Otto Weininger, Oxford University Press, Paragraph 175, Paul Engelmann, Paul Feyerabend, Paul Levy (journalist), Paul Wittgenstein, Peter Geach, Peter Hacker, Peter Winch, Philip Kerr, Philosophical Investigations, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy Now, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of mind, Picture theory of language, Piero Sraffa, Platonic realism, Poliomyelitis, Potassium cyanide, Principia Mathematica, Private language argument, Prostate cancer, Protestantism, Prussian Academy of Sciences, Puchberg am Schneeberg, Quentin Skinner, Quietism (philosophy), R. B. Braithwaite, Rainer Maria Rilke, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rassenschande, Ray Monk, Reaktion Books, Realschule, Redcross, Remarks on Colour, René Descartes, Resurrection of Jesus, Reuben Goodstein, Richard Rorty, Rogers Albritton, Rothschild family, Routledge, Royal Meteorological Society, Royal Society, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Rudolf Carnap, Rush Rhees, Saul Kripke, Sayn-Wittgenstein, Søren Kierkegaard, Schneeberg (Alps), Scholarship, Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, Scientism, Secession Building, Sex and Character, Siegen-Wittgenstein, Skjolden, Slovenes, Sofya Yanovskaya, State of affairs (philosophy), Stephen Toulmin, Storey's Way, Suicide, Taoiseach, Tarnów, Technical University of Berlin, Terry Eagleton, The Blitz, The Broom of the System, The Brothers Karamazov, The Foundations of Arithmetic, The Gospel in Brief, The New Wittgenstein, The New York Review of Books, The Principles of Mathematics, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The World as Will and Representation, Theory of Colours, Thomas Bernhard, Thomas Koschat, Thomas Kuhn, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Trattenbach, Trentino, Trinity College, Cambridge, Truth function, United States, University of Bergen, University of Cambridge, University of Jena, Victoria University of Manchester, Vienna, Vienna Circle, Vintage Books, Warth, Lower Austria, Western (genre), Western philosophy, Wilhelm Ostwald, Wittgenstein (film), Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language, Wittgenstein's ladder, Wittgenstein's Mistress, Wittgenstein's Poker, World War I, World War II, Yorick Smythies, 20th-century philosophy, 7th Army (Austria-Hungary). Expand index (260 more) »

A Philosophical Investigation

A Philosophical Investigation is a 1992 techno-thriller by Philip Kerr.

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A. C. Grayling

Anthony Clifford Grayling (born 3 April 1949), usually known as A. C. Grayling, is a British philosopher and author.

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Absolute pitch

Absolute pitch (AP), widely referred to as perfect pitch, is a rare auditory phenomenon characterized by the ability of a person to identify or re-create a given musical note without the benefit of a reference tone.

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Action theory (philosophy)

Action theory (or theory of action) is an area in philosophy concerned with theories about the processes causing willful human bodily movements of a more or less complex kind.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Adolf Loos

Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos (10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was an Austrian and Czech architect and influential European theorist of modern architecture.

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Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.

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Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

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Alan Turing: The Enigma

Alan Turing: The Enigma (1983) is a biography of the British mathematician, codebreaker, and early computer scientist, Alan Turing (1912–1954) by Andrew Hodges.

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Alexander Waugh

Alexander Evelyn Michael Waugh (born 1963) is an English eccentric, businessman, writer, critic, journalist, composer, cartoonist, record producer and television presenter.

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Alfred North Whitehead

Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

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Alice Crary

Alice Crary (born 1967) is an American philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford (as of Fall 2018), and Professor of Philosophy at the Graduate Faculty, The New School for Social Research in New York City, where she was the Philosophy Department Chair 2014-17 and founding Co-Chair of the Gender and Sexuality Studies program.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Alvin Plantinga

Alvin Carl Plantinga (born November 15, 1932) is a prominent American analytic philosopher who works primarily in the fields of logic, justification, philosophy of religion, and epistemology.

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Analytic philosophy

Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.

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Anthony Gottlieb

Anthony John Gottlieb (born 1956) is a British writer, former Executive Editor of The Economist, historian of ideas, and the author of The Dream of Reason.

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Apostolos Doxiadis

Apostolos K. Doxiadis (Απόστολος Κ. Δοξιάδης; born 1953) is a Greek writer.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.

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Arthur Schuster

Sir Franz Arthur Friedrich Schuster FRS FRSE (12 September 1851 – 17 October 1934) was a German-born British physicist known for his work in spectroscopy, electrochemistry, optics, X-radiography and the application of harmonic analysis to physics.

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Ascension Parish Burial Ground

The Ascension Parish Burial Ground, formerly the burial ground for the parish of St Giles and St Peter's, is a cemetery in Cambridge, England.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Auguste Rodin

François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 1840 – 17 November 1917), known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor.

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Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.

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Austro-Hungarian Army

The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.

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Austro-Hungarian krone

The Krone or korona (Krone, Hungarian and Polish korona, krona, kruna, Czech and koruna) was the official currency of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1892 (when it replaced the gulden, forint, florén or zlatka as part of the adoption of the gold standard) until the dissolution of the empire in 1918.

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Éamon de Valera

Éamon de Valera (first registered as George de Valero; changed some time before 1901 to Edward de Valera; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland.

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Øystese (pronounced Oystesee) is a village in the municipality of Kvam in Hordaland county, Norway.

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Bad Laasphe

Bad Laasphe is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in the Siegen-Wittgenstein district.

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Barry Stroud

Barry Stroud (born 1935, Toronto) is a Canadian philosopher known for his work on philosophical skepticism, David Hume, and Ludwig Wittgenstein, among other topics.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

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Blue and Brown Books

The Blue and Brown Books are two sets of notes taken during lectures conducted by Ludwig Wittgenstein from 1933 to 1935.

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Brigitte Hamann

Brigitte Hamann (26 July 1940 – 4 October 2016) was a German-Austrian author and historian based in Vienna.

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British people

The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.

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British Psychological Society

The British Psychological Society (BPS) is a representative body for psychologists and psychology in the United Kingdom.

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British subject

The term British subject has had a number of different legal meanings over time.

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Bruce Duffy

Bruce Michael Duffy (born June 9, 1951) is an American author.

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Bruno Walter

Bruno Walter (born Bruno Schlesinger, September 15, 1876February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor, pianist and composer.

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Brusilov Offensive

The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv, literally: "Brusilov's breakthrough"), also known as the "June Advance", of June to September 1916 was the Russian Empire’s greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.

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Bundesrealgymnasium Linz Fadingerstraße

The Bundesrealgymnasium Linz Fadingerstraße (Fadingergymnasium) is a general secondary school in the inner city of Linz, Austria.

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C. D. Broad

Charlie Dunbar Broad (30 December 1887 – 11 March 1971), usually cited as C. D. Broad, was an English epistemologist, historian of philosophy, philosopher of science, moral philosopher, and writer on the philosophical aspects of psychical research.

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Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Cambridge Apostles

The Cambridge Apostles is an intellectual society at the University of Cambridge founded in 1820 by George Tomlinson, a Cambridge student who went on to become the first Bishop of Gibraltar.

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Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club

The Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club, founded in October 1878, is a philosophy discussion group that meets weekly at Cambridge during term time.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Casimir Lewy

Casimir Lewy (Kazimierz Lewy; 26 February 1919 in Warsaw – 8 February 1991 in Cambridge) was a Polish-born British philosopher of Jewish descent.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Charles Kay Ogden

Charles Kay Ogden (1 June 1889 – 20 March 1957) was an English linguist, philosopher, and writer.

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Charlottenburg is an affluent locality of Berlin within the borough of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf.

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Chesapeake Bay

The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia.

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Christos Papadimitriou

Christos Harilaos Papadimitriou (Greek: Χρήστος Χαρίλαος Παπαδημητρίου; born August 16, 1949) is a Greek theoretical computer scientist, and professor of Computer Science at Columbia University.

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City and Guilds of London Institute

The City and Guilds of London Institute is an educational organisation in the United Kingdom.

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The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments.

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Cogito, ergo sum

Cogito, ergo sum is a Latin philosophical proposition by René Descartes usually translated into English as "I think, therefore I am".

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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A confession is a statement – made by a person or by a group of persons – acknowledging some personal fact that the person (or the group) would ostensibly prefer to keep hidden.

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Connemara (Conamara) is a cultural region in County Galway, Ireland.

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Conrad Pepler

Conrad (Stephen) Pepler O.P. (5 May 1908 – 10 November 1993) was an English Dominican priest, writer, editor, and publisher.

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Contemporary classical music

Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music.

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Continuum International Publishing Group

Continuum International Publishing Group was an academic publisher of books with editorial offices in London and New York City.

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Cora Diamond

Cora Diamond (born 1937) is an American philosopher who works on Ludwig Wittgenstein, Gottlob Frege, moral philosophy, political philosophy, philosophy of language, and philosophy and literature.

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County Wicklow

County Wicklow (Contae Chill Mhantáin) is a county in Ireland.

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The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.

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Dalkey Archive Press

Dalkey Archive Press is a publisher of fiction, poetry, and literary criticism in Illinois in the United States, Dublin, and London, specializing in the publication or republication of lesser known, often avant-garde works.

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Daniel Dennett

Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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David Edmonds (philosopher)

David Edmonds (born 1964) is a radio feature maker at the BBC World Service.

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David Foster Wallace

David Foster Wallace (February 21, 1962 – September 12, 2008) was an American writer and university instructor in the disciplines of English and creative writing.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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David Markson

David Merrill Markson (December 20, 1927 – c. June 4, 2010) as of June 7, 2010, when this article was published, the exact time of Markson's death is not known.

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David Pears

David Pears (8 August 1921 – 1 July 2009) was a British philosopher renowned for his work on Ludwig Wittgenstein.

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David Pinsent

David Hume Pinsent (24 May 1891 – 8 May 1918) was a friend, collaborator and platonic lover of the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein.

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Derek Jarman

Michael Derek Elworthy Jarman (31 January 1942 – 19 February 1994) was an English film director, stage designer, diarist, artist, gardener and author.

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Dewi Zephaniah Phillips

Dewi Zephaniah Phillips (24 November 1934 – 25 July 2006), known as D. Z. Phillips, Dewi Z, or simply DZ, was a leading proponent of Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion.

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A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study.

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Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.

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Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies

The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS) (Institiúid Ard-Léinn Bhaile Átha Cliath) was established in 1940 by the then Taoiseach, Éamon de Valera under the Institute for Advanced Studies Act, 1940 in Dublin, Ireland.

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E. L. Doctorow

Edgar Lawrence Doctorow (January 6, 1931 – July 21, 2015) was an American novelist, editor, and professor, best known internationally for his works of historical fiction.

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Edward Vaughan Bevan

Edward Vaughan Bevan (3 November 1907 – 22 February 1988) was a British doctor and rower who won a gold medal at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Eric Harold Neville

Eric Harold Neville, known as E. H. Neville (1 January 1889 London, England – 22 August 1961 Reading, Berkshire, England) was an English mathematician.

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European Journal of Philosophy

The European Journal of Philosophy is a peer-reviewed academic journal of philosophy published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell.

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Family resemblance

Family resemblance (Familienähnlichkeit) is a philosophical idea made popular by Ludwig Wittgenstein, with the best known exposition given in his posthumously published book Philosophical Investigations (1953).

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First class travel

First class is the most luxurious travel class of seats and service on a train, passenger ship, airplane, bus, or other system of transport.

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Form of life (philosophy)

Form of life (Lebensform) is a technical term used by Ludwig Wittgenstein and others in the continental philosophy and philosophy of science traditions.

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Foundations of mathematics

Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosophical theories concerning the nature of mathematics.

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Francis Skinner

Sidney George Francis Guy Skinner (1912 – October 1, 1941) was a friend, collaborator, and lover of the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein.

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Frank P. Ramsey

Frank Plumpton Ramsey (22 February 1903 – 19 January 1930) was a British philosopher, mathematician and economist who made fundamental contributions to abstract algebra before his death at the age of 26.

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Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.

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Fyodor Dostoevsky

Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.

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G. E. M. Anscombe

Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (18 March 1919 – 5 January 2001), usually cited as G. E. M.

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G. E. Moore

George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.

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Georg Henrik von Wright

Georg Henrik von Wright (14 June 1916 – 16 June 2003) was a Finnish philosopher, who succeeded Ludwig Wittgenstein as professor at the University of Cambridge.

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Georg Trakl

Georg Trakl (3 February 1887 – 3 November 1914) was an Austrian poet and brother of the pianist Grete Trakl.

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Gilbert Ryle

Gilbert Ryle (19 August 1900 – 6 October 1976) was a British philosopher.

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Glossop is a market town in the High Peak, Derbyshire, England, about east of Manchester, west of Sheffield and north of the county town, Matlock.

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The Goethe-Institut (GI, "Goethe Institute") is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with 159 institutes, promoting the study of the German language abroad and encouraging international cultural exchange and relations.

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Gordon Park Baker

Gordon Park Baker (born at Englewood, New Jersey, 20 April 1938; died at Woodstock, Oxfordshire, 25 June 2002) was an American-English philosopher.

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Gottlob Frege

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Gustav Klimt

Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement.

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Gustav Mahler

Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.

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Guy's Hospital

Guy's Hospital is an NHS hospital in the borough of Southwark in central London.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

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Hans Sluga

Hans D. Sluga (born April 24, 1937) is a German academic, who has served as a lecturer in philosophy at University College London and is now a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has taught since 1970.

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Hans-Johann Glock

Hans-Johann Glock (born February 12, 1960, Freudenstadt) is a German philosopher and professor of philosophy at the University of Zurich.

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Harold Arthur Prichard

Harold Arthur Prichard (1871–1947), usually cited as H. A. Pritchard, was an English philosopher.

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Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.

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Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.

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High German languages

The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).

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A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.

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Iain King

Iain Benjamin King is a British writer.

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Ian Hacking

Ian MacDougall Hacking (born February 18, 1936) is a Canadian philosopher specializing in the philosophy of science.

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Imperial and Royal

The German phrase kaiserlich und königlich (Imperial and Royal), typically abbreviated as k. u. k., k. und k., k. & k. in German (in all cases the "und" is always spoken unabbreviated), cs.

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International Wittgenstein Symposium

The International Wittgenstein Symposium is an international conference dedicated to the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein and its relationship to philosophy and science.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Italian Front (World War I)

The Italian Front (Fronte italiano; in Gebirgskrieg, "Mountain war") was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.

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Ithaca, New York

Ithaca is a city in the Finger Lakes region of New York.

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Jacques Bouveresse

Jacques Bouveresse (born August 20, 1940) is a philosopher who has written on subjects including Ludwig Wittgenstein, Robert Musil, Karl Kraus, philosophy of science, epistemology, philosophy of mathematics and analytical philosophy.

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James F. Conant

James Ferguson Conant (born June 10, 1958) is an American philosopher who has written extensively on topics in philosophy of language, ethics, and metaphilosophy.

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James Tully (philosopher)

James Hamilton Tully (born 1946) is the Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Law, Indigenous Governance and Philosophy at the University of Victoria, Canada.

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Jürgen Habermas

Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.

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Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-François Lyotard (10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist.

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Jesús Padilla Gálvez

Jesús Padilla Gálvez (xe'sus pa'ðiʎa 'ɣalβeθ) (born October 28, 1959) is a philosopher who worked primarily in philosophy of language, logic, and the history of sciences.

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Jesmond is a residential suburb and is split into two electoral wards just north of the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, England.

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Jewish surname

Jewish surnames are family names of Jews that are not pseudonyms.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jim Holt (philosopher)

Jim Holt is an American philosopher, author and essayist.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.

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John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.

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John McDowell

John Henry McDowell (born 7 March 1942) is a South African philosopher, formerly a fellow of University College, Oxford and now University Professor at the University of Pittsburgh.

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John Ryle (physician)

John Alfred Ryle (1889–1950) was a British physician and epidemiologist.

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John Searle

John Rogers Searle (born 31 July 1932) is an American philosopher.

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John Wisdom

Arthur John Terence Dibben Wisdom (12 September 1904, Leyton, Essex9 December 1993, Cambridge), usually cited as John Wisdom, was a leading British philosopher considered to be an ordinary language philosopher, a philosopher of mind and a metaphysician.

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Jon Stewart (philosopher)

Jon B. Stewart is an American philosopher and historian of philosophy.

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Joseph Joachim

Joseph Joachim (Joachim József, 28 June 1831 – 15 August 1907) was a Hungarian violinist, conductor, composer and teacher.

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Jules Vuillemin

Jules Vuillemin (15 February 1920 – 16 January 2001) was a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy of Knowledge at the prestigious Collège de France, in Paris, from 1962 to 1990, succeeding Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Professor emeritus from 1991 to 2001.

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Kari Jormakka

Kari Juhani Jormakka (Helsinki, 21 January 1959 – 13 January 2013, Vienna) was a Finnish architect, historian, critic and pedagogue.

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Karl Kraus (writer)

Karl Kraus (April 28, 1874 – June 12, 1936) was an Austrian writer and journalist, known as a satirist, essayist, aphorist, playwright and poet.

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Karl Popper

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.

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Karl Sigmund

Karl Sigmund (b. July 26, 1945 in Gars am Kamp, Lower Austria) is a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Vienna and one of the pioneers of evolutionary game theory.

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The Rektoratskirche St.

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Key signature

In musical notation, a key signature is a set of sharp, flat, and rarely, natural symbols placed together on the staff.

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King's College, Cambridge

King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England.

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Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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L. E. J. Brouwer

Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (27 February 1881 – 2 December 1966), usually cited as L. E. J. Brouwer but known to his friends as Bertus, was a Dutch mathematician and philosopher, who worked in topology, set theory, measure theory and complex analysis.

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Lady Ottoline Morrell

Lady Ottoline Violet Anne Morrell (16 June 1873 – 21 April 1938) was an English aristocrat and society hostess.

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Language game (philosophy)

A language-game (Sprachspiel) is a philosophical concept developed by Ludwig Wittgenstein, referring to simple examples of language use and the actions into which the language is woven.

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Last Judgment

The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.

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Laurence Goldstein

Laurence Goldstein (born 1943) is a poet, editor, and professor in the University of Michigan Department of English Language and Literature.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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Linguistic turn

The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relationship between philosophy and language.

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Linz (Linec) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich).

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Logical atomism

Logical atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of analytic philosophy.

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Logical truth

Logical truth is one of the most fundamental concepts in logic, and there are different theories on its nature.

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Logicomix: An Epic Search for Truth is a graphic novel about the foundational quest in mathematics, written by Apostolos Doxiadis, author of Uncle Petros and Goldbach's Conjecture, and theoretical computer scientist Christos Papadimitriou of the University of California, Berkeley.

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Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the physical properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein's philosophy of mathematics

Ludwig Wittgenstein considered his chief contribution to philosophy to be in the philosophy of mathematics, a topic to which he devoted much of his work between 1929 and 1944.

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Margaret Stonborough-Wittgenstein

Margaret "Gretl" Stonborough-Wittgenstein (September 19, 1882 – September 27, 1958), of the prominent and wealthy Viennese Wittgenstein family, was a sister of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein and the pianist Paul Wittgenstein.

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Mark Goldie

Mark Goldie, FRHS is an English historian and Professor of Intellectual History at Churchill College, Cambridge.

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Martin Kusch

Martin Kusch (born 19 October 1959) is Professor of philosophy at the University of Vienna.

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Maurice O'Connor Drury

Maurice O'Connor Drury (known as 'Con Drury' to his friends) (3 July 1907 – 25 December 1976) was a psychiatrist and follower of Ludwig Wittgenstein born in Marlborough, Wiltshire, England of Irish parents.

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Medal for Bravery (Austria-Hungary)

The Medal for Bravery (Tapferkeitsmedaille) was a military decoration of Austria-Hungary.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Michael Fitzgerald (psychiatrist)

Michael Fitzgerald is an Irish professor of child and adolescent psychiatry, specialising in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

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Michael Nedo

Michael Nedo (born 1940) is the director of the Wittgenstein Archive in Cambridge.

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Military awards and decorations

A military decoration is an award, usually a medal of some sort that consists of a ribbon and medallion given to an individual as a distinctively designed mark of honor denoting heroism, or meritorious or outstanding service or achievement.

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Military Merit Medal (Austria-Hungary)

The Military Merit Medal (Militär-Verdienstmedaille, Katonai Érdemérem, Vojna medalja za zasluge) was a military decoration of the Empire of Austria-Hungary.

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Mind (journal)

Mind is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Mind Association.

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("mixed-blood" in German, plural) was the German legal term used in Nazi Germany to denote persons deemed to have both "Aryan" and Jewish ancestry.

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Nachlass (older spelling Nachlaß) is a German word, used in academia to describe the collection of manuscripts, notes, correspondence, and so on left behind when a scholar dies.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Newcastle upon Tyne

Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.

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Norbert Davis

Norbert Harrison Davis (April 18, 1909 - July 28, 1949) was an American crime fiction author.

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Norman Malcolm

Norman Malcolm (11 June 1911 – 4 August 1990) was an American philosopher.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Nuremberg Laws

The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.

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Oets Kolk Bouwsma

Oets Kolk Bouwsma (1898–1978) was an American philosopher born of Dutch-American parents in Muskegon, Michigan.

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On Certainty

On Certainty (Über Gewissheit, original spelling Über Gewißheit) is a philosophical book composed from the notes written by Ludwig Wittgenstein just prior to his death.

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In healthcare, an orderly (also known as a ward assistant, nurse assistant or healthcare assistant) is a hospital attendant whose job consists of assisting medical and nursing staff with various nursing and medical interventions.

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Ordinary language philosophy

Ordinary language philosophy is a philosophical methodology that sees traditional philosophical problems as rooted in misunderstandings philosophers develop by distorting or forgetting what words actually mean in everyday use.

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The Orgelbüchlein ("Little Organ Book") BWV 599−644 is a collection of 46 chorale preludes for organ written by Johann Sebastian Bach.

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Oswald Hanfling

Oswald Hanfling (21 December 1927 – 25 October 2005) was a German philosopher who worked from 1970, until his death, at the Open University in the UK.

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Oswald Spengler

Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936) was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art.

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Otterthal is a municipality in the Industrieviertel of Lower Austria, Austria.

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Otto Weininger

Otto Weininger (3 April 1880 – 4 October 1903) was an Austrian philosopher.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paragraph 175

Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994.

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Paul Engelmann

Paul Engelmann (14 June 1891 – 5 February 1965) was a Viennese architect who is now best known for his friendship with the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein between 1916 and 1928, and for being Wittgenstein's partner in the design and building of the Stonborough House in Vienna.

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Paul Feyerabend

Paul Karl Feyerabend (January 13, 1924 – February 11, 1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher of science best known for his work as a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, where he worked for three decades (1958–1989).

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Paul Levy (journalist)

Paul Levy (born 26 February 1941 in Lexington, Kentucky) is a US/British author and journalist.

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Paul Wittgenstein

Paul Wittgenstein (November 5, 1887March 3, 1961) was an Austrian concert pianist notable for commissioning new piano concerti for the left hand alone, following the amputation of his right arm during the First World War.

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Peter Geach

Peter Thomas Geach, FBA (29 March 1916 – 21 December 2013) was a British philosopher and professor of logic at the University of Leeds.

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Peter Hacker

Peter Michael Stephan Hacker (born 15 July 1939) is a British philosopher.

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Peter Winch

Peter Guy Winch (14 January 1926, London – 27 April 1997, Champaign, Illinois) was a British philosopher known for his contributions to the philosophy of social science, Wittgenstein scholarship, ethics, and the philosophy of religion.

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Philip Kerr

Philip Ballantyne Kerr (22 February 1956 – 23 March 2018) was a British author, best known for his Bernie Gunther series of historical detective thrillers.

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Philosophical Investigations

Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is a work by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, first published, posthumously, in 1953, in which Wittgenstein discusses numerous problems and puzzles in the fields of semantics, logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of psychology, philosophy of action, and philosophy of mind.

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Philosophical skepticism

Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.

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Philosophy Now

Philosophy Now is a bimonthly philosophy magazine sold from news-stands and book stores in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada; it is also available on digital devices, and online.

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Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.

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Philosophy of mathematics

The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.

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Philosophy of mind

Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.

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Picture theory of language

The picture theory of language, also known as the picture theory of meaning, is a theory of linguistic reference and meaning articulated by Ludwig Wittgenstein in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.

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Piero Sraffa

Piero Sraffa (5 August 1898 – 3 September 1983) was an influential Italian economist, who served as lecturer of economics at the University of Cambridge.

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Platonic realism

Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals or abstract objects after the Greek philosopher Plato (c. 427–c. 347 BC), a student of Socrates.

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Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.

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Potassium cyanide

Potassium cyanide is a compound with the formula KCN.

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Principia Mathematica

The Principia Mathematica (often abbreviated PM) is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913.

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Private language argument

The private language argument argues that a language understandable by only a single individual is incoherent, and was introduced by Ludwig Wittgenstein in his later work, especially in the Philosophical Investigations.

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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Prussian Academy of Sciences

The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften) was an academy established in Berlin, Germany on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste, or "Arts Academy," to which "Berlin Academy" may also refer.

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Puchberg am Schneeberg

Puchberg am Schneeberg is a town in the south-eastern part of Lower Austria with approx.

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Quentin Skinner

Quentin Robert Duthie Skinner (born 26 November 1940, Oldham, Lancashire) is an intellectual historian.

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Quietism (philosophy)

Quietism in philosophy is an approach to the subject that sees the role of philosophy as broadly therapeutic or remedial.

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R. B. Braithwaite

Richard Bevan Braithwaite FBA (15 January 1900 – 21 April 1990), usually cited as R. B. Braithwaite, was an English philosopher who specialized in the philosophy of science, ethics, and the philosophy of religion.

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Rainer Maria Rilke

René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926), better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Rassenschande ("race disgrace") or Blutschande ("blood disgrace") was an anti-miscegenation concept in Nazi German racial policy, pertaining to sexual relations between Aryans and non-Aryans.

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Ray Monk

Ray Monk (born 15 February 1957) is a British philosopher.

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Reaktion Books

Reaktion Books is an independent book publisher based in Islington, London, England.

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Realschule is a type of secondary school in Germany, Switzerland and Liechtenstein.

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Redcross (formerly Baile Domhnaill Rua) is a village and also a civil parish in County Wicklow, Ireland.

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Remarks on Colour

Remarks on Colour (Bemerkungen über die Farben) was one of Ludwig Wittgenstein's last works, written during a visit to Vienna in 1950 while dying of cancer.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Resurrection of Jesus

The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".

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Reuben Goodstein

Reuben Louis Goodstein (15 December 1912 – 8 March 1985) was an English mathematician with a strong interest in the philosophy and teaching of mathematics.

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Richard Rorty

Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.

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Rogers Albritton

Rogers Garland Albritton (August 15, 1923 – May 21, 2002) was a chair of the Harvard and UCLA philosophy departments, and considered by his peers to be one of the finest philosophical minds of the 20th century.

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Rothschild family

The Rothschild family is a wealthy Jewish family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744–1812), a court factor to the German Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel in the Free City of Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire, who established his banking business in the 1760s. Unlike most previous court factors, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth and established an international banking family through his five sons, who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples. The family was elevated to noble rank in the Holy Roman Empire and the United Kingdom. During the 19th century, the Rothschild family possessed the largest private fortune in the world, as well as the largest private fortune in modern world history.The House of Rothschild: Money's prophets, 1798–1848, Volume 1, Niall Ferguson, 1999, page 481-85The Secret Life of the Jazz Baroness, from The Times 11 April 2009, Rosie Boycott The family's wealth was divided among various descendants, and today their interests cover a diverse range of fields, including financial services, real estate, mining, energy, mixed farming, winemaking and nonprofits.The Rothschilds: Portrait of a Dynasty, By Frederic Morton, page 11 The Rothschild family has frequently been the subject of conspiracy theories, many of which have antisemitic origins.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal Meteorological Society

The Royal Meteorological Society is a long-established institution that promotes academic and public engagement in weather and climate science.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Royal Victoria Infirmary

The Royal Victoria Infirmary (RVI) is a 673-bed tertiary referral centre in Newcastle upon Tyne, England.

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Rudolf Carnap

Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.

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Rush Rhees

Rush Rhees (19 March 1905 – 22 May 1989) was an American philosopher.

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Saul Kripke

Saul Aaron Kripke (born November 13, 1940) is an American philosopher and logician.

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Sayn-Wittgenstein was a county of medieval Germany, located in the Sauerland of eastern North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.

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Schneeberg (Alps)

The Schneeberg, with its high summit Klosterwappen, is the highest mountain of Lower Austria, and the easternmost mountain in the Alps to exceed 2000 m.

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A scholarship is an award of financial aid for a student to further their education.

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Scientific-Humanitarian Committee

The Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (German: Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee, WhK) was founded in Berlin on 14 or 15 May 1897, to campaign for social recognition of gay, bisexual and transgender men and women, and against their legal persecution.

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Scientism is the ideology of science.

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Secession Building

The Secession Building (Wiener Secessionsgebäude) is an exhibition hall built in 1897 by Joseph Maria Olbrich as an architectural manifesto for the Vienna Secession, located in Vienna, Austria.

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Sex and Character

Sex and Character (Geschlecht und Charakter) is a book published in 1903 by Otto Weininger.

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Siegen-Wittgenstein is a Kreis (district) in the southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Skjolden is a village in the municipality of Luster in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway.

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The Slovenes, also called as Slovenians (Slovenci), are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovenian as their first language.

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Sofya Yanovskaya

Sofya Aleksandrovna Yanovskaya (also Janovskaja; Софи́я Алекса́ндровна Яно́вская; 31 January 1896 – 24 October 1966) was a mathematician and historian, specializing in the history of mathematics, mathematical logic, and philosophy of mathematics.

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State of affairs (philosophy)

In philosophy, a state of affairs (Sachverhalt), also known as a situation, is a way the actual world must be in order to make some given proposition about the actual world true; in other words, a state of affairs (situation) is a truth-maker, whereas a proposition is a truth-bearer.

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Stephen Toulmin

Stephen Edelston Toulmin (25 March 1922 – 4 December 2009) was a British philosopher, author, and educator.

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Storey's Way

Storey's Way is a mainly residential road, approximately 650 metres to the west of the city centre in Cambridge, England.

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Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.

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Tarnów (is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, and two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, which was strongly influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, most notably Jews, Germans and Austrians. The entire Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements, houses and defensive walls, has been fully preserved. Tarnów is also the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country.

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Technical University of Berlin

The Technical University of Berlin (official name Technische Universität Berlin, known as TU Berlin) is a research university located in Berlin, Germany.

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Terry Eagleton

Terence Francis "Terry" Eagleton FBA (born 22 February 1943) is a British literary theorist, critic and public intellectual.

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The Blitz

The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.

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The Broom of the System

The Broom of the System is the first novel by the American writer David Foster Wallace, published in 1987.

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The Brothers Karamazov

The Brothers Karamazov (Бра́тья Карама́зовы, Brat'ya Karamazovy), also translated as The Karamazov Brothers, is the final novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky.

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The Foundations of Arithmetic

The Foundations of Arithmetic (Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik) is a book by Gottlob Frege, published in 1884, which investigates the philosophical foundations of arithmetic.

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The Gospel in Brief

The Gospel in Brief is a 1902 synthesis of the four gospels of the New Testament into one narrative of the life of Jesus by Russian author Leo Tolstoy.

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The New Wittgenstein

The New Wittgenstein (2000) is a book containing a family of interpretations of the work of philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein.

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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The Principles of Mathematics

The Principles of Mathematics (PoM) is a book written by Bertrand Russell in 1903.

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The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn.

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The World as Will and Representation

The World as Will and Representation (WWR; Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung, WWV) is the central work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer.

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Theory of Colours

Theory of Colours (German: Zur Farbenlehre) is a book by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe about the poet's views on the nature of colours and how these are perceived by humans.

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Thomas Bernhard

Thomas Bernhard (born Nicolaas Thomas Bernhard; 9 February 1931 – 12 February 1989) was an Austrian novelist, playwright and poet.

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Thomas Koschat

Thomas Koschat (8 August 1845 – 19 May 1914) was an Austrian composer and bass singer.

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Thomas Kuhn

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.

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Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP) (Latin for "Logico-Philosophical Treatise") is the only book-length philosophical work published by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime.

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Trattenbach is a village in Austria, situated in Lower Austria.

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Trentino, officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous province of Italy, in the country's far north.

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Trinity College, Cambridge

Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.

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Truth function

In logic, a truth function is a function that accepts truth values as input and produces a truth value as output, i.e., the input and output are all truth values.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Bergen

The University of Bergen (Universitetet i Bergen) is a public university located in Bergen, Norway.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Jena

Friedrich Schiller University Jena (FSU; Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, shortened form Uni Jena) is a public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, Germany.

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Victoria University of Manchester

The former Victoria University of Manchester, now the University of Manchester, was founded in 1851 as Owens College.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vienna Circle

The Vienna Circle (Wiener Kreis) of Logical Empiricism was a group of philosophers and scientists drawn from the natural and social sciences, logic and mathematics who met regularly from 1924 to 1936 at the University of Vienna, chaired by Moritz Schlick.

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Vintage Books

Vintage Books is a publishing imprint established in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf.

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Warth, Lower Austria

Warth is a town in the district of Neunkirchen in the Austrian state of Lower Austria.

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Western (genre)

The Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set primarily in the later half of the 19th century in the American Old West, often centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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Wilhelm Ostwald

Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (2 September 1853 – 4 April 1932) was a German chemist.

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Wittgenstein (film)

Wittgenstein is a 1993 film by the English director Derek Jarman.

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Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language

Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language is a 1982 book by philosopher of language Saul Kripke, in which Kripke contends that the central argument of Ludwig Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations centers on a devastating rule-following paradox that undermines the possibility of our ever following rules in our use of language.

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Wittgenstein's ladder

A Wittgenstein's ladder is a simplified explanation of a technical or complex subject that is used as a teaching tool, despite being technically wrong.

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Wittgenstein's Mistress

Wittgenstein's Mistress by David Markson is a highly stylized, experimental novel in the tradition of Samuel Beckett.

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Wittgenstein's Poker

Wittgenstein's Poker: The Story of a Ten-Minute Argument Between Two Great Philosophers is a 2001 book by BBC journalists David Edmonds and John Eidinow about events in the history of philosophy involving Sir Karl Popper and Ludwig Wittgenstein, leading to a confrontation at the Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club in 1946.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yorick Smythies

Yorick Smythies (1917–1980) was a pupil of philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein.

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20th-century philosophy

20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.

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7th Army (Austria-Hungary)

The Austro-Hungarian Seventh Army was an Austro-Hungarian field army that fought during World War I.

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L Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johan Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein, Ludwig Joseph Johann Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittenstein, Ludwig wittenstein, Ludwig wittgenstein, Moses Maier, Witgenstein, Wittgenstein, Wittgentstein.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Wittgenstein

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