241 relations: Age of Enlightenment, Alcoholism, Alfred A. Knopf, Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, An die ferne Geliebte, Andrea Luchesi, Andrey Razumovsky, Anselm Hüttenbrenner, Anton Reicha, Anton Schindler, Antonio Salieri, Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria, Archduke Rudolf of Austria (1788–1831), Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Autoimmune disease, Autopsy, Bagatelle (music), Ballet, Baptism, Bass (voice type), Battle of Vitoria, Béla Bartók, Beethoven (crater), Beethoven and his contemporaries, Beethoven and Mozart, Beethoven House, Beethoven in film, Beethoven Monument, Bonn, Beethovenfest, Beethovenhalle, Belgium, Bohemia, Bonn, Burgtheater, Burial, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Carl Czerny, Catholic Church, Censorship, Chamber music, Chambers Biographical Dictionary, Charles Rosen, Child prodigy, Christ on the Mount of Olives (Beethoven), Christian Gottlob Neefe, Cirrhosis, Classic FM (UK), Classical music, Classical period (music), Codicil (will), ..., Cognate, Composer, Concerto, Congress of Vienna, Count Ferdinand Ernst Gabriel von Waldstein, Counterpoint, Diabelli Variations, Duchy of Brabant, Dutch language, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Ear trumpet, Electorate of Cologne, Für Elise, Ferdinand Ries, Ferdinand, 5th Prince Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau, Fidelio, Flemish Region, Flute, Franz Liszt, Franz Schubert, Freemasonry, French horn, Friedrich Schiller, Fugue, George Frideric Handel, German language, Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Giulietta Guicciardi, Gottfried van Swieten, Große Fuge, Heiligenstadt Testament, Heiligenstadt, Vienna, Hepatitis A, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, Ignaz Schuppanzigh, Illuminati, Immortal Beloved, Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies, J. W. N. Sullivan, Jérôme Bonaparte, Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Johann Philipp Christian Schulz, Johann Sebastian Bach, Johann van Beethoven, Johanna van Beethoven, Johannes Brahms, Josef Reicha, Joseph Franz von Lobkowitz, Joseph Haydn, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph Karl Stieler, Josephine Brunsvik, Kapellmeister, Karl Alois, Prince Lichnowsky, Kaspar Anton Karl van Beethoven, Kassel, Kingdom of Westphalia, Landrecht (medieval), Late string quartets (Beethoven), Lead poisoning, Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold Mozart, Lied, List of Cambridge Companions to Music, List of classical music composers by era, List of compositions by Ludwig van Beethoven, Liver, Louis Spohr, Ludwig van Beethoven (1712–1773), Maria Anna Mozart, Maria Magdalena Keverich, Maria Theresa, Mass (music), Maximilian Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels, Maynard Solomon, Mechelen, Menninger Foundation, Minuet, Missa solemnis (Beethoven), Musicology, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, NASA, Nikolai Borisovich Galitzine, Nikolaus Simrock, Nobility, Ode to Joy, Opera, Opus number, Oratorio, Orchestra, Organist, Pianist, Piano, Piano concerto, Piano Concerto No. 1 (Beethoven), Piano Concerto No. 2 (Beethoven), Piano Concerto No. 3 (Beethoven), Piano Concerto No. 5 (Beethoven), Piano sonata, Piano Sonata No. 14 (Beethoven), Piano Sonata No. 21 (Beethoven), Piano Sonata No. 23 (Beethoven), Piano Sonata No. 27 (Beethoven), Piano Sonata No. 29 (Beethoven), Piano Sonata No. 8 (Beethoven), Piano sonatas (Beethoven), Piano trio, Piano Trio, Op. 97 (Beethoven), Piano Trios, Op. 1 (Beethoven), Poison, Prelude (music), Prince-elector, Quintet for Piano and Winds (Beethoven), Quintet for Piano and Winds (Mozart), Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale, Richard Kogan (physician), Richard Wagner, Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier, Romantic music, Romanticism, Royal Philharmonic Society, Saint Petersburg, Salzburg, Sarcoidosis, Scherzo, Septet (Beethoven), Song cycle, Spa town, String quartet, String Quartet No. 10 (Beethoven), String Quartet No. 11 (Beethoven), String Quartet No. 13 (Beethoven), String Quartet No. 14 (Beethoven), String Quartet No. 15 (Beethoven), String Quartet No. 16 (Beethoven), String Quartets Nos. 7–9, Op. 59 – Rasumovsky (Beethoven), String Quartets, Op. 18 (Beethoven), String quintet, String trio, Symphony, Symphony Hall, Boston, Symphony No. 1 (Beethoven), Symphony No. 2 (Beethoven), Symphony No. 3 (Beethoven), Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven), Symphony No. 6 (Beethoven), Symphony No. 8 (Beethoven), Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven), Syphilis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Teplice, The Consecration of the House (overture), The Creatures of Prometheus, The Musical Times, The Well-Tempered Clavier, Theater am Kärntnertor, Theater an der Wien, Theodore Albrecht, Therese Malfatti, Three Bs, Three Piano Sonatas, WoO 47 (Beethoven), Tia DeNora, Tinnitus, Triple Concerto (Beethoven), Tuberculosis, Typhus, Van (Dutch), Vienna, Vienna Central Cemetery, Viola, Violin, Violin concerto, Violin Concerto (Beethoven), Violin Sonata No. 9 (Beethoven), Vitoria-Gasteiz, Von, Voyager Golden Record, Voyager program, War of the First Coalition, War of the Third Coalition, Währing, Wellington's Victory, Whipple's disease, Wind instrument, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, WoO, Zemské desky, 1815 Beethoven. 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The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
The Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung (General music newspaper) was a German-language periodical published in the 19th century.
An die ferne Geliebte (To the distant beloved), Op.
Andrea Luca Luchesi (also spelled Lucchesi; 23 May 1741 – 21 March 1801) was an Italian composer.
Count (later Prince) Andrey Kirillovich Razumovsky (Андре́й Кири́ллович Разумо́вский, Rasumovsky; Андрі́й Кири́лович Розумо́вський, Andriy Kyrylovych Rozumovskyi; 2 November 1752 – 23 September 1836) was a Russian diplomat who spent many years of his life in Vienna.
Anselm Hüttenbrenner (13 October 17945 June 1868) was an Austrian composer.
Anton (Antonín, Antoine) Reicha (Rejcha) (26 February 1770 – 28 May 1836) was a Czech-born, later naturalized French composer.
Anton Felix Schindler (13 June 1795 – 16 January 1864) was an associate, secretary, and early biographer of Ludwig van Beethoven.
Antonio Salieri (18 August 17507 May 1825) was an Italian classical composer, conductor, and teacher.
Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria (Maximilian Franz Xaver Joseph Johann Anton de Paula Wenzel, 8 December 1756 in Vienna – 26 July 1801 in Vienna) was Archbishop and Elector Spiritual of Cologne (and as such Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire for Italy), and Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.
Rudolph Johann Joseph Rainier, Archduke of Austria, Cardinal and Archbishop of Olomouc (8 January 1788 – 24 July 1831), was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and an Austrian clergyman and noble.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
A bagatelle is a short piece of music, typically for the piano, and usually of a light, mellow character.
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the 15th century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
A bass is a type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types.
At the Battle of Vitoria (21 June 1813) a British, Portuguese and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan near Vitoria in Spain, eventually leading to victory in the Peninsular War.
Béla Viktor János Bartók (25 March 1881 – 26 September 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and an ethnomusicologist.
Beethoven is a crater at latitude 20°S, longitude 124°W on Mercury.
During the course of his lifetime (1770–1827), Ludwig van Beethoven enjoyed relationships with many of his musical contemporaries.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart had a powerful influence on the work of Ludwig van Beethoven.
The Beethoven House (German: Beethoven-Haus) in Bonn, Germany, is a memorial site, museum and cultural institution serving various purposes.
The composer Ludwig van Beethoven has been the subject of a number of biographical films.
The Beethoven Monument is a large bronze statue of Ludwig van Beethoven that stands on the Münsterplatz in Bonn, Beethoven's birthplace.
The Beethovenfest (Beethoven Festival) is a festival of classical music in Bonn, Germany, dedicated mostly to the music of Ludwig van Beethoven who was born there.
The Beethovenhalle is a concert hall in Bonn.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
The Burgtheater (en: (Imperial) Court Theatre), originally known as K.K. Theater an der Burg, then until 1918 as the K.K. Hofburgtheater, is the Austrian National Theatre in Vienna and one of the most important German language theatres in the world.
Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
Carl Czerny (21 February 17919 August 1857) was an Austrian composer, teacher, and pianist of Czech origin whose vast musical production amounted to over a thousand works.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room.
Chambers Biographical Dictionary provides concise descriptions of over 18,000 notable figures from Britain and the rest of the world.
Charles Welles Rosen (May 5, 1927December 9, 2012) was an American pianist and writer on music.
In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer.
Christus am Ölberge (in English, Christ on the Mount of Olives), Op.
Christian Gottlob Neefe (5 February 1748 – 28 January 1798) was a German opera composer and conductor.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Classic FM (stylised as Classic M) is one of the United Kingdom's three Independent National Radio stations.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
A codicil is a testamentary document similar but not necessarily identical to a will.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
A composer (Latin ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms.
A concerto (plural concertos, or concerti from the Italian plural) is a musical composition usually composed in three movements, in which, usually, one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Count Ferdinand Ernst Joseph Gabriel von Waldstein und Wartenberg (24 March 1762 – 26 May 1823) was a German nobleman and patron of the arts.
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
The 33 Variations on a waltz by Anton Diabelli, Op.
The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (commonly abbreviated as E. T. A. Hoffmann; born Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann; 24 January 177625 June 1822) was a Prussian Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist.
Ear trumpets are tubular or funnel-shaped devices which collect sound waves and lead them into the ear.
The Electorate of Cologne (Kurfürstentum Köln), sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne (Kurköln), was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the 10th to the early 19th century.
Ferdinand Ries (28 November 1784 – 13 January 1838) was a German composer.
Ferdinand, 5th Prince Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau (Ferdinand Johann Nepomuk Fürst Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau; 5 December 17813 November 1812) was the 5th Prince Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau.
Fidelio (originally titled; English: Leonore, or The Triumph of Marital Love), Op.
The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest,; Région flamande) is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium—alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.
Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.
Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
The French horn (since the 1930s known simply as the "horn" in some professional music circles) is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell.
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.
In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course of the composition.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien (Society of Friends of Music in Vienna), also known as the Musikverein (Music Association), was founded in 1812 by Joseph Sonnleithner, general secretary of the Court Theatre in Vienna, Austria.
Julie ("Giulietta") Guicciardi (23 November 178222 March 1856) was an Austrian countess and briefly a piano student of Ludwig van Beethoven.
Gottfried, Freiherr van Swieten (October 29, 1733 – March 29, 1803) was a Dutch-born Austrian diplomat, librarian, and government official who served the Austrian Empire during the 18th century.
The Große Fuge (or Grosse Fuge, also known in English as Great Fugue or Grand Fugue), Op. 133, is a single-movement composition for string quartet by Ludwig van Beethoven.
The Heiligenstadt Testament is a letter written by Ludwig van Beethoven to his brothers Carl and Johann at Heiligenstadt (today part of Vienna) on 6 October 1802.
Heiligenstadt (in German: Wien Heiligenstadt) was an independent municipality until 1892 and is today a part of Döbling, the 19th district of Vienna.
Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Ignaz Schuppanzigh (20 July 1776 – 2 March 1830) was an Austrian violinist, friend and teacher of Beethoven, and leader of Count Razumovsky's private string quartet.
The Illuminati (plural of Latin illuminatus, "enlightened") is a name given to several groups, both real and fictitious.
Facsimile of the first page of the letter addressed to "Immortal Beloved". The Immortal Beloved (German "Unsterbliche Geliebte") is the mysterious addressee of a love letter which composer Ludwig van Beethoven wrote on 6–7 July 1812 in Teplitz.
The Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies serves as a museum, research center, and host of lectures and performances devoted solely to the life and works of Ludwig van Beethoven.
John William Navin Sullivan (1886-1937), was a popular science writer and literary journalist, and the author of a study of Beethoven.
Jérôme-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Girolamo Buonaparte; 15 November 1784 – 24 June 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon I and reigned as Jerome I (formally Hieronymus Napoleon in German), King of Westphalia, between 1807 and 1813.
Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (3 February 1736 – 7 March 1809) was an Austrian composer, organist, and music theorist.
Johann Philipp Christian Schulz (also Schulze; 24 September 1773 – 30 January 1827) was a German composer and conductor.
Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.
Johann van Beethoven (c. 1739 or 1740 – 18 December 1792) was a German musician, teacher, and singer who sang in the chapel of the Archbishop of Cologne, whose court was at Bonn.
Johanna van Beethoven (née Reiß; 1786–1869) was the sister-in-law of the composer Ludwig van Beethoven.
Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.
Josef Reicha (Rejcha) (12 February 1752 – 5 March 1795) was a Czech cellist, composer and conductor.
Joseph Franz Maximilian, 7th Prince Lobkowitz (also spelled Lobkowicz) (8 December 1772 – 16 December 1816 Geni, accessed 31 December 2014.) was an aristocrat of Bohemia, from the House of Lobkowicz.
(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
Joseph Karl Stieler (1 November 1781 – 9 April 1858) was a German painter.
Josephine Brunszvik, miniature drawn by pencil, before 1804. Josephine Brunsvik or Countess Jozefina Brunszvik de Korompa (Brunszvik Jozefina; 28 March 1779 – 31 March 1821) was probably the most important woman in the life of Ludwig van Beethoven, as documented by at least 15 love letters he wrote her where he called her his "only beloved", being "eternally devoted" to her and "forever faithful”.
Kapellmeister is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making.
Karl Alois, Prince Lichnowsky (Karl Alois Johann-Nepomuk Vinzenz Leonhard, Fürst Lichnowsky, also known as Carl Alois, Fürst von Lichnowsky-Woschütz) (21 June 1761 – 15 April 1814), was second Prince Lichnowsky and a Chamberlain at the Imperial Austrian court.
Kaspar Anton Karl van Beethoven (baptized 8 April 1774 – 15 November 1815) is remembered to history as the brother of the celebrated composer Ludwig van Beethoven.
Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.
The Kingdom of Westphalia was a kingdom in Germany, with a population of 2.6 million, that existed from 1807 to 1813.
The Landrecht ("customary law of the region", plural: Landrechte) was the law applying within an individual state in the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and Early Modern times.
Ludwig van Beethoven's late string quartets are the following works: These six works are Beethoven's last major completed compositions.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra (Gewandhausorchester; also previously known in German as the Gewandhausorchester Leipzig) is a German symphony orchestra based in Leipzig, Germany.
Leopold II (Peter Leopold Josef Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790.
Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (November 14, 1719 – May 28, 1787) was a German composer, conductor, teacher, and violinist.
The lied (plural lieder;, plural, German for "song") is a setting of a German poem to classical music.
The Cambridge Companions to Music form a book series published by Cambridge University Press.
This is a list of classical music composers by era.
The musical works of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827) are classified by both genre and various numbering systems.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Louis Spohr (5 April 178422 October 1859), baptized Ludewig Spohr, later often in the modern German form of the name Ludwig, was a German composer, violinist and conductor.
Ludwig van Beethoven the Elder, also Ludovicus van Beethoven, born Lodewijk van Beethoven (January 5, 1712 – December 24, 1773) was a professional singer and music director, best known as the grandfather of the composer Ludwig van Beethoven.
Maria Anna Walburga Ignatia Mozart (30 July 1751 – 29 October 1829), called Marianne and nicknamed "Nannerl", was a musician, the older sister of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and daughter of Leopold and Anna Maria Mozart.
Maria Magdalena Keverich (19 December 1746 – 17 July 1787) was the mother of the composer Ludwig van Beethoven.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
The Mass (italic), a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism) to music.
Maximilian Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels (13 May 1708 – 15 April 1784) was the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and the Bishop of Münster from 1761 to 1784.
Maynard Solomon (born January 5, 1930) was a co-founder of Vanguard Records as well as a music producer.
Mechelen (Malines, traditional English name: MechlinMechelen has been known in English as Mechlin, from where the adjective Mechlinian is derived. This name may still be used, especially in a traditional or historical context. The city's French name Malines had also been used in English in the past (in the 19th and 20th century) however this has largely been abandoned. Meanwhile, the Dutch derived Mechelen began to be used in English increasingly from late 20th century onwards, even while Mechlin remained still in use (for example a Mechlinian is an inhabitant of this city or someone seen as born-and-raised there; the term is also the name of the city dialect; as an adjective Mechlinian may refer to the city or to its dialect.) is a city and municipality in the province of Antwerp, Flanders, Belgium. The municipality comprises the city of Mechelen proper, some quarters at its outskirts, the hamlets of Nekkerspoel (adjacent) and Battel (a few kilometers away), as well as the villages of Walem, Heffen, Leest, Hombeek, and Muizen. The Dyle (Dijle) flows through the city, hence it is often referred to as the Dijlestad ("City on the river Dijle"). Mechelen lies on the major urban and industrial axis Brussels–Antwerp, about 25 km from each city. Inhabitants find employment at Mechelen's southern industrial and northern office estates, as well as at offices or industry near the capital and Zaventem Airport, or at industrial plants near Antwerp's seaport. Mechelen is one of Flanders' prominent cities of historical art, with Antwerp, Bruges, Brussels, Ghent, and Leuven. It was notably a centre for artistic production during the Northern Renaissance, when painters, printmakers, illuminators and composers of polyphony were attracted by patrons such as Margaret of York, Margaret of Austria and Hieronymus van Busleyden.
The Menninger Foundation was founded in 1919 by the Menninger family in Topeka, Kansas, and consists of a clinic, a sanatorium, and a school of psychiatry, all of which bear the Menninger name.
A minuet (also spelled menuet) is a social dance of French origin for two people, usually in 4 time.
The Missa solemnis in D major, Op. 123, is a solemn mass composed by Ludwig van Beethoven from 1819 to 1823.
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Prince Nikolai Borisovich Golitsyn (Николай Борисович Голицын, alternatively spelled Galitzin; 8 December/19 December 1794 – 22 October/3 November 1866) was a Russian aristocrat, of the Galitzine family.
Nikolaus Simrock (23 August 1751 in Mainz – 12 June 1832 in Bonn) was a German horn player at the court of the Elector of Cologne in Bonn and a music publisher.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
"Ode to Joy" (German), is an ode written in the summer of 1785 by German poet, playwright, and historian Friedrich Schiller and published the following year in Thalia.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
In musical composition, the opus number is the "work number" that is assigned to a composition, or to a set of compositions, to indicate the chronological order of the composer's production.
An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.
An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ.
A pianist is an individual musician who plays the piano.
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.
A piano concerto is a type of concerto, a solo composition in the Classical music genre which is composed for a piano player, which is typically accompanied by an orchestra or other large ensemble.
Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Concerto No.
The Piano Concerto No.
The Piano Concerto No.
The Piano Concerto No.
A piano sonata is a sonata written for a solo piano.
The Piano Sonata No.
Beethoven's Piano Sonata No.
Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No.
Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No.
Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No.
Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No.
Ludwig van Beethoven wrote his 32 piano sonatas between 1795 and 1822.
A piano trio is a group of piano and two other instruments, usually a violin and a cello, or a piece of music written for such a group.
The Piano Trio in B-flat major, Op.
Ludwig van Beethoven's Opus 1 is a set of three piano trios (written for piano, violin, and cello), first performed in 1795 in the house of Prince Lichnowsky, to whom they are dedicated.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
A prelude (Präludium or Vorspiel; praeludium; prélude; preludio) is a short piece of music, the form of which may vary from piece to piece.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
Quintet in E-flat for Piano and Winds, Op.
The Quintet in E major for Piano and Winds, K. 452, was completed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart on March 30, 1784 and premiered two days later at the Imperial and Royal National Court Theater in Vienna.
Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale (International Repertory of Music Literature; Internationales Repertorium der Musikliteratur), commonly known by its acronym RILM, is an organisation which seeks to provide a comprehensive and accurate representation of musicology in all countries and languages, and across all disciplinary and cultural boundaries.
Richard Kogan is Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical Center, in New York City; Co-Director of the Medical Center's Human Sexuality Program; and Artistic Director of the Weill Cornell Music and Medicine Program.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany.
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
The Royal Philharmonic Society is a British music society, formed in 1813.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
A scherzo (plural scherzos or scherzi), in western classical music, is a short composition -- sometimes a movement from a larger work such as a symphony or a sonata.
The Septet in E-flat major, Opus 20, by Ludwig van Beethoven, was sketched out in 1799, completed, and first performed in 1800 and published in 1802.
A song cycle (Liederkreis or Liederzyklus) is a group, or cycle, of individually complete songs designed to be performed in a sequence as a unit.
A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa (a developed mineral spring).
A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group.
Ludwig van Beethoven's String Quartet No.
Ludwig van Beethoven's String Quartet No.
The String Quartet No.
The String Quartet No.
The String Quartet No.
The String Quartet No.
The three "Razumovsky" (or "Rasumovsky") string quartets, opus 59, are the quartets Ludwig van Beethoven wrote in 1806, as a result of a commission by the Russian ambassador in Vienna, Count Andreas Razumovsky: They are the first three of what are usually known as the "Middle Period" string quartets, or simply the "Middle Quartets." The other two are opus 74 and opus 95.
Ludwig van Beethoven's opus 18, published in 1801 by T. Mollo et Comp in Vienna in two books of three quartets each,Kerman, Joseph (1967).
A string quintet is a musical composition for five string players.
A string trio is a group of three string instruments or a piece written for such a group.
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.
Symphony Hall is a concert hall located at 301 Massachusetts Avenue in Boston, Massachusetts.
Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No.
The Symphony No.
The Symphony No.
The Symphony No.
The Symphony No.
The Symphony No.
The Symphony No.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
Teplice; Teplice-Šanov until 1948 (Teplitz-Schönau) is a statutory city in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic, the capital of Teplice District.
The Consecration of the House (or Die Weihe des Hauses), Op.
The Creatures of Prometheus (Die Geschöpfe des Prometheus), Op. 43, is a ballet composed in 1801 by Ludwig van Beethoven following the libretto of Salvatore Viganò.
The Musical Times is an academic journal of classical music edited and produced in the United Kingdom and currently the oldest such journal still being published in that country.
The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893, is a collection of two sets of preludes and fugues in all 24 major and minor keys, composed for solo keyboard by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Theater am Kärntnertor or Kärntnertortheater (English: Carinthian Gate Theatre) was a prestigious theatre in Vienna during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
The is a historic theatre in Vienna located on the Left Wienzeile in the Mariahilf district.
Theodore Albrecht (born September 24, 1945) is a music historian who specializes in the life and music of Ludwig van Beethoven.
Baronin Therese von Droßdik, born Therese Malfatti (1 January 1792 – 27 April 1851), was an Austrian musician and a close friend of Ludwig van Beethoven.
"The Three Bs" is an English-language phrase derived from an expression coined by Peter Cornelius in 1854, which added Hector Berlioz as the third B to occupy the heights already occupied by Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven.
The Three Early Piano Sonatas, WoO 47, "Kurfürstensonaten" were composed by Ludwig van Beethoven in 1782 and 1783, when he was twelve and thirteen years old.
Tia DeNora (born 1958) is Professor of Sociology of Music and Director of Research, in the Department of Sociology/Philosophy at the University of Exeter.
Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present.
Ludwig van Beethoven's Concerto for Violin, Cello, and Piano in C major, Op.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
van is a preposition in the Dutch and Afrikaans languages, meaning "of" or "from" depending on the context (similar to de and di in the Romance languages).
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vienna Central Cemetery (Wiener Zentralfriedhof) is one of the largest cemeteries in the world by number of interred, and is the most famous cemetery among Vienna's nearly 50 cemeteries.
The viola is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
A violin concerto is a concerto for solo violin (occasionally, two or more violins) and instrumental ensemble (customarily orchestra).
Ludwig van Beethoven composed a Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 61, in 1806.
The Violin Sonata No.
Vitoria-Gasteiz is the seat of government and the capital city of the Basque Autonomous Community and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain.
Von is a term used in German language surnames either as a nobiliary particle indicating a noble patrilineality or as a simple preposition that approximately means of or from in the case of commoners.
The Voyager Golden Records are two phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
The War of the First Coalition (Guerre de la Première Coalition) is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic.
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806.
Währing is the 18th district of Vienna and lies in northwestern Vienna on the edge of the Vienna Woods.
Wellington's Victory, or, the Battle of Vitoria (Wellingtons Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria), Op.
Whipple's disease is a rare, systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei.
A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at or near the end of the resonator.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
("Works without opus number") (WoO), also Kinsky–Halm Catalogue, is a German musical catalogue prepared in 1955 by and Hans Halm, listing all of the compositions of Ludwig van Beethoven that were not originally published with an opus number, or survived only as fragments.
Zemské desky (Landtafel; in old Czech, always Desky zemské, literal translation, "Land tables") is old Czech source of law.
1815 Beethoven, provisional designation, is a rare-type carbonaceous asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 30 kilometers in diameter.
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